Copyright
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

CIA World Factbook (2000) online

. (page 90 of 140)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 90 of 140)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Radios: 173,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 22 (plus 18 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 127,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Reunion:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,784 km
paved: 2,187 km
unpaved: 597 km (1987 est.)

Ports and harbors: Le Port, Pointe des Galets

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,264 GRT/44,885 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Reunion:Military

Military branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 187,423 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 95,854 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 6,037 (2000 est.)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Reunion:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



ROMANIA

@Romania:Introduction

Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the
formation of a communist Peoples Republic in 1947 and the abdication
of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU
became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and
executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government
until 1996 when they were swept from power. Much economic
restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania can achieve its
hope of joining the EU.

@Romania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362
km, Ukraine (east) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog;
sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from
the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural
gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydro power

Land use:
arable land: 41%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 29%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,020 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest;
geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water
pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents;
contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: controls most easily traversable land route between
the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

@Romania:People

Population: 22,411,121 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 2,111,320; female 2,015,347)
15-64 years: 68% (male 7,597,958; female 7,707,498)
65 years and over: 14% (male 1,237,368; female 1,741,630) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.21% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.76 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.29 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.93 years
male: 66.1 years
female: 73.99 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 7.1%, Roma 1.8%, German 0.5%,
Ukrainian 0.3%, other 0.8% (1992)

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are
Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 95% (1992 est.)

@Romania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania

Data code: RO

Government type: republic

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1
municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor,
Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau,
Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj,
Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures,
Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu,
Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal
theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emil CONSTANTINESCU (since 29 November 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Mugur ISARESCU (since 22 December
1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 3 November 1996, with runoff between the top two
candidates held 17 November 1996 (next to be held NA November/December
2000); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote - Emil CONSTANTINESCU 54.4%, Ion
ILIESCU 45.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the
Senate or Senat (143 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote
on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and
the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (343 seats; members
are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation
basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held fall
2000); Chamber of Deputies - last held 3 November 1996 (next to be
held fall 2000)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CDR 30.7%, PDSR
23.1%, USD 13.2%, UDMR 6.8%, PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.2%, others 17.5%; seats
by party - CDR 53, PDSR 41, USD 23, UDMR 11, PRM 8, PUNR 7; Chamber of
Deputies - percent of vote by party - CDR 30.2%, PDSR 21.5%, USD
12.9%, UDMR 6.6% PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party -
CDR 122, PDSR 91, USD 53, UDMR 25, PRM 19, PUNR 18, ethnic minorities
15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, judges are appointed by the
president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania or
PDAR ; Alliance Party for Romania or APR [Tedor
MELESCANU]; Civic Alliance Party or PAC ;
Democratic Party or PD ; Democratic Union of Hungarians
in Romania or UDMR ; Liberal Party '93 or PL-93 [Dinu
PATRICIU]; National Liberal Party or PNL ;
National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention or PNL-CD [Nicolae
CERVENI]; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party or PNTCD
; Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Ion
ILIESCU]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu
Vadim TUDOR]; Romanian National Unity Party or PUNR ;
Romanian Social Democratic Party or PSDR ;
Socialist Labor Party or PSM ; Socialist Party or PS
; The Democratic Convention or CDR
note: to increase their voting strength several of the above-mentioned
parties united under umbrella organizations: PNTCD, PNL, and PNL-CD
form the bulk of the Democratic Convention or CDR ; PD
and PSDR form the Union of Social Democrats or USD ; and
PAC and PL-93 form the National Liberal Alliance or ANL [Nicolae
MANOLESCU]; PSM, PS, ANL, and numerous other small parties failed to
gain representation in the most recent election

Political pressure groups and leaders: various human rights and
professional associations

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM
(guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate
partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mircea Dan GEOANA
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
FAX: (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James C. ROSAPEPE
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42
FAX: (1) 210 03 95
branch office: Cluj-Napoca

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in
the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad,
also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

@Romania:Economy

Economy - overview: After the collapse of the Soviet Bloc in 1989-91,
Romania was left with an obsolete industrial base and a pattern of
industrial capacity wholly unsuited to its needs. In February 1997,
Romania embarked on a comprehensive macroeconomic stabilization and
structural reform program, but reform subsequently has been a
frustrating stop-and-go process. Restructuring programs include
liquidating large energy-intensive industries and major agricultural
and financial sector reforms. In 1999 Romania's economy contracted for
a third straight year - by an estimated 4.8%. Romania reached an
agreement with the IMF in August for a $547 million loan, but release
of the second tranche was postponed in October because of unresolved
private sector lending requirements and differences over budgetary
spending. Bucharest avoided defaulting on mid-year lump-sum debt
payments, but had to significantly draw down reserves to do so;
reserves rebounded to an estimated $1.5 billion by yearend 1999. The
government's priorities include: obtaining renewed IMF lending,
tightening fiscal policy, accelerating privatization, and
restructuring unprofitable firms. Romania was invited by the EU in
December 1999 to begin accession negotiations.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $87.4 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -4.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,900 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23%
industry: 51%
services: 26% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 21.5% (1994 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 20.2% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 44% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 9.6 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 36.5%, industry 34.4%,
services 29.1% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 11% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $11.2 billion
expenditures: $12.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy,
chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum production and
refining

Industrial production growth rate: -8.7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 52.495 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 59%
hydro: 31.67%
nuclear: 9.33%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 49.552 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 537 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 1.269 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
potatoes, grapes; milk, eggs, beef

Exports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear 33.4%, metals and metal
products 19.1%, machinery and equipment 9.5%, minerals and fuels 6.1%
(1998)

Exports - partners: Italy 22%, Germany 19.6%, France 5.9%, US 3.8%
(1998)

Imports: $9.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 23%, fuels and minerals
14.2%, chemicals 8.7%, textiles and footwear 17.1% (1998)

Imports - partners: Germany 17.5%, Italy 17.4%, France 6.9%, US 4.2%
(1998)

Debt - external: $9 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $510.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 17,996.4 (December 1999), 15,332.8
(1999), 8,875.6 (1998), 7,167.9 (1997), 3,084.2 (1996), 2,033.3 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Romania:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.84 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 52,000 (1999)

Telephone system:
domestic: poor service; 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk
network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable;
about one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300
villages have no service
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital
international direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note -
Romania is an active participant in several international
telecommunication network projects (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 7.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 130 (plus about 400 low-power
repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 5.25 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 30 (1999)

@Romania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified)
standard gauge: 10,898 km
narrow gauge: 487 km (1996)

Highways:
total: 153,359 km
paved: 103,671 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 49,688 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural
gas 6,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea

Merchant marine:
total: 142 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,154,127 GRT/1,612,314
DWT
ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 110, container 1, passenger 1,
passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 5, rail car carrier 2,
roll-on/roll-off 6, specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 62 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 37
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 23 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Romania:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,899,912 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 4,960,011 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 190,083 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $650 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY96)

@Romania:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Ukraine over continental shelf
of the Black Sea under which significant gas and oil deposits may
exist; agreed in 1997 to two-year negotiating period, after which
either party can refer dispute to the ICJ

Illicit drugs: important transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American
cocaine bound for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



RUSSIA COUNTRY FLAG OF RUSSIA

______________________________________________________________________



RWANDA

@Rwanda:Introduction

Background: In 1959, three years before independence, the majority
ethnic group, the Hutus overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next
several years thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven
into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles
later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and
began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and
economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions culminating in April
1994 in a genocide in which roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
were killed. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the
genocide in July 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees -
many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi,
Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire, now called the Democratic Republic of the
Congo (DROC). Since then most of the refugees have returned. Despite
substantial international assistance and political reforms - including
Rwanda's first ever local elections held in March 1999 - the country
continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and
to foster reconciliation. A series of massive population
displacements, a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency, and Rwandan
involvement in two wars over the past four years in the neighboring
DROC continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.

@Rwanda:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 26,338 sq km
land: 24,948 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 893 km
border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217
km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to
January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with
altitude declining from west to east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m

Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten
ore), methane, hydropower, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Birunga mountains are
in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the
Congo

Environment - current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled
cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion;
widespread poaching

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; predominantly rural population

@Rwanda:People

Population: 7,229,129
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 1,558,730; female 1,548,175)
15-64 years: 54% (male 1,943,268; female 1,971,542)
65 years and over: 3% (male 83,699; female 123,715) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.14% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 34.78 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 20.95 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 120.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 39.34 years
male: 38.58 years
female: 40.13 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.07 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan

Ethnic groups: Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous
beliefs and other 25%

Languages: Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French
(official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial
centers

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.5%
male: 69.8%
female: 51.6% (1995 est.)

@Rwanda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Rwandese Republic
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda

Data code: RW

Government type: republic; presidential, multiparty system

Capital: Kigali

Administrative divisions: 12 prefectures (in French - prefectures,
singular - prefecture; in Kinyarwanda - plural - NA, singular -
prefegitura); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama,
Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Kigali-ville, Umutara, Ruhengeri

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962); Liberation Day, 4
July (1994)

Constitution: on 5 May 1995, the Transitional National Assembly
adopted a new constitution which included elements of the constitution
of 18 June 1991 as well as provisions of the 1993 Arusha peace accord
and the November 1994 multiparty protocol of understanding

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and
customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME (FPR) (since 22 April
2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: normally the president is elected by popular vote for a
five-year term; special election for new president by deputies of the
National Assembly and governmental ministers held 17 April 2000 (next
regular election to be held NA 2002); prime minister is appointed by
the president
election results: Paul KAGAME elected president in a special
parliamentary vote receiving 81 of a possible 86 votes

Legislative branch: unicameral Transitional National Assembly or
Assemblee Nationale de Transition (a power-sharing body with 70 seats
established on 12 December 1994 following a multiparty protocol of
understanding; members were predetermined by the Arusha peace accord)
elections: the last national legislative elections were held 16
December 1988 for the National Development Council (the legislature
prior to the advent of the Transitional National Assembly); no
elections have been held for the Transitional National Assembly as the
distribution of seats was predetermined by the Arusha peace accord
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FPR
13, MDR 13, PSD 13, PL 13, PDC 6, RPA 6, PSR 2, PDI 2, other 2; note -
the distribution of seats was predetermined

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, consists of the Court of
Cassation and the Council of State in joint session

Political parties and leaders: Centrist Democratic Party or PDC
; Democratic and Socialist Party or PSD
;
Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Pierre Celestin RWIGEMA,
chairman]; Islamic Democratic Party or PDI ; Liberal Party



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 90 of 140)