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or PL ; National Repulican Movement for Democracy
and Development or MRNDD (formerly known as the National Movement for
Democracy and Development or MRND ; Rwanda
Patriotic Army or RPA ; Rwandan
Patriotic Front or FPR ; Rwandan Socialist
Party or PSR

Political pressure groups and leaders: IBUKA - association of genocide
survivors

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU,
OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard SEZIBERA
chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (202) 232-2882
FAX: (202) 232-4544

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador George M. STAPLES
embassy: Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone: 756 01 through 03, 721 26, 771 47
FAX: 721 28

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side),
yellow, and green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow
band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the
flag of Guinea, which has a plain yellow band

@Rwanda:Economy

Economy - overview: Rwanda is a rural country with about 90% of the
population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most
densely populated country in Africa; is landlocked; and has few
natural resources and minimal industry. Primary exports are coffee and
tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base,
severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded
the country's ability to attract private and external investment.
However, Rwanda has made significant progress in stabilizing and
rehabilitating its economy. GDP has rebounded, and inflation has been
curbed. In June 1998, Rwanda signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment
Facility (ESAF) with the IMF. Rwanda has also embarked upon an
ambitious privatization program with the World Bank. Continued growth
in 2000 depends on the maintenance of international aid levels and the
strengthening of world prices of coffee and tea.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $720 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 44%
industry: 20%
services: 36% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 51.2% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 24.2% (1983-85)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1998)

Labor force: 3.6 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90%, government and services,
industry and commerce

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $202 million
expenditures: $361 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998 est.)

Industries: cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages,
soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: 8.7% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 159 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.52%
hydro: 97.48%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 165 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 3 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 20 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from
chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock

Exports: $70.8 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, hides, tin ore

Exports - partners: Brazil, Germany, Belgium, Pakistan, Spain, Kenya

Imports: $242 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel,
petroleum products, cement and construction material

Imports - partners: Kenya, Tanzania, US, Benelux, France

Debt - external: $1.2 billion (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $591.5 million (1997); note - in the summer
of 1998, Rwanda presented its policy objectives and development
priorities to donor governments resulting in multiyear pledges in the
amount of $250 million

Currency: 1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 349.53 (January 2000),
333.94 (1999) 312.31 (1998), 301.53 (1997), 306.82 (1996), 262.20
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Rwanda:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 15,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: telephone system primarily serves business and
government
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the
prefectures by microwave radio relay; the remainder of the network
depends on wire and HF radiotelephone
international: international connections employ microwave radio relay
to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant
countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in
Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 601,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: NA; probably less than 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Rwanda:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 12,000 km
paved: 1,000 km
unpaved: 11,000 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft

Ports and harbors: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye

Airports: 8 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

@Rwanda:Military

Military branches: Army, Gendarmerie, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,774,459 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 902,970 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $92 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.8% (FY99)

@Rwanda:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Rwandan military forces are supporting the
rebel forces in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

______________________________________________________________________



SAINT HELENA

@Saint Helena:Introduction

Background: Uninhabited when first discovered by the Portuguese in
1502, the island was garrisoned by the British during the 17th
century. It became famous as the place of Napoleon BONAPARTE's exile,
from 1815 until his death in 1821.

@Saint Helena:Geography

Location: islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, about mid-way between
South America and Africa

Geographic coordinates: 15 56 S, 5 42 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 410 sq km
land: 410 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island,
Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha Island

Area - comparative: slightly more than two times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 60 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Saint Helena - tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade
winds; Tristan da Cunha - temperate; marine, mild, tempered by trade
winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)

Terrain: Saint Helena - rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and
plains
note: the other islands of the group have a volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha 2,060 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown
anywhere else in the world; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea
turtles and sooty terns

@Saint Helena:People

Population: 7,212 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 705; female 691)
15-64 years: 72% (male 2,691; female 2,472)
65 years and over: 9% (male 274; female 379) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.76% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 13.73 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.83 years
male: 73.95 years
female: 79.85 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Saint Helenian(s)
adjective: Saint Helenian

Ethnic groups: African descent, white

Religions: Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman
Catholic

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 20 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 98% (1987 est.)

@Saint Helena:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Saint Helena

Data code: SH

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Jamestown

Administrative divisions: 1 administrative area and 2 dependencies*;
Ascension*, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha*

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)

Constitution: 1 January 1989

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor and Commander in Chief David HOLLAMBY
(since NA June 1999)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, two ex officio
officers, and six elected members of the Legislative Council
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor is appointed by
the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (15 seats,
including the speaker, 3 ex officio and 12 elected members; members
are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 9 July 1997 (next to be held NA July 2001)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Saint Helenian shield centered on the outer half of
the flag; the shield features a rocky coastline and three-masted
sailing ship

@Saint Helena:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy depends largely on financial
assistance from the UK, which amounted to about $5 million in 1998.
The local population earns income from fishing, the raising of
livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, a
large proportion of the work force has left to seek employment
overseas.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $13.9 million (FY94/95 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (FY94/95 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 2,416 (1991 est.)
note: a large proportion of the work force has left to seek employment
overseas

Labor force - by occupation: farmers and fishermen 6%, industry
(mainly construction) 48%, services 46% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 18% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $11.2 million
expenditures: $11 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY92/93)

Industries: construction, crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy
woodwork), fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 6 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 6 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: corn, potatoes, vegetables; timber; fish,
crawfish (on Tristan da Cunha)

Exports: $704,000 (f.o.b., 1995)

Exports - commodities: fish (frozen, canned, and salt-dried skipjack,
tuna), coffee, handicrafts

Exports - partners: South Africa, UK

Imports: $14.434 million (c.i.f., 1995)

Imports - commodities: food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal
feed, building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and
parts

Imports - partners: UK, South Africa

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $12.6 million (1995); note - $5.3 million
from UK (1997)

Currency: 1 Saint Helenian pound = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Saint Helenian pounds per US$1 - 0.6092 (January
2000), 6.180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6047 (1997), 0.6403 (1996),
0.6335 (1995); note - the Saint Helenian pound is at par with the
British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Saint Helena:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)

Telephone system:
domestic: automatic network; HF radiotelephone from Saint Helena to
Ascension, then into worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks
international: major coaxial submarine cable relay point between South
Africa, Portugal, and UK at Ascension; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 2,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Communications - note: Gough Island has a meteorological station

@Saint Helena:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km (Saint Helena 118 km, Ascension NA km, Tristan da Cunha
NA km)
paved: 180.7 km (Saint Helena 98 km, Ascension 80 km, Tristan da Cunha
2.70 km)
unpaved: NA km (Saint Helena 20 km, Ascension NA km, Tristan da Cunha
NA km)

Ports and harbors: Georgetown (on Ascension), Jamestown

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Saint Helena:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Saint Helena:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Introduction

Background: First settled by the British in 1623, the islands along
with Anguilla, became an associated state with full internal autonomy
in 1967. Anguilla rebelled and was allowed to secede in 1971. St.
Kitts and Nevis achieved independence in 1983. In 1998, a vote in
Nevis on a referendum to separate from St. Kitts fell short of the
two-thirds majority needed.

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, about one-third of
the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 17 20 N, 62 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 261 sq km (Saint Kitts 168 sq km; Nevis 93 sq km)
land: 261 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 135 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate: tropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal
temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic with mountainous interiors

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Liamuiga 1,156 m

Natural resources: arable land

Land use:
arable land: 22%
permanent crops: 17%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 17%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to October)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:People

Population: 38,819 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 5,999; female 5,746)
15-64 years: 61% (male 11,770; female 11,838)
65 years and over: 9% (male 1,431; female 2,035) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.22% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 19.06 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.38 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -11.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.73 years
male: 67.95 years
female: 73.68 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.43 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kittitian(s), Nevisian(s)
adjective: Kittitian, Nevisian

Ethnic groups: predominantly black some British, Portuguese, and
Lebanese

Religions: Anglican, other Protestant, Roman Catholic

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 98% (1980 est.)

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
conventional short form: Saint Kitts and Nevis
former: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis

Data code: SC

Government type: constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style
parliament

Capital: Basseterre

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Christ Church Nichola Town,
Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George
Gingerland, Saint James Windward, Saint John Capisterre, Saint John
Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capisterre, Saint Paul
Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint
Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point

Independence: 19 September 1983 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)

Constitution: 19 September 1983

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Dr. Cuthbert Montraville SEBASTIAN
(since 1 January 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS (since 6 July
1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sam CONDOR (since 6 July 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general in consultation
with the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is
appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader
of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually
appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime
minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (14 seats, 3
appointed and 11 popularly elected from single-member constituencies;
members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 3 July 1995 (next to be held by July 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - SKLNP 58%, PAM 41%; seats
by party - SKNLP 7, PAM 1, NRP 1, CCM 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint
Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Kitts

Political parties and leaders: Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM
; Nevis Reformation Party or NRP ; People's
Action Movement or PAM ; Saint Kitts and Nevis
Labor Party or SKNLP

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Interpol, IOC, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Osbert W. LIBURD
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: (202) 686-2636
FAX: (202) 686-5740

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Saint Kitts and Nevis; the US Ambassador in Barbados is accredited
to Saint Kitts and Nevis

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a
broad black band bearing two white, five-pointed stars; the black band
is edged in yellow; the upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is
red

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy has traditionally depended on the
growing and processing of sugarcane; decreasing world prices have hurt
the industry in recent years. Tourism, export-oriented manufacturing,
and offshore banking activity have assumed larger roles. Most food is
imported. The government has undertaken a program designed to
revitalize the faltering sugar sector. It is also working to improve
revenue collection in order to better fund social programs. In 1997
some leaders in Nevis were urging separation from Saint Kitts on the
basis that Nevis was paying far more in taxes than it was receiving in
government services, but the vote on cessation failed in August 1998.
In late September 1998, Hurricane Georges caused approximately $445
million in damages and limited GDP growth for the year.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $244 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.6% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5.5%
industry: 22.5%
services: 72% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 18,172 (June 1995)

Labor force - by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: $64.1 million
expenditures: $73.3 million, including capital expenditures of $10.4
million (1997 est.)

Industries: sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing,
footwear, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 85 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 79 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, rice, yams, vegetables, bananas;
fish

Exports: $42 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: machinery, food, electronics, beverages,
tobacco

Exports - partners: US 68.5%, UK 22.3%, Caricom countries 5.5% (1995
est.)

Imports: $160 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery, manufactures, food, fuels

Imports - partners: US 42.4%, Caricom countries 17.2%, UK 11.3% (1995
est.)

Debt - external: $62 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $5.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 14,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone
connections and international link via Antigua and Barbuda and Saint
Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)
domestic: interisland links are handled by VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone
international: international calls are carried by radiotelephone to
Antigua and Barbuda and from there switched to submarine cable or to
Intelsat, or carried to Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands
Antilles) by radiotelephone and switched to Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 28,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus three repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Transportation

Railways:
total: 58 km



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