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Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Charles ANTROBUS (since NA)
head of government: Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July
1984)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is
appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader
of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the
governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor
general on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (21 seats, 15 elected
representatives and 6 appointed senators; representatives are elected
by popular vote from single-member constituencies to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 15 June 1998 (next to be held by NA May 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP
8, ULP 7

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint
Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Vincent

Political parties and leaders: National Reform Party or NRP [Joel
MIGUEL]; New Democratic Party or NDP ; Progressive
Labor Party or PLP ; United People's Movement or UPM
; Unity Labor Party or ULP (formed
by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement
for National Unity or MNU)

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL,
OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kingsley C. A. LAYNE
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: (202) 364-6730
FAX: (202) 364-6736

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; the US Ambassador in Barbados is
accredited to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Flag description: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold
(double width), and green; the gold band bears three green diamonds
arranged in a V pattern

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is
the most important sector of this lower-middle-income economy. The
services sector, based mostly on a growing tourist industry, is also
important. The government has been relatively unsuccessful at
introducing new industries, and a high unemployment rate of 22%
continues. The continuing dependence on a single crop represents the
biggest obstacle to the islands' development; tropical storms wiped
out substantial portions of crops in both 1994 and 1995. The tourism
sector has considerable potential for development over the next
decade. Recent growth has been stimulated by strong activity in the
construction sector and an improvement in tourism. There is a small
manufacturing sector and a small offshore financial sector whose
particularly restrictive secrecy laws have caused some international
concern.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $309 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10.6%
industry: 17.5%
services: 71.9% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 67,000 (1984 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 17%, services
57% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $85.7 million
expenditures: $98.6 million, including capital expenditures of $25.7
million (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch

Industrial production growth rate: -0.9% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 64 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 67.19%
hydro: 32.81%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 60 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices;
small numbers of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats; fish

Exports: $47.8 million (1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: bananas 39%, eddoes and dasheen (taro),
arrowroot starch, tennis racquets

Exports - partners: Caricom countries 49%, UK 16%, US 10% (1995)

Imports: $180 million (1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals
and fertilizers, minerals and fuels

Imports - partners: US 36%, Caricom countries 28%, UK 13% (1995)

Debt - external: $83.6 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $47.5 million (1995); note - EU $34.5
million (1998)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 20,500 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 83 (1993)

Telephone system:
domestic: islandwide, fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF
radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the
Grenadines
international: VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados;
new SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and to Saint Lucia; access to
Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 77,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus three repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 18,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,040 km
paved: 320 km
unpaved: 720 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Kingstown

Merchant marine:
total: 825 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,253,092 GRT/10,894,566
DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 142, cargo 400, chemical tanker
31, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 5, container 47,
liquified gas 5, livestock carrier 5, multi-functional large load
carrier 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 60, refrigerated cargo 41,
roll-on/roll-off 51, short-sea passenger 12, specialized tanker 8,
vehicle carrier 1 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 20 countries
among which are Croatia 17, Slovenia 7, China 5, Greece 5, UAE 3,
Norway 2, Japan 2, and Ukraine 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 6 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force
(includes Special Service Unit), Coast Guard

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________



SAMOA COUNTRY FLAG OF SAMOA

______________________________________________________________________



SAN MARINO

@San Marino:Introduction

Background: The world's third smallest state also claims to be the
world's oldest republic, founded by Saint Marinus (for whom the
country is named) in 301 A. D. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned
with that of Italy. Social and political trends in the republic also
track closely with those of its larger neighbor.

@San Marino:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 60.5 sq km
land: 60.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 749 m

Natural resources: building stone

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Nuclear Test
Ban
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe
after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

@San Marino:People

Population: 26,937 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 2,181; female 2,038)
15-64 years: 68% (male 8,992; female 9,425)
65 years and over: 16% (male 1,849; female 2,452) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.49% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.88 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.65 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.14 years
male: 77.57 years
female: 85.02 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95% (1976 est.)

@San Marino:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino

Data code: SM

Government type: republic

Capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular -
castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano,
Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 (by tradition)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3
September (301)

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the
functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: cochiefs of state Captain Regent Loris FRANCINI and
Captain Regent Alberto CECCHETTI (for the period 1 April 1999-30
September 1999)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political
Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since NA July 1986)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council
for a five-year term
elections: cochiefs of state (captain regents) elected by the Great
and General Council for a six-month term; election last held NA
September 1999 (next to be held NA March 2000); secretary of state for
foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council
for a five-year term; election last held NA June 1998 (next to be held
NA June 2003)
election results: Loris FRANCINI and Alberto CECCETTI elected captain
regents; percent of legislative vote - NA; Gabriele GATTI reelected
secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of
legislative vote - NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council)
selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (cochiefs
of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the
Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which
has ten other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council;
assisting the captains regent are three secretaries of state - Foreign
Affairs, Internal Affairs, and Finance - and several additional
secretaries; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed
many of the prerogatives of a prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio
Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held by NA May 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDCS 40.8%, PSS 23.3%,
PPDS 18.6%, APDS 9.8%, RC 3.3%, SR 4.2%; seats by party - PDCS 25, PSS
14, PPDS 11, APDS 6, RC 2, SR 2

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

Political parties and leaders: Communist Refoundation or RC [Giuseppe
AMICHI]; Democratic Movement or MD ; San Marino
Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Cesare Antonio GASPERONI,
secretary general]; San Marino Popular Democratic Party or APDS
; San Marino Progressive Democratic Party or PPDS
; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS
; Socialists for Reform or SR
International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: San Marino does not have an
embassy in the US
honorary consulate(s) general: Washington, DC, and New York
honorary consulate(s): Detroit

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited
to San Marino

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light
blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the
coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks)
flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word
LIBERTAS (Liberty)

@San Marino:Economy

Economy - overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In
1997 more than 3.3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key
industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics.
Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level
of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy,
which supplies much of its food.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $500 million (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,000 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1997)

Labor force: 15,600 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, industry 38%, agriculture
2% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (April 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $320 million
expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $26
million (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement,
wine

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Agriculture - products: wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs,
horses, beef, cheese, hides

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy

Exports - commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat,
wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

Imports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy

Imports - commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi; note - also mints its
own coins

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,668.7 (January 1998), 1,736.2 (1998),
1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996), 1,628.9 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@San Marino:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 18,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,010 (1998)

Telephone system:
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into
Italian system
international: microwave radio relay and cable connections to Italian
network; no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (San Marino residents also receive
broadcasts from Italy) (1997)

Televisions: 9,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@San Marino:Transportation

Railways: 0 km; note - there is a 1.5 km cable railway connecting the
city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore

Highways:
total: 220 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@San Marino:Military

Military branches: Voluntary Military Force, Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $700,000 (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@San Marino:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE

@Sao Tome and Principe:Introduction

Background: Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th
century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa
in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of
which lingered into the 20th century. Although independence was
achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the
late 1980s. The first free elections were held in 1991.

@Sao Tome and Principe:Geography

Location: Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling
the Equator, west of Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 7 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,001 sq km
land: 1,001 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 209 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m

Natural resources: fish, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 36%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion and
exhaustion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Sao Tome and Principe:People

Population: 159,883 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 38,588; female 37,624)
15-64 years: 48% (male 37,216; female 39,959)
65 years and over: 4% (male 2,961; female 3,535) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.16% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 42.98 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.76 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.25 years
male: 63.84 years
female: 66.7 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.08 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean

Ethnic groups: mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves),
forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers
from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of
servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Religions: Christian 80% (Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant,
Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Portuguese (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73%
male: 85%
female: 62% (1991 est.)

@Sao Tome and Principe:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form: Sao Tome e Principe

Data code: TP

Government type: republic

Capital: Sao Tome

Administrative divisions: 2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome
note: Principe has had self-government since 29 April 1995

Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

Constitution: approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Guilherma Posser da COSTA (since 30
December 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
proposal of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 30 June and 21 July 1996 (next to be held NA July
2001); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by
the president
election results: Miguel TROVOADA reelected president in Sao Tome's
second multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - Miguel
TROVOADA 52.74%, Manuel Pinto da COSTA 47.26%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 8 November 1998 (next to be held NA November
2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - MLSTP-PSD 56%, PCD 14.5%,
ADI 29%; seats by party - MLSTP-PSD 31, ADI 16, PCD 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the National
Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Front or FDC
; Democratic Opposition Coalition or CODO [leader
NA]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI ; Movement for
the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or
MLSTP-PSD ; Party for Democratic Convergence or
PCD ; other small parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Sao Tome and Principe does not
have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the
UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA, located at
122 East 42nd Street, Suite 1604, New York, NY 10168, telephone
(212) 317-0533

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao
Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to
the islands

Flag description: three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow
(double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed
side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles
triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors
of Ethiopia

@Sao Tome and Principe:Economy

Economy - overview: This small poor island economy has become
increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence 25 years ago.
However, cocoa production has substantially declined because of
drought and mismanagement. The resulting shortage of cocoa for export
has created a persistent balance-of-payments problem. Sao Tome has to
import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a
significant amount of food. Over the years, it has been unable to
service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid
and debt rescheduling. Considerable potential exists for development



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