Copyright
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

CIA World Factbook (2000) online

. (page 96 of 140)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 96 of 140)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.5% (FY99)

@Serbia and Montenegro:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina over
Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks
independence from Serbian republic; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing
Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because
it controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in Montenegro; Prevlaka is
currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in
Prevlaka (UNMOP); the border commission formed by The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro in April 1996 to
resolve differences in delineation of their border has made no
progress so far

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving
to Western Europe on the Balkan route

______________________________________________________________________



SEYCHELLES

@Seychelles:Introduction

Background: A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for
the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter.
Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with
a new constitution and free elections in 1993.

@Seychelles:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
northeast of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 4 35 S, 55 40 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 455 sq km
land: 455 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast
monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest
monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly;
others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m

Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 74% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are
rare; short droughts possible

Environment - current issues: water supply depends on catchments to
collect rain water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

@Seychelles:People

Population: 79,326 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (male 11,499; female 11,338)
15-64 years: 65% (male 25,143; female 26,386)
65 years and over: 6% (male 1,674; female 3,286) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.49% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 17.99 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.41 years
male: 64.87 years
female: 76.12 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.85 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
adjective: Seychelles

Ethnic groups: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%

Languages: English (official), French (official), Creole

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58%
male: 56%
female: 60% (1971 est.)

@Seychelles:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
conventional short form: Seychelles

Data code: SE

Government type: republic

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins,
Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie
Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand'
Anse (on Mahe), Grand' Anse (on Praslin), La Digue, La Riviere
Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe La Rue, Port
Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 18 June (1993) (adoption of the
constitution)

Constitution: 18 June 1993

Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and
customary law

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)
election results: France Albert RENE reelected president; percent of
vote - France Albert RENE (SPPF) 66.7%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (UO) 19.5%,
Sir James MANCHAM (DP) 13.8%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (35 seats - 25 elected by popular vote, 10 allocated on a
proportional basis to parties winning at least nine percent of the
vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20-22 March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party
(elected) - SPPF 24, DP 1; seats by party (awarded) - SPPF 6, DP 1, UO
3
note: the 10 awarded seats are apportioned according to the share of
each party in the total vote

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the
president; Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP ; New
Democratic Party ; Seychelles
People's Progressive Front or SPPF - the
governing party; United Opposition or UO - a
coalition of the following parties: Seychelles Party or PS [Wavel
RAMKALAWAN], Seychelles Democratic Movement or MSPD ,
and Seychelles Liberal Party or SLP

Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church; trade
unions

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
InOC, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Harold Walter GEISEL
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017
telephone: (212) 972-1785
FAX: (212) 972-1786

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles

Flag description: five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow,
red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist
side

@Seychelles:Economy

Economy - overview: Since independence in 1976, per capita output in
this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the
old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector,
which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70%
of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years the
government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade
hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved
to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of
farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. The vulnerability of
the tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991-92 due
largely to the Gulf war. Although the industry has rebounded, the
government recognizes the continuing need for upgrading the sector in
the face of stiff international competition. Other issues facing the
government are the curbing of the budget deficit and further
privatization of public enterprises. Growth slowed in 1998-99, due to
sluggish tourist and tuna sectors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $590 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 21%
services: 75% (1996)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1999)

Labor force: 26,000 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 19%, services 57%, government
14%, fishing, agriculture, and forestry 10% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $220 million
expenditures: $241 million, including capital expenditures of $36
million (1994 est.)

Industries: fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir
(coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 125 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 116 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes,
cassava (tapioca), bananas; broiler chickens; tuna fish

Exports: $91 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products
(reexports)

Exports - partners: France, UK, Netherlands, Italy, China, Germany,
Japan

Imports: $403 million (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum
products

Imports - partners: South Africa, UK, China, Singapore, France, Italy

Debt - external: $149 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $16.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1 - 5.3060 (September
1999), 5.2622 (1998), 5.0263 (1997), 4.9700 (1996), 4.7620 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Seychelles:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17,844 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,249 (1997)

Telephone system:
domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands in the
archipelago
international: direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent
island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 42,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus 9 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 11,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Seychelles:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 280 km
paved: 176 km
unpaved: 104 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Victoria

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 14 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (1999 est.)

@Seychelles:Military

Military branches: Army, Coast Guard, Marines, air wing, National
Guard, Presidential Protection Unit, Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 22,677 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 11,345 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13 million (FY93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.8% (FY93)

@Seychelles:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims Chagos Archipelago in British Indian
Ocean Territory

______________________________________________________________________



SIERRA LEONE

@Sierra Leone:Introduction

Background: Since 1991, civil war between the government and the
Revolutionary United Front (RUF) has resulted in tens of thousands of
deaths and the displacement of more than 2 million people (well over
one-third of the population) many of whom are now refugees in
neighboring countries. A peace agreement, signed on 7 July 1999,
offers hope that the country will be able to rebuild its devastated
economy and infrastructure, but previous peace efforts have failed. As
of late 1999, up to 6,000 UN peacekeepers were in the process of
deploying to bolster the peace accord.

@Sierra Leone:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 30 N, 11 30 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 71,740 sq km
land: 71,620 sq km
water: 120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 958 km
border countries: Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December);
winter dry season (December to April)

Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland
plateau, mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m

Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold,
chromite

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 31%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 290 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara
(November to May); sandstorms, dust storms

Environment - current issues: rapid population growth pressuring the
environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing,
and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil
exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

@Sierra Leone:People

Population: 5,232,624 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44.73% (male 1,148,264; female 1,192,533)
15-64 years: 52.16% (male 1,305,039; female 1,424,076)
65 years and over: 3.11% (male 81,291; female 81,421) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.67% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 45.63 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 19.58 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
note: by the end of 1999 refugees from Sierra Leone are assumed to be
returning

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 148.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.25 years
male: 42.37 years
female: 48.21 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.08 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sierra Leonean(s)
adjective: Sierra Leonean

Ethnic groups: 20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%,
other 30%), Creole 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were
settled in the Freetown area in the late-eighteenth century), refugees
from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese,
Pakistanis, and Indians

Religions: Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%

Languages: English (official, regular use limited to literate
minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal
vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the
descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown
area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population
but understood by 95%)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne,
or Arabic
total population: 31.4%
male: 45.4%
female: 18.2% (1995 est.)

@Sierra Leone:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Sierra Leone
conventional short form: Sierra Leone

Data code: SL

Government type: constitutional democracy

Capital: Freetown

Administrative divisions: 3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern,
Southern, Western*

Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

Constitution: 1 October 1991; subsequently amended several times

Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to
local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996,
reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government
head of government: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996,
reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government
cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president with the
approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible
to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election held 26-27 February and 15 March 1996 (next to be held NA
2001); note - president's tenure of office is limited to two five-year
terms
election results: Ahmad Tejan KABBAH elected president; percent of
vote - Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (SLPP) 59.5%, John Karefa-Smart (UNPP) 40.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (80 seats - 68
elected by popular vote, 12 filled by paramount chiefs elected in
separate elections; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26-27 February 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - SLPP 36.1%, UNPP 21.6%,
PDP 15.3%, APC 5.7%, NUP 5.3%, DCP 4.8%, other 11.2%; seats by party -
SLPP 27, UNPP 17, PDP 12, APC 5, NUP 4, DCP 3; note - first elections
since the former House of Representatives was shut down by the
military coup of 29 April 1992

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: All People's Congress or APC [Edward
Mohammed TURAY, chairman]; Democratic Centre Party or DCP [Adu Aiah
KOROMA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA ;
National Republican Party or NRP ; National Unity
Party or NUP ; People's Democratic Party or
PDP ; People's Progressive Party or PPP
; Revolutionary United Front Party or
RUFP ; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP
; United National People's
Party or UNPP [John KARIFA-SMART in exile, Raymond KAMARA, acting
leader]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John Ernest LEIGH
chancery: 1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (202) 939-9261 through 9263
FAX: (202) 483-1793

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph MELROSE
embassy: Corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Streets, Freetown
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: (22) 226481 through 226485
FAX: (22) 225471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top),
white, and light blue

@Sierra Leone:Economy

Economy - overview: Sierra Leone has substantial mineral,
agricultural, and fishery resources. However, the economic and social
infrastructure is not well developed, and serious social disorders
continue to hamper economic development. About two-thirds of the
working-age population engages in subsistence agriculture.
Manufacturing consists mainly of the processing of raw materials and
of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Bauxite and rutile
mines have been shut down by civil strife. The major source of hard
currency is found in the mining of diamonds, the large majority of
which are smuggled out of the country. The resurgence of internal
warfare in 1999 brought another substantial drop in GDP. The fate of
the economy in 2000 depends on the mid-1999 peace accord holding and
the rebels reopening territory under their control.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -10% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 52%
industry: 16%
services: 32% (1996)

Population below poverty line: 68% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 0.5%
highest 10%: 43.6% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.369 million (1981 est.)
note: only about 65,000 wage earners (1985)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $96 million
expenditures: $150 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: mining (diamonds); small-scale manufacturing (beverages,
textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 235 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 219 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil,
peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Exports: $41 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish

Exports - partners: Benelux 49%, Spain 10%, US 8%, UK 3% (1997)

Imports: $166 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and
lubricants, chemicals

Imports - partners: UK 24%, Cote d'Ivoire 14%, Benelux 10%, US 8%
(1997)

Debt - external: $1.15 billion (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $203.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: leones (Le) per US$1 - 2,324.77 (January 2000),
1,804.20 (1999), 1,563.62 (1998), 981.48 (1997), 920.73 (1996), 755.22
(1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Sierra Leone:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: marginal telephone and telegraph service
domestic: national microwave radio relay system made unserviceable by
military activities
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 9, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 1.12 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1999)

Televisions: 53,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Sierra Leone:Transportation

Railways:
total: 84 km used on a limited basis because the mine at Marampa is
closed
narrow gauge: 84 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 11,300 km
paved: 904 km
unpaved: 10,396 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

Ports and harbors: Bonthe, Freetown, Pepel

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,105 GRT/1,307 DWT
ships by type: specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Sierra Leone:Military

Military branches: Army

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,119,540 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 543,124 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $46 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96/97)

@Sierra Leone:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



SINGAPORE

@Singapore:Introduction

Background: Founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore
joined Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyCIA World Factbook (2000) → online text (page 96 of 140)