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2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

@Somalia:Military

Military branches: no functioning central government military forces;
clan militias continue to battle for control of key economic or
political prizes

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,772,631 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 984,103 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Somalia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the boundary
with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial
dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden

______________________________________________________________________



SOUTH AFRICA

@South Africa:Introduction

Background: After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in
1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found
their own republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886)
spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the
native inhabitants. The Boers resisted British encroachments, but were
defeated in the Boer War (1899-1902). The resulting Union of South
Africa operated under a policy of apartheid - the separate development
of the races. The 1990s brought an end to apartheid politically and
ushered in black majority rule.

@South Africa:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of
Africa

Geographic coordinates: 29 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,219,912 sq km
land: 1,219,912 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward
Island)

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,750 km
border countries: Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491
km, Namibia 855 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

Coastline: 2,798 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days,
cool nights

Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow
coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m

Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore,
manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum,
copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 67%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,700 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts

Environment - current issues: lack of important arterial rivers or
lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures;
growth in water usage threatens to outpace supply; pollution of rivers
from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting
in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost
completely surrounds Swaziland

@South Africa:People

Population: 43,421,021
note: South Africa took a census October 1996 which showed a
population of 40,583,611 (after an official adjustment for a 6.8%
underenumeration based on a post-enumeration survey); estimates for
this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess
mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy,
higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth
rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex
than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.46% (male 7,094,756; female 6,999,009)
15-64 years: 62.76% (male 13,111,457; female 14,139,372)
65 years and over: 4.78% (male 782,397; female 1,294,030) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.5% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 24.56 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.69 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 58.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 51.1 years
male: 50.41 years
female: 51.81 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: South African(s)
adjective: South African

Ethnic groups: black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%

Religions: Christian 68% (includes most whites and Coloreds, about 60%
of blacks and about 40% of Indians), Muslim 2%, Hindu 1.5% (60% of
Indians), indigenous beliefs and animist 28.5%

Languages: 11 official languages, including Afrikaans, English,
Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.8%
male: 81.9%
female: 81.7% (1995 est.)

@South Africa:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
abbreviation: RSA

Data code: SF

Government type: republic

Capital: Pretoria; note - Cape Town is the legislative center and
Bloemfontein the judicial center

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State,
Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North-West, Northern Cape,
Northern Province, Western Cape

Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

National holiday: Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)

Constitution: 10 December 1996; this new constitution was certified by
the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996, was signed by then
President MANDELA on 10 December 1996, and entered into effect on 3
February 1997; it is being implemented in phases

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive
Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the president
is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999);
Executive Deputy President Jacob ZUMA (since 17 June 1999); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 2 June 1999 (next scheduled for sometime
between May and July 2004)
election results: Thabo MBEKI elected president; percent of National
Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation)
note: ANC-IFP governing coalition

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament consisting of the National
Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a
system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and
the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, 10 members elected by
each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms; has
special powers to protect regional interests, including the
safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic
minorities); note - following the implementation of the new
constitution on 3 February 1997 the former Senate was disbanded and
replaced by the National Council of Provinces with essentially no
change in membership and party affiliations, although the new
institution's responsibilities have been changed somewhat by the new
constitution
elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last
held 2 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC
66.4%, DP 9.6%, IFP 8.6%, NP 6.9%, UDM 3.4, FF 0.8%, other 4.3%; seats
by party - ANC 266, DP 38, IFP 34, NP 28, UDM 14, FF 3, other 17;
National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats
by party - ANC 61, NP 17, FF 4, IFP 5, DP 3

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High
Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: African Christian Democratic Party or
ACDP ; African National Congress or ANC
; Democratic Party or DP [Tony LEON,
president]; Freedom Front or FF ; Inkatha
Freedom Party or IFP ; National Party
(now the New National Party) or NP [Marthinus VAN SCHALKWYK, executive
director]; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC ;
United Democratic Movement or UDM

Political pressure groups and leaders: Congress of South African Trade
Unions or COSATU ; South African
Communist Party or SACP ; South
African National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE,
national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance
with the ANC

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, BIS, C, CCC, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MONUC, NAM, NSG, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNITAR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Makate Sheila SISULU
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 232-4400
FAX: (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Delano E. LEWIS
embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Arcadia 0083
mailing address: P. O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: (12) 342-1048
FAX: (12) 342-2244
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg

Flag description: two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and
blue separated by a central green band which splits into a horizontal
Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y
embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated
by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the
green band and its arms by narrow white stripes
note: prior to 26 April 1994, the flag was actually four flags in one
- three miniature flags reproduced in the center of the white band of
the former flag of the Netherlands, which has three equal horizontal
bands of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags are a
vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal
flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of
the old Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

@South Africa:Economy

Economy - overview: South Africa is a middle-income, developing
country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed
financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, a
stock exchange that ranks among the 10 largest in the world, and a
modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to
major urban centers throughout the region. However, growth has not
been strong enough to cut into the 30% unemployment, and daunting
economic problems remain from the apartheid era, especially the
problems of poverty and lack of economic empowerment among the
disadvantaged groups. Other problems are crime, corruption, and
HIV/AIDS. At the start of 2000, President MBEKI vowed to promote
economic growth and foreign investment by relaxing restrictive labor
laws, stepping up the pace of privatization, and cutting unneeded
governmental spending. His policies face strong opposition from
organized labor.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $296.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,900 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 35%
services: 60% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 47.3% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 15 million economically active (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services
45% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $30.5 billion
expenditures: $38 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.6
billion (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold,
chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron
and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs

Industrial production growth rate: -5% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 192.015 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 92.09%
hydro: 0.83%
nuclear: 7.08%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 174.486 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 4.093 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 5 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables;
beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products

Exports: $28 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: gold, diamonds, other metals and minerals,
machinery and equipment

Exports - partners: UK, Italy, Japan, US, Germany (1997)

Imports: $26 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, foodstuffs and equipment, chemicals,
petroleum products, scientific instruments

Imports - partners: Germany, US, UK, Japan

Debt - external: $25.7 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $676.3 million

Currency: 1 rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: rand (R) per US$1 - 6.12439 (January 2000), 6.10948
(1999), 5.52828 (1998), 4.60796 (1997), 4.29935 (1996), 3.62709 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@South Africa:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5.075 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: over 2,000,000 (1999)

Telephone system: the system is the best developed and most modern in
Africa
domestic: consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial
cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone
communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are
Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and
Pretoria
international: 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 347 (plus 243 repeaters),
shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 13.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 556 (plus 144 network repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 5.2 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 58 (1999)

@South Africa:Transportation

Railways:
total: 21,431 km
narrow gauge: 20,995 km 1.067-m gauge (9,087 km electrified); 436 km
0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 534,131 km
paved: 63,027 km (including 2,032 km of expressways)
unpaved: 471,104 km (1998 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 931 km; petroleum products 1,748 km; natural gas
322 km

Ports and harbors: Cape Town, Durban, East London, Mosselbaai, Port
Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha

Merchant marine:
total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 274,797 GRT/270,837 DWT
ships by type: container 6, petroleum tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off 1
(1999 est.)

Airports: 744 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 143
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 46
914 to 1,523 m: 73
under 914 m: 11 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 601
1,524 to 2,437 m: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 303
under 914 m: 265 (1999 est.)

@South Africa:Military

Military branches: South African National Defense Force or SANDF
(includes Army, Navy, Air Force, and Medical Services), South African
Police Service or SAPS

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 11,345,031 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 6,901,252 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 460,917 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2 billion (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY99/00)

Military - note: the National Defense Force continues to integrate
former military, black homelands forces, and ex-opposition forces

@South Africa:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom

Illicit drugs: transshipment center for heroin and cocaine; cocaine
consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit
methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various
east African countries; illicit cultivation of marijuana

______________________________________________________________________



SOUTHERN OCEAN

@Southern Ocean:Introduction

Background: A spring 2000 decision by the International Hydrographic
Organization delimited a fifth world ocean from the southern portions
of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The new ocean
extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south
latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit. The Southern
Ocean is now the fourth-largest of the world's five oceans (after the
Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean but larger than the
Arctic Ocean).

@Southern Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between 60 degrees south latitude and
Antarctica

Geographic coordinates: 65 00 S, 0 00 E (nominally), but the Southern
Ocean has the unique distinction of being a large circumpolar body of
water totally encircling the continent of Antarctica; this ring of
water lies between 60 degrees south latitude and the coast of
Antarctica, and encompasses 360 degrees of longitude

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 20.327 million sq km
note: includes Amundsen Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, part of the Drake
Passage, Ross Sea, a small part of the Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and
other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of the US

Coastline: 17,968 km

Climate: sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Centigrade to -2
degrees Centigrade; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the
continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature
contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about
latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average
winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to
65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south
latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well
below 0 degrees Centigrade; at some coastal points intense persistent
drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free
throughout the winter

Terrain: the Southern Ocean is deep, 4,000 to 5,000 meters over most
of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water; the antarctic
continental shelf is generally narrow and unusually deep - its edge
lying at depths of 400 to 800 meters (the global mean is 133 meters);
the Antarctic ice pack grows from an average minimum of 2.6 million
square kilometers in March to about 18.8 million square kilometers in
September, better than a sevenfold increase in area; the Antarctic
Circumpolar Current (21,000 km in length) moves perpetually eastward;
it is the world's largest ocean current, transporting 130 million
cubic meters of water per second - 100 times the flow of all the
world's rivers

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: -7,235 m at the southern end of the South Sandwich
Trench
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: probable large and possible giant oil and gas
fields on the continental margin, manganese nodules, possible placer
deposits, sand and gravel, fresh water as icebergs, squid, whales, and
seals - none exploited; krill, fishes

Natural hazards: huge icebergs with drafts up to several hundred
meters; smaller bergs and iceberg fragments; sea ice (generally 0.5 to
1 meter thick) with sometimes dynamic short-term variations and with
large annual and interannual variations; deep continental shelf
floored by glacial deposits varying widely over short distances; high
winds and large waves much of the year; ship icing, especially
May-October; most of region is remote from sources of search and
rescue

Environment - current issues: increased solar ultraviolet radiation
resulting from the antarctic ozone hole in recent years, reducing
marine primary productivity (phytoplankton) by as much as 15% and
damaging the DNA of some fish; illegal, unreported, and unregulated
fishing in recent years, especially the landing of an estimated five
to six times more Patagonian toothfish than the regulated fishery,
which is likely to affect the sustainability of the stock; large
amount of incidental mortality of seabirds resulting from long-line
fishing for toothfish
note: the now-protected fur seal population is making a strong
comeback after severe overexploitation in the 18th and 19th centuries

Environment - international agreements: the Southern Ocean is subject
to all international agreements regarding the world's oceans; in
addition, it is subject to these agreements specific to the region:
International Whaling Commission (prohibits commercial whaling south
of 40 degrees south [south of 60 degrees south between 50 degrees and
130 degrees west]); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
(limits sealing); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine
Living Resources (regulates fishing)
note: many nations (including the US) prohibit mineral resource
exploration and exploitation south of the fluctuating Polar Front
(Antarctic Convergence) which is in the middle of the Antarctic
Circumpolar Current and serves as the dividing line between the very
cold polar surface waters to the south and the warmer waters to the
north

Geography - note: the major chokepoint is the Drake Passage between
South America and Antarctica; the Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence)
is the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Southern
Ocean; it is a distinct region at the middle of the Antarctic
Circumpolar Current that separates the very cold polar surface waters
to the south from the warmer waters to the north; the Front and the
Current extend entirely around Antarctica, reaching south of 60
degrees south near New Zealand and near 48 degrees south in the far
South Atlantic coinciding with the path of the maximum westerly winds

@Southern Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

@Southern Ocean:Economy

Economy - overview: Fisheries in 1998-1999 (1 July to 30 June) landed
119,898 metric tons, of which 85% was krill and 14% Patagonian
toothfish. International agreements were adopted in late 1999 to
reduce illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, which in the
1998-1999 season landed five to six times more Patagonian toothfish
than the regulated fishery. In the 1998-1999 antarctic summer 10,013
tourists, most of them seaborne, visited the Southern Ocean and
Antarctica, compared to 9,604 the previous year. Nearly 16,000
tourists are expected during the 1999-2000 season.

@Southern Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: McMurdo, Palmer, and offshore anchorages in
Antarctica
note: few ports or harbors exist on the southern side of the Southern
Ocean; ice conditions limit use of most of them to short periods in
midsummer; even then some cannot be entered without icebreaker escort;
most antarctic ports are operated by government research stations and,
except in an emergency, are not open to commercial or private vessels;
vessels in any port south of 60 degrees south are subject to
inspection by Antarctic Treaty observers

Transportation - note: Drake Passage offers alternative to transit
through the Panama Canal

@Southern Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see



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