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Produced by Dr. Gregory B. Newby









THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1990
ELECTRONIC VERSION

The World Factbook is produced annually by the Central Intelligence
Agency for the use of United States Government officials, and the style,
format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific
requirements. Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

Central Intelligence Agency
Attn: Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
(703) 351-2053

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Table of Contents

Text (249 nations, dependent areas, and other entities)
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina
Burma
Burundi

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China (also see separate Taiwan entry)
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Ethiopia
Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
German Democratic Republic
(East Germany)
Germany, Federal Republic of
(West Germany)
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
Ireland
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Italy
Ivory Coast

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry)
Juan de Nova Island

Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait

Laos
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Luxembourg

Macau
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

Oman

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the
(Palau)
Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Qatar

Reunion
Romania
Rwanda

St. Helena
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Pierre and Miquelon
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Soviet Union
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

Uganda
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay

Vanuatu
Vatican City
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa
World

Yemen Arab Republic
{Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen}
Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of
{Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen}
Yugoslavia

Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Taiwan

Appendix A: The United Nations System
Appendix B: International Organizations
Appendix C: Country Membership in International Organizations
Appendix D: Weights and Measures
Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Note: all maps will be available only in the printed version for the
foreseeable future
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

There have been some significant changes in this edition. In the
Government section the former Branches entry has been replaced by
three entries - Executive branch, Legislative branch, and Judicial
branch. The Leaders entry now has subentries for Chief of State,
Head of Government, and their deputies. The Elections entry has
been completely redone with information for each branch of the
national government, including the date for the last election, the
date for the next election, results (percent of vote by candidate or
party), and current distribution of seats by party. In the Economy
section there is a new entry on Illicit drugs.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations)

avdp. avoirdupois
c.i.f. cost, insurance, and freight
CY calendar year
DWT deadweight ton
est. estimate
Ex-Im Export-Import Bank of the United States
f.o.b. free on board
FRG Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)
FY fiscal year
GDP gross domestic product
GDR German Democratic Republic (East Germany)
GNP gross national product
GRT gross register ton
km kilometer
km2 square kilometer
kW kilowatt
kWh kilowatt-hour
m meter
NA not available
NEGL negligible
nm nautical mile
NZ New Zealand
ODA official development assistance
OOF other official flows
PDRY People's Democratic Republic of Yemen {Yemen
(Aden) or South Yemen}
UAE United Arab Emirates
UK United Kingdom
US United States
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)
YAR Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen}

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and
first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the
United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) as of 5 April 1990. Changes
that have been reported but not yet acted upon by BGN are noted.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited
by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the
aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).
Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities
are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller
entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 km2, 69 miles2) or
The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2, 0.23 miles2, 146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year
per 1,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude birth rate.

Contributors: Information was provided by the Bureau of the
Census (Department of Commerce), Central Intelligence Agency,
Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of
State, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Navy Operational
Intelligence Center and Maritime Administration (merchant marine data),
Office of Territorial and International Affairs (Department of the
Interior), United States Board on Geographic Names, United States
Coast Guard, and others.

Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1
January 1990 was used in the preparation of this edition. Population
figures are estimates for 1 July 1990, with population growth rates
estimated for mid-1990 through mid-1991. Major political events have
been updated through 30 March 1990. Military age figures are average
annual estimates for 1990-94.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year
per l,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude death rate.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic
relations with 162 nations. There are only 144 US embassies, since some
nations have US ambassadors accredited to them, but no physical US
mission exists. The US has diplomatic relations with 149 of the 159 UN
members - the exceptions are Albania, Angola, Byelorussia (constituent
republic of the Soviet Union), Cambodia, Cuba, Iran, Vietnam, People's
Democratic Republic of Yemen {Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen}, Ukraine
(constituent republic of the Soviet Union) and, obviously, the US itself.
In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 13 nations that are not
in the UN - Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati,
Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, South Korea,
Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Vatican City. North Korea is not in
the UN and the US does not have diplomatic relations with that nation.
The US has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania into the Soviet Union and continues to accredit the diplomatic
representatives of their last free governments.

Disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations
that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral
claims of one sort or another. Every international land boundary
dispute in the "Guide to International Boundaries," a map published
by the Department of State, is included. References to other situations
may also be included that are border- or frontier-relevant, such as
maritime disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues.
However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance
or recognition by the US Government.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not
independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. Nation refers to a people politically organized into a
sovereign state with a definite territory. Dependent area refers to a
broad category of political entities that are associated in some way
with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form
names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. The
long-form name is included in the Government section and an entry
of "none" indicates a long-form name does not exist. In some
instances, no short-form name exists - then the long-form name must
serve for all usages.

There are 249 entities in the Factbook that may be categorized as
follows:

NATIONS
157 UN members (there are 159 members in the UN, but only 157 are
included in The World Factbook because Byelorussia and Ukraine are
constituent republics of the Soviet Union)
15 nations that are not members of the UN - Andorra, Federated States of
Micronesia, Kiribati, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Monaco,
Namibia, Nauru, North Korea, San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland,
Tonga, Tuvalu, Vatican City

OTHER
1 Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS
6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and
McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland
16 France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic
Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island,
Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, St. Pierre and
Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
1 Portugal - Macau
16 United Kingdom - Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands,
Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Montserrat,
Pitcairn Islands, St. Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich
Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
15 United States - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands,
Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll,
Puerto Rico, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau),
Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS
7 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone,
Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES
4 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean
1 World
===
249 total

Notes: The US Government has not recognized the incorporation of
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union as constituent
republics during World War II. Those Baltic states are not members of the
UN and are not included in the list of nations. The US Government does
not recognize the four so-called "independent" homelands of
Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and
services produced domestically.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and
services produced domestically, plus income earned abroad, minus
income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

GNP/GDP methodology: GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the OECD
countries, the USSR, Eastern Europe, and a portion of the developing
countries, are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP)
calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange
rates. The PPP methods involve the use of average price weights,
which lie between the weights of the domestic and foreign price systems;
using these weights, US $100 converted into German marks by a PPP
method will buy an equal amount of goods and services in both the US
and Germany. One caution: the proportion of, say, military expenditures
as a percent of GNP/GDP in local currency accounts may differ
substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP is expressed in PPP dollar
terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates the dollar level of
Soviet or Japanese military expenditures. Similarly, dollar figures for
exports and imports reflect the price patterns of international
markets rather than PPP price patterns.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the
population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over
deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.
The rate may be positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit
drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens,
and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and
prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold
outside medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot,
Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol),
hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush and the leaves contain the stimulant
cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa which comes from cacao
seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and
include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental,
emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that
results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an
individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking,
self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot),
mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA,
STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues
(PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to
opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics
include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol),
codeine (Tylenol w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan A-C), and
thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and
hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or
Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and
others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the
opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried
opium poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis
that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn,
Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and
others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one
year of age in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same
year.

Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as
arable land - land cultivated for crops that are replanted after
each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops - land
cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest
(citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures - land permanently
used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland - land under
dense or open stands of trees; and other - any land type not
specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert). The
percentage figure for irrigated refers to the portion of the entire
amount of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country
who represents the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not
involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. The head
of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day
activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief
of state and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US,
the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived
by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each
age remains constant in the future.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent
some national claims from being fully extended.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All
commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which
excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a
grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.

Captive register - A register of ships maintained by a territory,
possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships
owned in the parent country. Also referred to as an offshore register,
the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive
register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local
variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation
rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive
register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned
abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience
register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register - A national register offering
registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major
flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue
of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal
manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having
relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag
state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority
of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an
open register.

Flag state - The nation in which a ship is registered and which
holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home
or abroad. Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine
how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be
placed on the register.

Internal register - A register of ships maintained as a subset of
a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national
flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of
maritime rules from those on the main national register. These
differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by
foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state
(when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International
Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most
notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental
in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in
attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.

Merchant ship - A vessel that carries goods against payment of
freight. Commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately
restricted to commercial vessels only.

Register - The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as
listed with the maritime authorities of a country. Also, the
compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of
a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws
of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the
nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars
unless otherwise indicated.

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons
entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons
(based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the
country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000
population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net
emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census
based on statistics from population censuses, vital registration
systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on
assumptions about future trends.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1990 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 1 of 78)