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Produced by Dr. Gregory B. Newby









15 October 1991

The CIA World Factbook 1991

Some tags useful for searching the factbook are as follows:

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_*_People
_*_Government
_*_Economy

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for example, _#_Total area
_#_Comparative area
_#_Land boundaries
_#_Coastline

_%_ the first three characters in the first line following
the end of a country section or an appendix
_%_


THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1991


The World Factbook is produced annually by the Central Intelligence
Agency for the use of United States Government officials, and the style,
format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific
requirements.

Information was provided by the Bureau of the Census, Central
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Table of Contents

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

Text (247 nations, dependent areas, and other entities)
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina
Burma
Burundi

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China (also see separate Taiwan entry)
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Ethiopia
Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
Ireland
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Italy
Ivory Coast

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry)
Juan de Nova Island

Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait

Laos
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Luxembourg

Macau
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

Oman

Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the
(Palau)
Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Qatar

Reunion
Romania
Rwanda

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Soviet Union
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

Uganda
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay

Vanuatu
Vatican City
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa
World

Yemen
Yugoslavia

Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Taiwan

Appendix A: The United Nations System
Appendix B: International Organization and Group Abbreviations
Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups
Appendix D: Weights and Measures
Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names





Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

There have been some significant changes in this edition. The
Literacy entry now includes rates for males, females, and both
sexes. Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups is new
and includes date established, aim, and list of members. Three maps
of special interest have been added this year - republics of the
Soviet Union, ethnic groups in the Soviet Union, and ethnic groups
in Eastern Europe.

_#_Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations
and groups)


avdp. avoirdupois
c.i.f. cost, insurance, and freight
CY calendar year
DWT deadweight ton
est. estimate
Ex-Im Export-Import Bank of the United States
f.o.b. free on board
FRG Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany);
used for information dated before 3 October 1990
or CY91
FY fiscal year
GDP gross domestic product
GDR German Democratic Republic (East Germany);
used for information dated before 3 October 1990
or CY91
GNP gross national product
GRT gross register ton
km kilometer
km2 square kilometer
kW kilowatt
kWh kilowatt-hour
m meter
NA not available
NEGL negligible
nm nautical mile
NZ New Zealand
ODA official development assistance
OOF other official flows
PDRY People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen
(Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information
dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

UAE United Arab Emirates
UK United Kingdom
US United States
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)
YAR Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen];
used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or
CY91


_#_Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and
first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the
United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been
reported but not yet acted upon by BGN are noted.


_#_Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited
by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the
aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).
Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities
are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller
entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 km2, 69 miles2) or
The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2, 0.23 miles2, 146 acres).


_#_Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year
per 1,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude birth rate.


_#_Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1
January 1991 was used in the preparation of this edition. Population
figures are estimates for 1 July 1991, with population growth rates
estimated for mid-1991 through mid-1992. Major political events have
been updated through 30 June 1991. Military age figures are average
annual estimates for 1991-95.


_#_Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year
per l,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude death rate.


_#_Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic
relations with 162 nations. There are only 144 US embassies, since some
nations have US ambassadors accredited to them, but no physical US
mission exists. The US has diplomatic relations with 151 of the 159 UN
members - the exceptions are Angola, Belorussia (Byelorussia;
constituent republic of the Soviet Union), Cambodia, Cuba, Iran, Vietnam,
Ukraine (constituent republic of the Soviet Union) and, obviously, the US
itself. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 12 nations that
are not in the UN - Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati,
Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland,
Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Vatican City. North Korea is not in the UN and the
US does not have diplomatic relations with that nation. The US has not
recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the
Soviet Union and continues to accredit the diplomatic representatives of
their last free governments.


_#_Disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations
that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral
claims of one sort or another. Every international land boundary
dispute in the "Guide to International Boundaries," a map published
by the Department of State, is included. References to other situations
may also be included that are border- or frontier-relevant, such as
maritime disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues.
However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance
or recognition by the US Government.


_#_Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of:

Official Development Assistance (ODA), which is defined as government
grants that (a) are administered with the promotion of economic
development and welfare of LDCs as their main objective and (b) are
concessional in character and contain a grant element of at least 25%;
and

Other Official Flows (OOF) or transactions by the official sector
whose main objective is other than development-motivated or whose
grant element is below the 25% threshold for ODA. OOF transactions
include official export credits (such as Eximbank credits), official
equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the
official sector that does not meet concessional terms.

Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are
initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration
of intent.


_#_Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not
independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. Nation refers to a people politically organized into a
sovereign state with a definite territory. Dependent area refers to a
broad category of political entities that are associated in some way
with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form
names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. The
long-form name is included in the Government section and an entry
of "none" indicates a long-form name does not exist. In some
instances, no short-form name exists - then the long-form name must
serve for all usages.


There are 247 entities in the Factbook that may be categorized as
follows:


NATIONS
157 UN members (there are 159 members in the UN, but only 157 are
included in The World Factbook because Belorussia
(Byelorussia) and Ukraine are constituent republics of the Soviet
Union)
13 nations that are not members of the UN - Andorra, Federated States of
Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, North Korea,
San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vatican City


OTHER
1 Taiwan


DEPENDENT AREAS
6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and
McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland
16 France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic
Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island,
Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and
Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
1 Portugal - Macau
16 United Kingdom - Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands,
Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Montserrat,
Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
15 United States - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands,
Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll,
Puerto Rico, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau),
Virgin Islands, Wake Island


MISCELLANEOUS
7 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone,
Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara


OTHER ENTITIES
4 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean
1 World
===
247 total


Notes: The US Government has not recognized the incorporation of
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union as constituent
republics during World War II. Those Baltic states are not members of the
UN and are not included in the list of nations. The US Government does
not recognize the four so-called "independent" homelands of
Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa.


_#_Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and
services produced domestically.


_#_Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and
services produced domestically, plus income earned abroad, minus
income earned by foreigners from domestic production.


_#_GNP/GDP methodology: In the Economy section, GNP/GDP dollar
estimates for the OECD countries, the USSR, and the East European
countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP)
calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange
rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of international
dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of goods and
services produced in a given economy. In addition to the lack of
reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces
a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the
quality of goods and services. The division of a PPP GNP/GDP estimate
in dollars by the corresponding estimate in the local currency gives
the PPP conversion rate. One thousand dollars will buy the
same market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars, converted
to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate, will buy in the other
country. GNP/GDP estimates for the LDCs, on the other hand, are based on
the conversion of GNP/GDP estimates in local currencies to dollars at
the official currency exchange rates. One caution: the proportion of,
say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local currency
accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP
accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer
estimates the dollar level of Soviet or Japanese military expenditures;
similar problems exist when components are expressed in dollars under
currency exchange rate procedures. Finally, as academic research
moves forward on the PPP method, we hope to convert all GNP/GDP
estimates to this method in future editions of the Factbook.


_#_Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the
population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over
deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.
The rate may be positive or negative.


_#_Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit
drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens,
and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and
prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold
outside medical channels.


Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot,
Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol),
hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).


Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush and the leaves contain the stimulant
cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa which comes from cacao
seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.


Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.


Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and
include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid).


Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental,
emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.


Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that
results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an
individual.


Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking,
self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot),
mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA,
STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues
(PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).


Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).


Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.


Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).


Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to
opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics
include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol),
codeine (Tylenol w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan A-C), and
thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and
hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or
Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and
others (Darvon, Lomotil).


Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the
opium poppy.


Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.


Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried
opium poppy.


Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis
that is chewed or drunk as tea.


Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn,
Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and
others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).


_#_Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one
year of age in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same
year.


_#_Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as
arable land - land cultivated for crops that are replanted after
each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops - land
cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest
(citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures - land permanently
used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland - land under
dense or open stands of trees; and other - any land type not
specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert). The
percentage figure for irrigated refers to the portion of the entire
amount of land area that is artificially supplied with water.


_#_Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country
who represents the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not
involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. The head
of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day
activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief
of state and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US,
the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.


_#_Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived
by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each
age remains constant in the future.


_#_Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of
literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most
common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age.
Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 1 of 89)