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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
antigovernment campaign


_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO


_#_Diplomatic representation: no formal diplomatic relations, although
informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in
New Delhi (India); the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New York has
consular jurisdiction in the US


_#_Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the
upper triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along
the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the
hoist side


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, one of the world's least developed,
is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood
for 90% of the population and account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged
mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other
infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely
aligned with that of India through strong trade and monetary links.
Low wages in industry lead most Bhutanese to stay in agriculture.
Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
tourists are its most important natural resources.


_#_GDP: $273 million, per capita $199 (1988) real growth rate 4%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment: NA


_#_Budget: revenues $99 million; expenditures $128 million, including
capital expenditures of $65 million (FY89 est.)


_#_Exports: $70.9 million (f.o.b., FY89);

commodities - cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit;

partners - India 93%


_#_Imports: $138.3 million (c.i.f., FY89 est.);

commodities - fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
vehicles, fabrics;

partners - India 67%


_#_External debt: $70.1 million (FY89 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 12.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 18% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 353,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced,
1,280 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; based on subsistence farming
and animal husbandry; self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains;
other production - rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy, and eggs


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $86.0 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11
million


_#_Currency: ngultrum (plural - ngultrum); 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100
chetrum; note - Indian currency is also legal tender


_#_Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 18.329 (January 1991),
17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611
(1986), 12.369 (1985); note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the
Indian rupee


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,304 km total; 418 km surfaced, 515 km improved, 371 km
unimproved earth


_#_Civil air: 1 jet, 2 prop


_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: inadequate; 1,990 telephones (1988); 22,000
radios (1990 est.); 85 TVs (1985); stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, no TV (1990)


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 398,263; 213,083 fit for
military service; 17,321 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
[email protected]_Bolivia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,098,580 km2; land area: 1,084,390 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Montana


_#_Land boundaries: 6,743 km total; Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400
km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km


_#_Coastline: none - landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked


_#_Disputes: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific
Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with
Chile over Rio Lauca water rights


_#_Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and
semiarid


_#_Terrain: high plateau, hills, lowland plains


_#_Natural resources: tin, natural gas, crude oil, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron ore, lead, gold, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 25%; forest and woodland 52%; other 20%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification


_#_Note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake, with Peru


_*_People
_#_Population: 7,156,591 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 83 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 64 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Bolivian(s); adjective Bolivian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mixed 25-30%,
European 5-15%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%; active Protestant minority,
especially Evangelical Methodist


_#_Language: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara (all official)


_#_Literacy: 78% (male 85%, female 71%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,700,000; agriculture 50%, services and utilities
26%, manufacturing 10%, mining 4%, other 10% (1983)


_#_Organized labor: 150,000-200,000, concentrated in mining, industry,
construction, and transportation; mostly organized under Bolivian
Workers' Central (COB) labor federation


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Bolivia


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat
of judiciary)


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos,
singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, El Beni, La Paz, Oruro,
Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija


_#_Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 2 February 1967


_#_Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Senators (Camara de
Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Jaime
PAZ Zamora (since 6 August 1989); Vice President Luis OSSIO Sanjines
(since 6 August 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora;
Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Hugo BANZER Suarez;
Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDO;
Free Bolivia Movement (MBL), led by Antonio ARANIBAR;
United Left (IU), a coalition of leftist parties which includes
Patriotic National Convergency Axis (EJE-P) led by Walter DELGADILLO,
and Bolivian Communist Party (PCB) led by Humberto RAMIREZ;
Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE Aviles;
Revolutionary Vanguard-9th of April (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE Reich;
Civic Union Solidarity (UCS), Max FERNANDEZ


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 (married) or 21
(single)


_#_Elections:

President - last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993);
results - Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada (MNR) 23%, Hugo BANZER Suarez
(ADN) 22%, Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 19%; no candidate received a
majority of the popular vote; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) formed a
coalition with Hugo BANZER (ADN); with ADN support PAZ Zamora
won the congressional runoff election on 4 August and was inaugurated
on 6 August 1989;

Senate - last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats (27 total) MNR 9, ADN 7, MIR 8, CONDEPA 2, PDC 1;

Chamber of Deputies - last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May
1993); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats (130 total) MNR 40, ADN 35, MIR 33, IU 10, CONDEPA 9,
PDC 3


_#_Member of: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jorge CRESPO; Chancery at
3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
483-4410 through 4412; there are Bolivian Consulates General in Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco;

US - Ambassador Robert S. GELBARD; Embassy at Banco Popular del Peru
Building, corner of Calles Mercado y Colon, La Paz (mailing address is
P. O. Box 425, La Paz, or APO Miami 34032); telephone [591] (2)
350251 or 350120


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow
band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Bolivian economy steadily deteriorated between
1980 and 1985 as La Paz financed growing budget deficits by expanding
the money supply and inflation spiraled - peaking at 11,700%. An austere
orthodox economic program adopted by newly elected President Paz
Estenssoro in 1985, however, succeeded in reducing inflation to between
10% and 20% annually since 1987, eventually restarting economic growth.
President Paz Zamora has retained the economic policies of the previous
government, keeping inflation down and continuing the moderate growth
begun under his predecessor. Nevertheless, Bolivia continues to be one of
the poorest countries in Latin America, and it remains vulnerable to
price fluctuations for its limited exports - agricultural products,
minerals, and natural gas. Moreover, for many farmers, who constitute
half of the country's work force, the main cash crop is coca, which is
sold for cocaine processing.


_#_GDP: $4.85 billion, per capita $690; real growth rate 2.7% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 21.5% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $850 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $927 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - metals 45%, natural gas 30%, other 25%
(coffee, soybeans, sugar, cotton, timber);

partners - US 15%, Argentina


_#_Imports: $716 million (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods;

partners - US 22%


_#_External debt: $3.7 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1990); accounts for
almost 30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 833,000 kW capacity; 1,763 million kWh produced, 260
kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage,
tobacco, handicrafts, clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces
significant revenues


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 20% of GDP (including forestry and
fisheries); principal commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane,
rice, potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food


_#_Illicit drugs: world's second-largest producer of coca
(after Peru) with an estimated 51,900 hectares under cultivation;
government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate
coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and Brazil
to the US and other international drug markets


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.7 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million


_#_Currency: boliviano (plural - bolivianos); 1 boliviano ($B) = 100
centavos


_#_Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 3.3732 (December 1990),
3.1727 (1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502 (1988), 2.0549 (1987), 1.9220
(1986), 0.4400 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,675 km total; 3,643 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track


_#_Highways: 38,836 km total; 1,300 km paved, 6,700 km gravel,
30,836 km improved and unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways


_#_Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; refined products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km


_#_Ports: none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile
and Matarani in Peru


_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,051
GRT/22,155 DWT


_#_Civil air: 56 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 807 total, 659 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 120 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: radio relay system being expanded; improved
international services; 144,300 telephones; stations - 129 AM, no FM, 43
TV, 68 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Bolivian Army, Bolivian Navy (including Marines),
Bolivian Air Force, National Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,679,352; 1,091,368 fit for
military service; 72,979 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $162 million, 4% of GNP (1988 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_Botswana
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 600,370 km2; land area: 585,370 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 4,013 km total; Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa
1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km


_#_Coastline: none - landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked


_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Namibia is indefinite;
quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement


_#_Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers


_#_Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest


_#_Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash,
potash, coal, iron ore, silver, natural gas


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
75%; forest and woodland 2%; other 21%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: rains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that
had severely affected the important cattle industry; overgrazing;
desertification


_#_Note: landlocked


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,258,392 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 43 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 65 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun and adjective - Motswana (singular), Batswana
(plural)


_#_Ethnic divisions: Batswana 95%; Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi
about 4%; white about 1%


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%


_#_Language: English (official), Setswana


_#_Literacy: 23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 400,000; 182,200 formal sector employees, most others
are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1988 est.);
19,000 are employed in various mines in South Africa (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 19 trade unions


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Botswana


_#_Type: parliamentary republic


_#_Capital: Gaborone


_#_Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi,
Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East,
Southern; note - in addition, there may now be 4 town councils named
Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Pikwe


_#_Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK; formerly Bechuanaland)


_#_Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966


_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Botswana Day, 30 September (1966)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or House of Chiefs and a lower house or National Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Quett K. J. MASIRE
(since 13 July 1980); Vice President Peter S. MMUSI (since 3 January
1983)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Quett MASIRE;
Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA;
Botswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE;
Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

President - last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October
1994);
results - President Quett K. J. MASIRE was reelected by the National
Assembly;

National Assembly - last held 7 October 1989 (next to be
held October 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (38 total, 34 elected) BDP 35, BNF 3


_#_Communists: no known Communist organization; Kenneth Koma of BNF
has long history of Communist contacts


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley
SEBELE; Chancery at Suite 404, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-4990 or 4991;

US - Ambassador David PASSAGE; Embassy at Botswana Road, Gaborone
(mailing address is P. O. Box 90, Gaborone); telephone [267] 353-982
through 353-984


_#_Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe
in the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising
and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for over 80% of the
population, but produces only about 50% of food needs and contributes
a small 3% to GDP. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of
the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on
the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to
over 50% in 1989. No other sector has experienced such growth, especially
not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The
unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%.


_#_GDP: $3.1 billion, per capita $2,500; real growth rate 6.3%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.0% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $1,719 million; expenditures $1,792 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - diamonds 77%, copper and nickel 12%, meat 4%, cattle,
animal products;

partners - Switzerland, UK, US, SACU (Southern African Customs
Union)


_#_Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment,
textiles, petroleum products;

partners - Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union),
UK, US


_#_External debt: $780 million (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 16.8% (FY86); accounts for
about 57% of GDP, including mining


_#_Electricity: 217,000 kW capacity; 630 million kWh produced,
510 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda
ash, potash; livestock processing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 3% of GDP; subsistence
farming predominates; cattle raising supports 50% of the population;
must import large share of food needs


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $257
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $43 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $29 million


_#_Currency: pula (plural - pula); 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe


_#_Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 1.8720 (January 1991), 1.8601
(1990), 2.0125 (1989), 1.8159 (1988), 1.6779 (1987), 1.8678 (1986),
1.8882 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 712 km 1.0 67-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 11,514 km total; 1,600 km paved; 1,700 km crushed stone
or gravel, 5,177 km improved earth, 3,037 km unimproved earth


_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 100 total, 87 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: the small system is a combination of open-wire
lines, radio relay links, and a few radiocommunication stations; 17,900
telephones; stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing),
Botswana National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 260,290; 137,038 fit for
military service; 14,767 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $99 million, 8.2% of GNP (1989)
_%_
[email protected]_Bouvet Island
(territory of Norway)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 58 km2; land area: 58 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 29.6 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 4 nm


_#_Climate: antarctic


_#_Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters;
coast is mostly inacessible


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100% (ice)


_#_Environment: covered by glacial ice


_#_Note: located in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,575 km
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: territory of Norway


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_#_Telecommunications: automatic meteorological station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway
_%_
[email protected]_Brazil
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 8,511,965 km2; land area: 8,456,510 km2; includes
Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade,
Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than the US


_#_Land boundaries: 14,691 km total; Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia
3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km,
Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km,
Venezuela 2,200 km


_#_Coastline: 7,491 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Paraguay (just west of
Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) is in dispute; two short
sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute (Arroyo de la
Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of
the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay); has noted possible Latin claims in
Antarctica


_#_Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains,
hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt


_#_Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium,
phosphates, tin, hydropower, gold, platinum, crude oil, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
19%; forest and woodland 67%; other 6%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: recurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in
south; deforestation in Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo


_#_Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries
with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador


_*_People
_#_Population: 155,356,073 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 10 of 89)