United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

. (page 11 of 89)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 11 of 89)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Brazilian(s); adjective - Brazilian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, black,
Amerindian; white 55%, mixed 38%, black 6%, other 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic (nominal) 90%

_#_Language: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

_#_Literacy: 81% (male 82%, female 80%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 57,000,000 (1989 est.); services 42%, agriculture
31%, industry 27%

_#_Organized labor: 13,000,000 dues paying members (1989 est.)

_#_Long-form name: Federative Republic of Brazil

_#_Type: federal republic

_#_Capital: Brasilia

_#_Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado)
and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa,
Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias,
Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para,
Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do
Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao
Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins; note - the former territories of Amapa and
Roraima became states in January 1991

_#_Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

_#_Constitution: 5 October 1988

_#_Legal system: based on Latin codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congresso
Nacional) consists of an upper chamber or Federal Senate (Senado
Federal) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Fernando
Affonso COLLOR de Mello (since 15 March 1990); Vice President
Itamar FRANCO (since 15 March 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president;
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Orestes QUERCIA,
Liberal Front Party (PFL), Hugo NAPOLEAO, president;
Workers' Party (PT), Luis Ignacio (Lula) da SILVA, president;
Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Luiz GONZAGA de Paiva Muniz, president;
Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA, president;
Democratic Social Party (PDS), Amaral NETTO, president;
Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Mario COVAS, president;
Brazilian Communist Party (PCB), Salomao MALINA, secretary general;
Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, president;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Eduardo CAMPOS, president

_#_Suffrage: voluntary at age 16; compulsory between ages 18 and 70;
voluntary at age 70


President - last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17
December 1989 (next to be held November 1994);
results - Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio da SILVA 47%;
note - first free, direct presidential election since 1960;

Senate - last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (81 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 27, PFL 15, PSDB 10,
PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16;

Chamber of Deputies - last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held
November 1994);
results - PMDB 21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%,
other 23.1%;
seats - (503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL 87,
PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40, PTB 35, PT 35, other 109;

_#_Communists: about 30,000

_#_Other political or pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic
Church and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party are critical of
government's social and economic policies

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-19,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Marcilio Marques MOREIRA;
Chancery at 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 745-2700; there are Brazilian Consulates General in Atlanta,
Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, and New York, and Consulates in
Dallas, Houston, and San Francisco;

US - Ambassador Richard MELTON; Embassy at Avenida das Nocoes,
Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal (mailing address is APO Miami 34030);
telephone [55] (6) 321-7272; there are US Consulates General in Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and Consulates in Porto Alegre and Recife

_#_Flag: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a
blue celestial globe with 23 white five-pointed stars (one for each
state) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the
globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO
(Order and Progress)

_#_Overview: The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and
manufacturing sectors, entered the 1990s with declining real growth,
runaway inflation, an unserviceable foreign debt of $122 billion, and
a lack of policy direction. In addition, the economy remained highly
regulated, inward-looking, and protected by substantial trade and
investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and mining facilities
is divided among private interests - including several multinationals - and
the government. Most large agricultural holdings are private, with the
government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts between large
landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent violence.
The government is seeking an IMF standby loan despite several failed
agreements over the past decade. Relations with foreign commercial
banks remain strained because of mounting interest arrears on Brazil's
long-term debt. The Collor government, which assumed office in March
1990, is embarked on an ambitious reform program that seeks to
modernize and reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices,
deregulating the economy, and opening it to increased foreign
competition. A major long-run strength is Brazil's vast natural

_#_GDP: $388 billion, per capita $2,540; real growth rate - 4.6%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,795% (December 1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 4.4% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $36.5 billion; expenditures $48.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $4.6 billion (1988)

_#_Exports: $31.4 billion (1990);

commodities - iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear,

partners - EC 29%, US 23%, Latin America 10%, Japan 7% (1989)

_#_Imports: $20.4 billion (1990);

commodities - crude oil, capital goods, chemical products,
foodstuffs, coal;

partners - US 21%, Middle East and Africa 20%, EC 20%, Latin
America 18%, Japan 7% (1989)

_#_External debt: $122 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 8.9% (1990); accounts
for 35% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 55,773,000 kW capacity; 214,116 million kWh produced,
1,400 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals,
cement, lumber, iron ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts,
metalworking, capital goods, tin

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP; world's largest producer and
exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest
exporter of soybeans; other products - rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef;
self-sufficient in food, except for wheat

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for
domestic consumption; government has a modest eradication program
to control cannabis and coca cultivation

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $9.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion

_#_Currency: cruzeiro (plural - cruzeiros); 1 cruzeiro (Cr$) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: cruzeiros (Cr$) per US$1 - 193.189 (January 1991),
68.300 (1990), 2.834 (1989), 0.26238 (1988), 0.03923 (1987), 0.01366
(1986), 0.00620 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 29,694 km total; 25,268 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,339 km
1.600-meter gauge, 74 km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge,
13 km 0.760-meter gauge; 2,308 km electrified

_#_Highways: 1,448,000 km total; 48,000 km paved, 1,400,000 km gravel
or earth

_#_Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 2,000 km; refined products, 3,804 km; natural
gas, 1,095 km

_#_Ports: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto
Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos

_#_Merchant marine: 263 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,898,838
GRT/9,975,272 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 59 cargo, 1 refrigerated
cargo, 13 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off, 60 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 14
combination ore/oil, 79 bulk, 2 combination bulk; additionally, 2 naval
tanker and 4 military transport are sometimes used commercially

_#_Civil air: 176 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 3,751 total, 3,078 usable; 401 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 22 with runways 2,240-3,659 m; 533
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good system; extensive radio relay facilities;
9.86 million telephones; stations - 1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151
shortwave; 3 coaxial submarine cables 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations with total of 3 antennas; 64 domestic satellite stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines),
Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 40,559,052; 27,364,392 fit for
military service; 1,637,434 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 2.6% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_British Indian Ocean Territory
(dependent territory of the UK)
_#_Total area: 60 km2; land area: 60 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 698 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius

_#_Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)

_#_Natural resources: coconuts, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: archipelago of 2,300 islands

_#_Note: Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies
strategic location in central Indian Ocean

_#_Population: no permanent civilian population; formerly about 3,000

_#_Ethnic divisions: civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois,
evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK and US defense

_#_Long-form name: British Indian Ocean Territory (no short-form
name); abbreviated BIOT

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: none


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government - Commissioner and Administrator R. EDIS
(since NA 1988); note - resides in the UK

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory
of the UK)

_#_Flag: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and
yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

_#_Overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest
island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
Construction projects and various services needed to support the military
installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK and
the US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the

_#_Electricity: provided by the US military

_#_Highways: short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on
Diego Garcia

_#_Ports: Diego Garcia

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways over 3,659 m on Diego

_#_Telecommunications: minimal facilities; stations (operated by the
US Navy) - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
[email protected]_British Virgin Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_#_Total area: 150 km2; land area: 150 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Coastline: 80 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep,

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
33%; forest and woodland 7%; other 33%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July
to October

_#_Note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

_#_Population: 12,396 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - British Virgin Islander(s); adjective - British
Virgin Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: black over 90%, remainder of white and Asian

_#_Religion: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of
God 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

_#_Language: English (official)

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970)

_#_Labor force: 4,911 (1980)

_#_Organized labor: NA% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Road Town

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: 1 June 1977

_#_Legal system: English law

_#_National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor John Mark Ambrose HERDMAN (since NA 1986);

Head of Government - Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO;
Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity STOUTT;
Independent People's Movement (IPM), Cyril B. ROMNEY

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Legislative Council - last held 12 November 1990 (next to be
held by November 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (9 total) VIP 6, IPM 1, independent 2

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB, ECLAC (associate), IOC,
OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word
VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

_#_Overview: The economy is highly dependent on the tourist industry,
which generates about 21% of the national income. In 1985 the government
offered offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in
the islands, and, in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2
million in 1987. Livestock raising is the most significant agricultural
activity. The islands' crops, limited by poor soils, are unable to meet
food requirements.

_#_GDP: $106.7 million, per capita $8,900; real growth rate 2.5%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.0% (1987)

_#_Unemployment rate: NEGL%

_#_Budget: revenues $32.8 million; expenditures $32.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $6.3 million (FY90)

_#_Exports: $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals;

partners - Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

_#_Imports: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities - building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs,

partners - Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

_#_External debt: $4.5 million (1985)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 4.0% (1985)

_#_Electricity: 10,500 kW capacity; 43 million kWh produced,
3,510 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center

_#_Agriculture: livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Highways: 106 km motorable roads (1983)

_#_Ports: Road Town

_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
less than 1,220 m

_#_Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone
service; submarine cable communication links to Bermuda; stations - 1 AM,
no FM, 1 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
[email protected]_Brunei
_#_Total area: 5,770 km2; land area: 5,270 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

_#_Land boundary: 381 km with Malaysia

_#_Coastline: 161 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides
the country

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

_#_Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly
lowland in west

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, timber

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 79%; other 18%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

_#_Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking
Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia;
almost an enclave of Malaysia

_#_Population: 397,777 (July 1991), growth rate 6.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 45 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Bruneian(s); adjective - Bruneian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

_#_Religion: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

_#_Language: Malay (official), English, and Chinese

_#_Literacy: 77% (male 85%, female 69%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 89,000 (includes members of the Army); 33% of labor
force is foreign (1988); government 47.5%; production of oil, natural
gas, services, and construction 41.9%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing
3.8% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: 2% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Negara Brunei Darussalam

_#_Type: constitutional sultanate

_#_Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah,
singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

_#_Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended
under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since
independence on 1 January 1984)

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law

_#_National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

_#_Executive branch: sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council
(Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - Sultan and Prime Minister
Sir Muda HASSANAL BOLKIAH Muizzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman;
Brunei National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and now
banned), leader NA

_#_Suffrage: none


Legislative Council - last held in March 1962; in 1970
the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan
and no elections are planned

_#_Communists: probably none

ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dato Paduka Haji Mohamed SUNI
bin Haji Idris; Chancery at 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 342-0159;

US - Ambassador Christopher H. PHILLIPS; Embassy at Third Floor,
Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan (mailing address
is P. O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan and Box B, APO San Francisco,
96528); telephone [673] (2) 229-670

_#_Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double
width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem
in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent
above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

_#_Overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic
entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and
village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of
crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector
accounting for more than 50% of GDP. Per capita GDP of $9,600
is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from
overseas investment supplements domestic production. The government
provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

_#_GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $9,600; real growth rate
2.7% (1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment: 2.5%, shortage of skilled labor (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $230 million (1988 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products;

partners - Japan 60%, Thailand 10%, Singapore 4% (1988)

_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - machinery and transport equipment, manufactured
goods, food, chemicals;

partners - Singapore 36%, UK 26%, Switzerland 7%, US 7%, Japan 6%

_#_External debt: none

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for
52.4% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced,
2,400 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, liquefied natural gas, construction

_#_Agriculture: imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops
and livestock include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $143.7 million

_#_Currency: Bruneian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Bruneian dollar
(B$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.7454 (January
1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774
(1986), 2.2002 (1985); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 11 of 89)