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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 53 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Cameroonian(s); adjective - Cameroonian

_#_Ethnic divisions: over 200 tribes of widely differing background;
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%,
Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%,
non-African less than 1%

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

_#_Language: English and French (official), 24 major African language

_#_Literacy: 54% (male 66%, female 43%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%,
other services 14.2% (1983); 50% of population of working age (15-64
years) (1985)

_#_Organized labor: under 45% of wage labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cameroon

_#_Type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
parties legalized 1990)

_#_Capital: Yaounde

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

_#_Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under
French administration; formerly French Cameroon)

_#_Constitution: 20 May 1972

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982);

Head of Government interim Prime Minister Sadou HAYATOU (since
25 April 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic
Movement (RDPC), Paul BIYA, president, is government-controlled and was
formerly the only party; 17 parties formed by 1 May 1991

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


President - last held 24 April 1988 (next to be held April 1993);
results - President Paul BIYA reelected without opposition;

National Assembly - last held 24 April 1988 (next to be
held by the end of 1992);
results - RDPC was the only party;
seats - (180 total) RDPC 180

_#_Communists: no Communist party or significant number of

_#_Other political or pressure groups: NA

_#_Member of: ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul PONDI; Chancery at
2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-8790 through 8794;

US - Ambassador Frances D. COOK; Embassy at Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
(mailing address is B. P. 817, Yaounde); telephone [237] 234014; there is
a US Consulate General in Douala

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and
yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

_#_Overview: Over the past decade the economy has registered a
remarkable performance because of the development of an offshore oil
industry. Real GDP growth annually averaged 10% from 1978 to 1985. In
1986 Cameroon had one of the highest levels of income per capita in
tropical Africa, with oil revenues picking up the slack as growth in
other sectors softened. Because of the sharp drop in oil prices, however,
the economy experienced serious budgetary difficulties and
balance-of-payments disequilibrium. Despite the recent upsurge in oil
prices, Cameroon's economic outlook is troubled. Oil reserves currently
being exploited will be depleted in the early 1990s, so ways must be
found to boost agricultural and industrial exports in the medium term.
The Sixth Cameroon Development Plan (1986-91) stresses balanced
development and designates agriculture as the basis of the country's
economic future.

_#_GDP: $11.5 billion, per capita $1,040; real growth rate 0.7%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (FY88)

_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (FY89)

_#_Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - petroleum products 56%, coffee, cocoa, timber,

partners - EC (particularly the French) about 50%, US 10%

_#_Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - machines and electrical equipment, transport equipment,
chemical products, consumer goods;

partners - France 41%, Germany 9%, US 4%

_#_External debt: $4.9 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 6.4% (FY87); accounts
for 30% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 752,000 kW capacity; 2,940 million kWh produced,
270 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: crude oil products, food processing, light consumer
goods industries textiles, sawmills

_#_Agriculture: the agriculture and forestry sectors provide
employment for the majority of the population, contributing nearly 25%
to GDP and providing a high degree of self-sufficiency in staple foods;
commercial and food crops include coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton, rubber,
bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock, root starches

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $440
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $125 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs
(CFAF) per US$1 - 256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989),
297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Railroads: 1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km
0.600-meter gauge

_#_Highways: about 65,000 km total; includes 2,682 km bituminous,
30,000 km unimproved earth, 32,318 km gravel, earth, and improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

_#_Ports: Douala

_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT

_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 60 total, 52 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 21 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter,
and radio relay; 26,000 telephones; stations - 10 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force; paramilitary

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,628,909; 1,324,899 fit for
military service; 125,421 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $219 million, 1.7% of GDP (1990 est.)
[email protected]_Canada
_#_Total area: 9,976,140 km2; land area: 9,220,970 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than US

_#_Land boundaries: 8,893 km with US (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

_#_Coastline: 243,791 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with France (Saint Pierre and
Miquelon) and US

_#_Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in

_#_Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in

_#_Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, crude oil, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 3%; forest and woodland 35%; other 57%; includes NEGL%

_#_Environment: 80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US
border; continuous permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development

_#_Note: second-largest country in world (after USSR); strategic
location between USSR and US via north polar route

_#_Population: 26,835,036 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Canadian(s); adjective - Canadian

_#_Ethnic divisions: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%,
other European 20%, indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%

_#_Language: English and French (both official)

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981 est.)

_#_Labor force: 13,380,000; services 75%, manufacturing 14%,
agriculture 4%, construction 3%, other 4% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 30.6% of labor force; 39.6% of nonagricultural
paid workers

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Ottawa

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland,
Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

_#_Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to
Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

_#_Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or House of Commons
(Chambre des Communes)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Raymond John HNATSHYN (since 29 January

Head of Government - Prime Minister (Martin) Brian MULRONEY (since
4 September 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Donald Frank MAZANKOWSKI (since
NA June 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Conservative, Brian MULRONEY;
Liberal, Jean CHRETIEN;
New Democratic, Audrey McLAUGHLIN

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Commons - last held 21 November 1988 (next to be
held by November 1993);
results - Progressive Conservative 43.0%, Liberal 32%,
New Democratic Party 20%, other 5%;
seats - (295 total) Progressive Conservative 159, Liberal 80, New
Democratic Party 44, independent 12

_#_Communists: 3,000

_#_Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Derek BURNEY; Chancery at
1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
785-1400; there are Canadian Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston,
Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis,
New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Seattle;

US - Ambassador Edward N. NEY; Embassy at 100 Wellington Street,
K1P 5T1, Ottawa (mailing address is P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY
13669-0430); telephone (613) 248-25256, 25106, 25271, and 25170; there
are US Consulates General in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
and Vancouver

_#_Flag: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double
width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

_#_Overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada
today closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented
economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II the
impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has
transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily
industrial and urban. In the 1980s Canada registered one of the highest
rates of real growth among the OECD nations, averaging about 3.2%. With
its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital
plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects. In mid-1990, however, the
long-simmering problems between English- and French-speaking areas
became so acute that observers spoke openly of a possible split in the
confederation; foreign investors were becoming edgy.

_#_GDP: $516.7 billion, per capita $19,500; real growth rate 0.9%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 8.1% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $105.8 billion; expenditures $131.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $126.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - newsprint, wood pulp, timber, grain, crude petroleum,
machinery, natural gas, ferrous and nonferrous ores, motor vehicles
and parts;

partners - US, Japan, UK, FRG, other EC, USSR

_#_Imports: $116.3 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - processed foods, beverages, crude petroleum,
chemicals, industrial machinery, motor vehicles and parts, durable
consumer goods, electronic computers;

partners - US, Japan, UK, FRG, other EC, Taiwan, South Korea, Mexico

_#_External debt: $247 billion (1987)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 2.7% (1990); accounts for 34%
of GDP

_#_Electricity: 105,000,000 kW capacity; 500,000 million kWh produced,
18,840 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products,
wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
products, petroleum and natural gas

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major
producers and exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US
agricultural imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land
area; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric
tons, of which 75% is exported

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic
drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant
large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors

_#_Economic aid: donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2

_#_Currency: Canadian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Canadian dollar
(Can$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.1559
(January 1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260
(1987), 1.3895 (1986), 1.3655 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 93,544 km total; two major transcontinental freight
railway systems - Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian
Pacific Railway; passenger service - VIA (government operated)

_#_Highways: 884,272 km total; 712,936 km surfaced (250,023 km paved),
171,336 km earth

_#_Inland waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

_#_Pipelines: oil, 23,564 km total crude and refined; natural gas,
74,980 km

_#_Ports: Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick),
Saint John's (Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver

_#_Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 532,062
GRT/727,118 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 2
passenger-cargo, 13 cargo, 2 railcar carrier, 1 refrigerated cargo, 8
roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 8 bulk; note - does not
include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes

_#_Civil air: 636 major transport aircraft; Air Canada is the major

_#_Airports: 1,397 total, 1,154 usable; 443 with permanent-surface
runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 328
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent service provided by modern media;
18.0 million telephones; stations - 900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters)
TV; 5 coaxial submarine cables; over 300 earth stations operating in
INTELSAT (including 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Canadian Armed Forces (including Mobile Command,
Maritime Command, Air Command, Communications Command, Canadian Forces
Europe, Training Commands), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 7,243,909; 6,297,520 fit for
military service; 188,996 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $11.3 billion, 2% of GDP (FY90)
[email protected]_Cape Verde
_#_Total area: 4,030 km2; land area: 4,030 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 965 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: temperate; warm, dry, summer precipitation very erratic

_#_Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

_#_Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin,

_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 85%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can
obscure visibility; volcanically and seismically active; deforestation;

_#_Note: strategic location 500 km from African coast near major
north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea
and air refueling site

_#_Population: 386,501 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 63 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 63 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Cape Verdean(s); adjective - Cape Verdean

_#_Ethnic divisions: Creole (mulatto) about 71%, African 28%, European

_#_Religion: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

_#_Language: Portuguese and Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West
African words

_#_Literacy: 66% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1989 est.)

_#_Labor force: 102,000 (1985 est.); agriculture (mostly subsistence)
57%, services 29%, industry 14% (1981); 51% of population of working age

_#_Organized labor: Trade Unions of Cape Verde Unity Center (UNTC-CS)

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cape Verde

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Praia

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos,
singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto
Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau,
Sao Vicente, Tarrafal

_#_Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

_#_Constitution: 7 September 1980; amended 12 February 1981,
NA December 1988, and 28 September 1990 (legalized opposition parties)

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy minister,
secretaries of state, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's National Assembly
(Assembleia Nacional Popular)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de


Chief of State - President Antonio Mascarenhas MONTEIRO (since
22 March 1991);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA (since
13 January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and
African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro
Verona Rodrigues PIRES, chairman

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held
February 1996);
results - Antonio Mascarenhas MONTEIRO (MPD) received 72.6% of vote;

People's National Assembly - last held 13 January 1991 (next
to be held January 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (79 total) MPD 56, PAICV 23; note - this multiparty Assembly
election ended 15 years of single-party rule

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Luis de Matos Monteiro da
FONSECA; Chancery at 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007;
telephone (202) 965-6820; there is a Cape Verdean Consulate General in

US - Ambassador Francis T. (Terry) McNAMARA; Embassy at Rua Hojl Ya
Yenna 81, Praia (mailing address is C. P. 201, Praia); telephone
[238] 614-363 or 614-253

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with
a vertical red band on the hoist side; in the upper portion of the red
band is a black five-pointed star framed by two corn stalks and a
yellow clam shell; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia;
similar to the flag of Guinea-Bissau which is longer and has an
unadorned black star centered in the red band

_#_Overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural
resource base, a 17-year drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is
service oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services
accounting for 65% of GDP during the period 1985-88. Although nearly
70% of the population lives in rural areas, agriculture's share of GDP is
only 16%; the fishing sector accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be
imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully
exploited. In 1988 fishing represented only 3.5% of GDP. Cape Verde
annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances from
emigrants and foreign aid.

_#_GDP: $262 million, per capita $740; real growth rate 3.2%
(1988 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.2% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $98.3 million; expenditures $138.4
million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

_#_Exports: $10.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - fish, bananas, salt;

partners - Portugal, Angola, Algeria, France, Italy

_#_Imports: $107.8 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - petroleum, foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial

partners - Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, France, Brazil, FRG

_#_External debt: $150 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 18% (1988 est.); accounts for
7% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 13,000 kW capacity; 15 million kWh produced,
40 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industry: fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship
repair, construction materials, food and beverage production

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP; largely subsistence farming;
bananas are the only export crop; other crops - corn, beans, sweet
potatoes, coffee; growth potential of agricultural sector limited by
poor soils and limited rainfall; annual food imports required; fish catch
provides for both domestic consumption and small exports

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-89), $88
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $590 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $36 million

_#_Currency: Cape Verdean escudo (plural - escudos); 1 Cape Verdean
escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per
US$1 - 64.10 (November 1990), 74.86 (December 1989), 72.01 (1988), 72.5
(1987), 76.56 (1986), 85.38 (1985)

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 14 of 89)