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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Ports: Mindelo and Praia

_#_Merchant marine: 7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,708
GRT/19,000 DWT

_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft (4 owned, 1 leased)

_#_Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: interisland radio relay system, high-frequency
radio to mainland Portugal and Guinea-Bissau; 1,740 telephones;
stations - 5 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP) - Army and
Navy are separate components of FARP; Militia, Security Service

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 70,771; 41,844 fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $15 million, 11% of GDP (1981)
[email protected]_Cayman Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_#_Total area: 260 km2; land area: 260 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 160 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

_#_Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

_#_Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
8%; forest and woodland 23%; other 69%

_#_Environment: within the Caribbean hurricane belt

_#_Note: important location between Cuba and Central America

_#_Population: 27,489 (July 1991), growth rate 4.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 33 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 80 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Caymanian(s); adjective - Caymanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: 40% mixed, 20% white, 20% black, 20% expatriates
of various ethnic groups

_#_Religion: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational),
Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)

_#_Labor force: 8,061; service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%,
construction 12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business
managers 5.9% (1979)

_#_Organized labor: Global Seaman's Union; Cayman All Trade Union

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: George Town

_#_Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland,
South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Legal system: British common law and local statutes

_#_Constitution: 1959, revised 1972

_#_National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July), 1 July

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Alan James SCOTT (since NA 1987);

Head of Government - Governor and President of the Executive Council
Alan James SCOTT (since NA 1987)

_#_Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Legislative Assembly - last held NA November 1988 (next to be held
November 1992); results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (15 total, 12 elected)

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: CDB, IOC

_#_Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK,
Caymanian interests in the US are represented by the UK;

US - none

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half
of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a
shield with three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at
the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

_#_Overview: The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP
and 75% of export earnings) and offshore financial services, with
the tourist industry aimed at the luxury market and catering
mainly to visitors from North America. About 90% of the islands' food and
consumer goods needs must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the
highest standards of living in the region.

_#_GDP: $342 million, per capita $13,670 (1989); real growth
rate 15% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $76 million; expenditures $56 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

_#_Exports: $1.5 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities - turtle products, manufactured consumer goods;

partners - mostly US

_#_Imports: $136 million (c.i.f., 1987 est.);

commodities - foodstuffs, manufactured goods;

partners - US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

_#_External debt: $15 million (1986)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 74,000 kW capacity; 256 million kWh produced,
9,710 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
building materials, furniture making

_#_Agriculture: minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock;
turtle farming

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $26.7
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $35.0 million

_#_Currency: Caymanian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Caymanian dollar
(CI$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 1.20 (fixed

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Highways: 160 km of main roads

_#_Ports: George Town, Cayman Brac

_#_Merchant marine: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 372,732
GRT/604,395 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 6 cargo, 7 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 6 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
2 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas carrier, 9 bulk; note - a flag of
convenience registry

_#_Airports: 3 total; 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1
submarine coaxial cable and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to
link islands and access international services; stations - 2 AM, 1 FM,
no TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
[email protected]_Central African Republic
_#_Total area: 622,980 km2; land area: 622,980 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,203 km total; Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km,
Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

_#_Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills
in northeast and southwest

_#_Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 64%; other 28%

_#_Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas;
poaching has diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges;

_#_Note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

_#_Population: 2,952,382 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 138 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 49 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Central African(s); adjective - Central African

_#_Ethnic divisions: about 80 ethnic groups, the majority of which
have related ethnic and linguistic characteristics; Baya 34%, Banda 27%,
Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%; 6,500 Europeans, of whom
3,600 are French

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic
25%, Muslim 15%, other 11%; animistic beliefs and practices strongly
influence the Christian majority

_#_Language: French (official); Sangho (lingua franca and national
language); Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

_#_Literacy: 27% (male 33%, female 15%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 775,413 (1986 est.); agriculture 85%, commerce and
services 9%, industry 3%, government 3%; about 64,000 salaried workers;
55% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 1% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Central African Republic (no short-form name);
abbreviated CAR

_#_Type: republic, one-party presidential regime since 1986

_#_Capital: Bangui

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
singular - prefecture) and 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures
economiques, singular - prefecture economique); Bamingui-Bangoran,
Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou,
Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka,
Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga; note - there may be a new
autonomous commune of Bangui

_#_Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France; formerly Central African

_#_Constitution: 21 November 1986

_#_Legal system: based on French law

_#_National holiday: National Day (proclamation of the republic),
1 December (1958)

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale) advised by the Economic and Regional Council (Conseil
Economique et Regional); when they sit together this is known
as the Congress (Congres)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State and Head of Government - President
Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA (since 1 September 1981)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - Centrafrican Democrtic
Rally Party (RDC), Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


President - last held 21 November 1986 (next to be held November
results - President KOLINGBA was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly - last held 31 July 1987 (next to be
held July 1992);
results - RDC is the only party;
seats - (52 total) RDC 52

_#_Communists: small number of Communist sympathizers


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jean-Pierre SOHAHONG-KOMBET;
Chancery at 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
483-7800 or 7801;

US - Ambassador Daniel H. SIMPSON; Embassy at Avenue du President
David Dacko, Bangui (mailing address is B. P. 924, Bangui);
telephone 61-02-00 or 61-25-78, 61-43-33

_#_Flag: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and
yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed
star on the hoist side of the blue band

_#_Overview: The Central African Republic (CAR) had a per capita
income of roughly $440 in 1990. Subsistence agriculture, including
forestry, is the backbone of the economy, with over 70% of the population
living in the countryside. In 1988 the agricultural sector generated
about 40% of GDP. Agricultural products accounted for about 60% of export
earnings and the diamond industry for 30%. Important constraints to
economic development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor
transportation infrastructure, and a weak human resource base.
Multilateral and bilateral development assistance plays a major role in
providing capital for new investment.

_#_GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $440; real growth rate 2.0%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 4.2% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 30% in Bangui (1988 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $132 million; current expenditures $305 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $148 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco;

partners - France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US

_#_Imports: $239 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities - food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery,
electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
consumer goods, industrial products;

partners - France, other EC, Japan, Algeria, Yugoslavia

_#_External debt: $671 million (December 1989)

_#_Industrial production: 0.8% (1988); accounts for 12% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 84 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles,
footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; self-sufficient in food
production except for grain; commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco,
timber; food crops - manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $38 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1 - 256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 22,000 km total; 458 km bituminous, 10,542 km improved
earth, 11,000 unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 66 total, 49 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system; network relies primarily on radio
relay links, with low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used;
6,000 telephones; stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Central African Armed Forces, Air Force, National
Gendarmerie, Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 659,802; 345,049 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $23 million, 1.8% of GDP (1989 est.)
[email protected]_Chad
_#_Total area: 1,284,000 km2; land area: 1,259,200 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of

_#_Land boundaries: 5,968 km total; Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African
Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan
1,360 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Disputes: Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou
Strip in the far north; demarcation of international boundaries in
Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past,
is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and

_#_Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

_#_Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains
in northwest, lowlands in south

_#_Natural resources: crude oil (unexploited but exploration
beginning), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 36%; forest and woodland 11%; other 51%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
drought and desertification adversely affecting south; subject to plagues
of locusts

_#_Note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body
in the Sahel

_#_Population: 5,122,467 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 22 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 134 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 39 years male, 41 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Chadian(s); adjective - Chadian

_#_Ethnic divisions: some 200 distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are
Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi,
Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba) in the north and center and non-Muslims
(Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa) in the south;
some 150,000 nonindigenous, of whom 1,000 are French

_#_Religion: Muslim 44%, Christian 33%, indigenous beliefs, animism

_#_Language: French and Arabic (official); Sara and Sango in south;
more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken

_#_Literacy: 30% (male 42%, female 18%) age 15 and over can
read and write French or Arabic (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture (engaged in unpaid subsistence
farming, herding, and fishing) 85%

_#_Organized labor: about 20% of wage labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Chad

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: N'Djamena

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti,
Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental,
Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

_#_Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990;
Provisional National Charter 1 March 1991

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian
customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: NA

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of State (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: the National Consultative Council (Conseil
National Consultatif) was disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by
the Provisional Council of the Republic; 30 members appointed by
President DEBY on 8 March 1991

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal


Chief of State - Col. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Jean LINGUE Bawoyeu
(since 8 March 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS;
former dissident group), Idriss DEBY, chairman; President DEBY has
promised political pluralism, a new constitution, and free elections by
September 1993; numerous dissident groups

_#_Suffrage: universal at age NA


President - last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held NA);
results - President Hissein HABRE was elected without opposition;
note - the government of then President HABRE fell on 1 December 1990
and Idriss DEBY seized power on 3 December 1990;

National Consultative Council - last held 8 July 1990;
disbanded 3 December 1990

_#_Communists: no front organizations or underground party; probably a
few Communists and some sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: NA

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mahamat Ali ADOUM; Chancery
at 2002 R Steet NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-4009;

US - Ambassador Richard W. BOGOSIAN; Embassy at Avenue Felix
Eboue, N'Djamena (mailing address is B. P. 413, N'Djamena); telephone
[235] (51) 62-18, 40-09

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of
Andorra which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield
centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

_#_Overview: The climate, geographic location, and lack of
infrastructure and natural resources potential make Chad one of the most
underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is burdened by
the ravages of civil war, conflict with Libya, drought, and food
shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its 1977 level, with cotton,
the major cash crop, accounting for 48% of exports. Over 80%
of the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing.
Industry is based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural
products, including cotton, sugarcane, and cattle. Chad is highly
dependent on foreign aid, with its economy in trouble and many regions
suffering from shortages. Oil companies are exploring areas north of
Lake Chad and in the Doba basin in the south.

_#_GDP: $1,015 million, per capita $205; real growth rate 0.9% (1989

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 4.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA

_#_Budget: revenues $78 million; expenditures $127 million, not
including capital expenditures that are mostly financed by foreign
aid donors (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $174 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish;

partners - France, Nigeria, Cameroon

_#_Imports: $264 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - machinery and transportation equipment 39%,
industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%;
note - excludes military equipment;

partners - US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon

_#_External debt: $530 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.); accounts for
nearly 15% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 38,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 14 kWh
per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron
(sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence
farming; cotton most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum,
millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats,
camels; self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $80 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1 - 256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 31,322 km total; 32 km bituminous; 7,300 km gravel and
laterite; remainder unimproved

_#_Inland waterways: 2,000 km navigable

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 70 total, 54 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of radiocommunication stations for
intercity links; 5,000 telephones; stations - 3 AM, 1 FM, limited TV
service; many facilities are inoperative; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Patriotic Salvation Force (FPS; Army, Air Force),
paramilitary Gendarmerie, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,188,222; 616,932 fit for
military service; 51,713 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $39 million, 4.3% of GDP (1988)
[email protected]_Chile
_#_Total area: 756,950 km2; land area: 748,800 km2; includes Isla de

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 15 of 89)