Copyright
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

. (page 16 of 89)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 16 of 89)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana


_#_Land boundaries: 6,171 km total; Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia
861 km, Peru 160 km


_#_Coastline: 6,435 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is
indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South
Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884;
dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial claim in
Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine
claim


_#_Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south


_#_Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged
Andes in east


_#_Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
metals, molybdenum


_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 16%; forest and woodland 21%; other 56%; includes irrigated
2%


_#_Environment: subject to severe earthquakes, active volcanism,
tsunami; Atacama Desert one of world's driest regions; desertification


_#_Note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage)


_*_People
_#_Population: 13,286,620 (July 1991), growth rate 1.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 77 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Chilean(s); adjective - Chilean


_#_Ethnic divisions: European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%,
other 2%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, and small Jewish
population


_#_Language: Spanish


_#_Literacy: 93% (male 94%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 3,840,000; services 38.6% (includes government 12%)
38.6%; industry and commerce 31.3%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing
15.9%; mining 8.7%; construction 4.4% (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 11% of labor force (1990)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Chile


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Santiago


_#_Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones,
singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo,
Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador
General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica
Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso;
note - the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica


_#_Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981;
amended 30 July 1989


_#_Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review
of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)


_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso
Nacional) consisting of an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a lower
house or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Patricio
AYLWIN (since 11 March 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Concertation of Parties for Democracy now consists mainly of six
parties - Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Andres ZALDIVAR;
Party for Democracy (PPD), Erich SCHNAKE;
Radical Party (PR), Mario ASTORGA;
Democratic Socialist Radical Party (PRSD), Jorge IBANEZ;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Rene ABELIUK; and
Socialist Party, Jorge ARRATE;
National Renovation (RN), Andres ALLAMAND;
Independent Democratic Union (UDI), Joaquin LAVIN;
Communist Party of Chile (PCCh), Volodia TEITELBOIM;
Movement of Revolutionary Left (MIR) is splintered, no single
leader


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December
1993 or January 1994);
results - Patricio AYLWIN (PDC) 55.2%, Hernan BUCHI 29.4%, other 15.4%;

Senate - last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December
1993 or January 1994); seats - (46 total, 38 elected)
Concertation of Parties for Democracy 22 (PDC 13, PPD 5, PR 2, PSD 1,
PRSD 1), RN 6, UDI 2, independents 8;

Chamber of Deputies - last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held
December 1993 or January 1994); seats - (120 total)
Concertation of Parties for Democracy 72 (PDC 38, PPD 17, PR 5, other
12), RN 29, UDI 11, right-wing independents 8


_#_Communists: The PCCh is currently in the process of regaining
legal party status and has less than 60,000 members


_#_Other political or pressure groups: revitalized university student
federations at all major universities dominated by opposition political
groups; labor - United Labor Central (CUT) includes trade unionists from
the country's five-largest labor confederations; Roman Catholic Church


_#_Member of: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Patricio SILVA Echenique;
Chancery at 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone
(202) 785-1746; there are Chilean Consulates General in Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco;

US - Ambassador Charles A. GILLESPIE, Jr.; Embassy at Codina
Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago (mailing address is APO Miami 34033);
telephone [56] (2) 710133 or 710190, 710326, 710375


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a
blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of
the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center;
design was based on the US flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: In 1990 economic growth slowed from an average of 6.2%
for the previous six years to about 1.5% as a result of tight monetary
policy aimed at reducing inflation. Monetary policy was not
successful at slowing price increases until the end of the year,
however, and inflation, stimulated by higher world oil prices,
increased to 27.3% in 1990 from 21.4% in 1989. Copper prices held strong
in 1990, helping to maintain a balance-of-payments surplus and increase
international reserves. Most observers expect that inflationary
pressures have run their course and price increases will slow during
1991, contributing to growth of 4-5%.


_#_GDP: $26 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate 2.0% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27.3% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5.6% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $6.6 billion; expenditures $7.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $575 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - copper 48%, industrial products 33%, molybdenum,
iron ore, wood pulp, fishmeal, fruits;

partners - EC 34%, US 22%, Japan 10%, Brazil 7%


_#_Imports: $7.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - petroleum, wheat, capital goods, spare parts, raw
materials;

partners - EC 23%, US 20%, Japan 10%, Brazil 9%


_#_External debt: $18.4 billion (February 1991)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1990);
accounts for 30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 4,138,000 kW capacity; 17,784 million kWh produced,
1,360 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing,
iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
textiles


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 8% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); major exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major
crops - wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous
fruit; livestock products - beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most
foods; 1986 fish catch of 5.6 million metric tons net agricultural
importer


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.4 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $386 million


_#_Currency: Chilean peso (plural - pesos);
1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 337.24 (January
1991), 305.06 (1990), 267.16 (1989), 245.05 (1988), 219.54 (1987), 193.02
(1986), 161.08 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 8,613 km total; 4,257 km 1.676-meter gauge, 135 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 4,221 km 1.000-meter gauge; electrification,
1,865 km 1.676-meter gauge, 80 km 1.000-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 79,025 km total; 9,913 km paved, 33,140 km gravel,
35,972 km improved and unimproved earth (1984)


_#_Inland waterways: 725 km


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 755 km; refined products, 785 km;
natural gas, 320 km


_#_Ports: Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas,
Valparaiso, San Antonio, Talcahuano, Arica


_#_Merchant marine: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 485,935
GRT/800,969 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 9 bulk;
note - in addition, 2 naval tanker and 2 military transport are sometimes
used commercially


_#_Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 392 total, 353 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
55 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: modern telephone system based on extensive
radio relay facilities; 768,000 telephones; stations - 159 AM, no FM,
131 TV, 11 shortwave; satellite stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3
domestic


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air
and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National
Police)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 3,544,962; 2,647,148 fit for
military service; 119,511 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $737 million, 3% of GNP (1991 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_China
(also see separate Taiwan entry)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 9,596,960 km2; land area: 9,326,410 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than the US


_#_Land boundaries: 23,213.34 km total; Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan
470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, North Korea
1,416 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km,
Pakistan 523 km, USSR 7,520 km, Vietnam 1,281 km


_#_Coastline: 14,500 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea
and Yellow Sea

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under
way to resolve disputed sections of the boundary with the USSR; a short
section of the boundary with North Korea is indefinite; sporadic border
clashes with Vietnam; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; maritime
boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands
occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims
Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands)


_#_Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east


_#_Natural resources: coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin,
tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum,
lead, zinc, uranium, world's largest hydropower potential


_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 31%; forest and woodland 14%; other 45%; includes irrigated 5%


_#_Environment: frequent typhoons (about five times per year along
southern and eastern coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes;
deforestation; soil erosion; industrial pollution; water pollution;
air pollution; desertification


_#_Note: world's third-largest country (after USSR and Canada)


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,151,486,981 (July 1991), growth rate 1.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Chinese (sing., pl.); adjective - Chinese


_#_Ethnic divisions: Han Chinese 93.3%; Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi,
Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities
6.7%


_#_Religion: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and
eclectic; most important elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism,
and Buddhism; Muslim 2-3%, Christian 1% (est.)


_#_Language: Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or Mandarin (based on the
Beijing dialect); also Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei
(Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and
minority languages (see ethnic divisions)


_#_Literacy: 73% (male 84%, female 62%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 553,000,000; agriculture and forestry 60%, industry
and commerce 25%, construction and mining 5%, social services 5%,
other 5% (1989 est.)


_#_Organized labor: All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU)
follows the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party; membership over 80
million or about 65% of the urban work force (1985)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: People's Republic of China; abbreviated PRC


_#_Type: Communist Party-led state


_#_Capital: Beijing


_#_Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and
plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3
municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Fujian,
Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan,
Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*,
Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**,
Xinjiang*, Xizang*, Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China considers Taiwan its
23rd province


_#_Independence: unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC,
Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
1912, People's Republic established 1 October 1949


_#_Constitution: 4 December 1982


_#_Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new
legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being
made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law


_#_National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, premier, five vice
premiers, State Council


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto) - DENG
Xiaoping (since mid-1977);

Chief of State - President YANG Shangkun (since 8 April 1988);
Vice President WANG Zhen (since 8 April 1988);

Head of Government - Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since
24 November 1987, Premier since 9 April 1988);
Vice Premier YAO Yilin (since 2 July 1979);
Vice Premier TIAN Jiyun (since 20 June 1983);
Vice Premier WU Xueqian (since 12 April 1988);
Vice Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991);
Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - Chinese Communist Party
(CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee (since
NA June 1989)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held 8 April 1988 (next to be held March 1993);
YANG Shangkun was nominally elected by the Seventh National People's
Congress;

National People's Congress - last held NA March 1988 (next to
be held March 1993); results - CCP is the only party but there are
also independents;
seats - (2,976 total) CCP and independents 2,976 (indirectly elected
at county or xian level)


_#_Communists: 49,000,000 party members (1990 est.)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as
exists consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and
government organization, that vary by issue


_#_Member of: AfDB, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UN Security
Council, UN Trusteeship Council, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ZHU Qizhen; Chancery at
2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 328-2500 through 2502; there are Chinese Consulates
General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco;

US - Ambassador James R. LILLEY; Embassy at Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3,
Beijing (mailing address is 100600, PRC Box 50, Beijing or FPO San
Francisco 96655-0001); telephone [86] (1) 532-3831; there are US
Consulates General in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang


_#_Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller
yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle
of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been
trying to move the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally
planned economy to a more productive and flexible economy with market
elements - but still within the framework of monolithic Communist control.
To this end the authorities have switched to a system of household
responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization,
increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in
industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services
and light manufacturing, and opened the foreign economic sector to
increased trade and joint ventures. The most gratifying result has been a
strong spurt in production, particularly in agriculture in the early
1980s. Otherwise, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid
system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude,
corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation).
Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls
at intervals and thereby undermining the credibility of the reform
process. Popular resistance and changes in central policy have
weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the
nation's long-term economic viability.


_#_GNP: $413 billion (1989 est.), per capita $370 (World Bank est.);
real growth rate 5% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2.6% in urban areas (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA


_#_Exports: $62.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - textiles, garments, telecommunications and recording
equipment, petroleum, minerals;

partners - Hong Kong, US, Japan, USSR, Singapore, FRG (1989)


_#_Imports: $53.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - specialized industrial machinery, chemicals,
manufactured goods, steel, textile yarn, fertilizer;

partners - Hong Kong, Japan, US, FRG, USSR (1989)


_#_External debt: $51 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.6% (1990); accounts
for 45% of GNP


_#_Electricity: 117,580,000 kW capacity; 585,000 million kWh produced,
520 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, consumer durables,
food processing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest
producers of rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley,
and pork; commercial crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds;
produces variety of livestock products; basically self-sufficient in
food; fish catch of 8 million metric tons in 1986


_#_Economic aid: donor - to less developed countries (1970-89) $7.0
billion; US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$13.5 billion


_#_Currency: yuan (plural - yuan); 1 yuan (3) = 10 jiao


_#_Exchange rates: yuan (3) per US$1 - 5.31 (April 1991),
4.7832 (1990), 3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988), 3.7221 (1987), 3.4528
(1986), 2.9367 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: total about 54,000 km common carrier lines; 53,400 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; 600 km 1.000-meter gauge;
all single track except 11,200 km double track on standard-gauge lines;
6,500 km electrified; 10,000 km industrial lines
(gauges range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters)


_#_Highways: about 980,000 km all types roads; 162,000 km paved
roads, 617,200 km gravel/improved earth roads, 200,800 km unimproved
natural earth roads and tracks


_#_Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable


_#_Pipelines: crude, 6,500 km; refined products, 1,100 km; natural
gas, 6,200 km


_#_Ports: Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Xingang, Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou


_#_Merchant marine: 1,421 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
14,010,317 GRT/21,223,170 DWT; includes 24 passenger, 42 short-sea
passenger, 19 passenger-cargo, 7 cargo/training, 776 cargo, 11
refrigerated cargo, 70 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2
multifunction barge carrier, 181 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 250 bulk, 2 liquefied gas, 2 vehicle carrier,
9 combination bulk; note - China beneficially owns an additional 183 ships
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 5,921,000 DWT that operate
under Maltese and Liberian registry


_#_Airports: 330 total, 330 usable; 260 with permanent-surface
runways; fewer than 10 with runways over 3,500 m; 90 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 200 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: domestic and international services are
increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed internal
system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships;
11,000,000 telephones (December 1989); stations - 274 AM, unknown FM,
202 (2,050 relays) TV; more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million
TVs; satellite earth stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT, and 55 domestic


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Chinese People's Liberation Army (CPLA), CPLA Navy
(including Marines), CPLA Air Force, Chinese People's Armed Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 335,382,062; 187,046,680 fit
for military service; 10,967,622 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GNP
_%_
[email protected]_Christmas Island
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 135 km2; land area: 135 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 138.9 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds


_#_Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau


_#_Natural resources: phosphate


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: almost completely surrounded by a reef


_#_Note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 2,278 (July 1991), growth rate NA% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 16 of 89)