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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
The country is not self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the main
staple, accounts for 90% of imports. During the period 1982-86 the
industrial sector grew at an annual average rate of 5.3%, but its
contribution to GDP was only 5% in 1988. Despite major investment in the
tourist industry, which accounts for about 25% of GDP, growth has
stagnated since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of 1.5% during 1985-90 has
led to large budget deficits, declining incomes, and balance-of-payments

_#_GDP: $245 million, per capita $530; real growth rate 1.5% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: over 16% (1988 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $88 million; expenditures $92 million,
including capital expenditures of $13 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $16 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra;

partners - US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)

_#_Imports: $41 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products,
consumer goods;

partners - Europe 62% (France 22%, other 40%), Africa 5%, Pakistan,
China (1988)

_#_External debt: $242 million (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 5% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 16,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced,
55 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry,
construction materials

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in
subsistence agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for
export - vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, and copra; principal food
crops - coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of
ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla; large
net food importer

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $406 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $18 million

_#_Currency: Comoran franc (plural - francs); 1 Comoran franc
(CF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 256.54 (January
1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30
(1986), 449.26 (1985); note - linked to the French franc at 50 to 1 French

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 750 km total; about 210 km bituminous, remainder crushed
stone or gravel

_#_Ports: Mutsamudu, Moroni

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency
radio communication stations for interisland and external communications
to Madagascar and Reunion; over 1,800 telephones; stations - 2 AM, 1 FM,
1 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Comoran Defense Force (FCD), Federal Gendarmerie (GFC)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 101,332; 60,592 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 3% of GDP (1981)
[email protected]_Congo
_#_Total area: 342,000 km2; land area: 341,500 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

_#_Land boundaries: 5,504 km total; Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km,
Central African Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km

_#_Coastline: 169 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Disputes: long section with Zaire along the Congo River is
indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)

_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June
to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
enervating climate astride the Equator

_#_Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern

_#_Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
copper, phosphates, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 29%; forest and woodland 62%; other 7%

_#_Environment: deforestation; about 70% of the population lives in
Brazzaville, Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them

_#_Population: 2,309,444 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 108 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Congolese (sing., pl.); adjective - Congolese
or Congo

_#_Ethnic divisions: about 15 ethnic groups divided into some 75
tribes, almost all Bantu; most important ethnic groups are Kongo (48%) in
the south, Sangha (20%) and M'Bochi (12%) in the north, Teke (17%) in the
center; about 8,500 Europeans, mostly French

_#_Religion: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

_#_Language: French (official); many African languages with Lingala
and Kikongo most widely used

_#_Literacy: 57% (male 70%, female 44%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 79,100 wage earners; agriculture 75%, commerce,
industry, and government 25%; 51% of population of working age; 40% of
population economically active (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force (1979 est.)

_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Congo

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Brazzaville

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions,
singular - region); Bouenza, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala,
Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha; note - there may be a new capital district
of Brazzaville

_#_Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France; formerly

_#_Constitution: 8 July 1979, currently being modified

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

_#_National holiday: National Day, 15 August (1960)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale Populaire)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State - President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 8 February

Head of Government - Prime Minister Brig. Gen. Louis-Sylvain
GOMA (since 9 January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Congolese Labor Party
(PCT), President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, leader; note - multiparty system
legalized, with over 50 parties established

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 26-31 July 1989 (next to be held July 1994);
results - President SASSOU-NGUESSO unanimously reelected leader of the
PCT by the Party Congress, which automatically made him president;

People's National Assembly - last held 24 September 1989 (next
to be held NA 1994); results - PCT was the only party;
seats - (153 total) single list of candidates nominated by the PCT

_#_Communists: unknown number of Communists and sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist
Youth (UJSC), Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC), Revolutionary Union
of Congolese Women (URFC), General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roger ISSOMBO; Chancery at
4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-5500;

US - Ambassador James Daniel PHILLIPS; Embassy at Avenue
Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville (mailing address is B. P. 1015, Brazzaville,
or Box C, APO New York 09662-0006); telephone (242) 83-20-70 or 83-26-24

_#_Flag: red with the national emblem in the upper hoist-side corner;
the emblem includes a yellow five-pointed star above a crossed hoe and
hammer (like the hammer and sickle design) in yellow, flanked by two
curved green palm branches; uses the popular pan-African colors of

_#_Overview: Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the
economy, providing about two-thirds of government revenues and
exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo
to finance large-scale development projects with growth averaging 5%
annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The world decline in
oil prices, however, has forced the government to launch an austerity
program to cope with declining receipts and mounting foreign debts.

_#_GDP: $2.26 billion, per capita $1,050; real growth rate 0.6%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $522 million; expenditures $767 million,
including capital expenditures of $141 million (1989)

_#_Exports: $751 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - crude petroleum 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa,
sugar, diamonds;

partners - US, France, other EC

_#_Imports: $564 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities - foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures,
capital equipment;

partners - France, Italy, other EC, US, FRG, Spain, Japan, Brazil

_#_External debt: $4.5 billion (December 1988)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for
33% of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 133,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced,
130 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: crude oil, cement, sawmills, brewery, sugar mill, palm
oil, soap, cigarettes

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); cassava accounts for 90% of food output; other crops - rice,
corn, peanuts, vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest
products important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $60
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $338 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1 - 256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km
that are privately owned)

_#_Highways: 12,000 km total; 560 km bituminous surface treated;
850 km gravel, laterite; 5,350 km improved earth; 5,240 km unimproved

_#_Inland waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide
1,120 km of commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for
local traffic only

_#_Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

_#_Ports: Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 50 total, 45 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: services adequate for government use; primary
network is composed of radio relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers
are Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones;
stations - 3 AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, paramilitary
National People's Militia, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 509,040; 258,861 fit for
military service; 24,068 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $99 million, 4.6% of GDP (1987 est.)
[email protected]_Cook Islands
(free association with New Zealand)
_#_Total area: 240 km2; land area: 240 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.3 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 120 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or minimum of 200

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 22%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 74%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons from November to March

_#_Note: located 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific Ocean

_#_Population: 17,882 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Cook Islander(s); adjective - Cook Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and
European 7.7%, Polynesian and other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

_#_Religion: Christian, majority of populace members of Cook Islands
Christian Church

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 5,810; agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%,
industry 15%, and other 4% (1981)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook
Islands fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains
responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook

_#_Capital: Avarua

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: became self-governing in free association with
New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to
full independence by unilateral action

_#_Constitution: 4 August 1965

_#_National holiday: NA

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, representative of the UK,
representative of New Zealand, prime minister, deputy prime minister,

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note - the House of
Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has no legislative

_#_Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
Representative of the UK Sir Tangaroa TANGAROA (since NA);
Representative of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK (since NA);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY
(since NA February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since NA
February 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY;
Democratic Tumu Party, Vincent INGRAM;
Democratic Party, Dr. Vincent Pupuke ROBATI;
Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN;
Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


Parliament - last held 19 January 1989 (next to be held by
January 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (24 total) Cook Islands Party 12, Democratic
Tumu Party 2, opposition coalition (including Democratic Party) 9,
independent 1

_#_Member of: AsDB, ESCAP (associate), FAO, ICAO, IOC, SPC,

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing in free association
with New Zealand)

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island)
centered in the outer half of the flag

_#_Overview: Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export
earners are fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are
limited to a fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories.
Economic development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from
foreign markets and a lack of natural resources and good transportation
links. A large trade deficit is annually made up for by remittances from
emigrants and from foreign aid. Current economic development plans call
for exploiting the tourism potential and expanding the fishing industry.

_#_GDP: $40.0 million, per capita $2,200 (1988 est.); real growth rate
5.3% (1986-88 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $34.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing;

partners - NZ 80%, Japan

_#_Imports: $38.7 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities - foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber;

partners - NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 14,000 kW capacity; 21 million kWh produced,
1,170 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fruit processing, tourism

_#_Agriculture: export crops - copra, citrus fruits, pineapples,
tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops - yams, taro

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $128 million

_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars); 1 New Zealand
dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.6798 (January
1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088
(1986), 2.0064 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Highways: 187 km total (1980); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km
improved earth, 33 km unimproved earth

_#_Ports: Avatiu

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 7 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations - 2 AM, no FM, no TV; 10,000 radio
receivers; 2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
[email protected]_Coral Sea Islands
(territory of Australia)
_#_Total area: undetermined; includes numerous small islands and reefs
scattered over a sea area of about 1 million km2, with Willis Islets the
most important

_#_Comparative area: undetermined

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 3,095 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other, mostly grass or scrub cover 100%;
Lihou Reef Reserve and Coringa-Herald Reserve were declared National
Nature Reserves on 3 August 1982

_#_Environment: subject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent
fresh water; important nesting area for birds and turtles

_#_Note: the islands are located just off the northeast coast of
Australia in the Coral Sea

_#_Population: 3 meteorologists (1991)

_#_Long-form name: Coral Sea Islands Territory

_#_Type: territory of Australia administered by the Minister for
Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories Roslyn

_#_Flag: the flag of Australia is used

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorages only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly
by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities
of visitors
[email protected]_Costa Rica
_#_Total area: 51,100 km2; land area: 50,660 km2; includes Isla del

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

_#_Land boundaries: 639 km total; Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

_#_Coastline: 1,290 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season
(May to November)

_#_Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

_#_Natural resources: hydropower potential

_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
45%; forest and woodland 34%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along
Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season;
active volcanoes; deforestation; soil erosion

_#_Population: 3,111,403 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Costa Rican(s); adjective - Costa Rican

_#_Ethnic divisions: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian
1%, Chinese 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%

_#_Language: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

_#_Literacy: 93% (male 93%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 868,300; industry and commerce 35.1%, government and
services 33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 15.1% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Costa Rica

_#_Type: democratic republic

_#_Capital: San Jose

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias,
singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon,
Puntarenas, San Jose

_#_Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 9 November 1949

_#_Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Rafael Angel
CALDERON Fournier (since 8 May 1990); First Vice President German
SERRANO Pinto (since 8 May 1990); Second Vice President Arnoldo LOPEZ
Echandi (since 8 May 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Liberation Party (PLN), Rolando ARAYA Monge;
Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier;
Marxist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell;
New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez;
Progressive Party (PP), Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos;
People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin ChACON Vargas;
Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


President - last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February
results - Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier 51%, Carlos Manuel

Legislative Assembly - last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held
February 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (57 total) PUSC 29, PLN 25, PVP/PPC 1, regional parties 2

_#_Communists: 7,500 members and sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation Party affiliate), Confederated Union
of Workers (CUT; Communist Party affiliate), Authentic Confederation of
Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist Party affiliate), Chamber of Coffee
Growers, National Association for Economic Development (ANFE), Free Costa
Rica Movement (MCRL; rightwing militants), National Association of
Educators (ANDE)

_#_Member of: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer),

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 18 of 89)