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_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda;
Chancery at Suite 211, 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009;
telephone (202) 234-2945 through 2947; there are Costa Rican Consulates
General at Albuquerque, Boston, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans,
New York, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico),
and Tampa, and Consulates in Austin, Buffalo, Honolulu, and Raleigh;

US - Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert O. HOMME;
Embassy at Pavas Road, San Jose (mailing address is APO Miami 34020);
telephone [506] 20-39-39


_#_Flag: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double
width), white, and blue with the coat of arms in a white disk on the
hoist side of the red band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: In 1990 the economy grew at an estimated 3.5%
rate, a decrease from the strong 5.0% gain of the previous year.
Gains in agricultural production (on the strength of good coffee and
banana crops) and in construction, were partially offset by lower
rates of growth for industry. In 1990 consumer prices rose by about 25%
and the trade deficit widened. Unemployment is officially reported at
6%, but much underemployment remains. External debt, on a per
capita basis, is among the world's highest.


_#_GDP: $5.5 billion, per capita $1,810; real growth rate 3.6% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 6% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $831 million; expenditures $1.08 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar;

partners - US 75%, FRG, Guatemala, Netherlands, UK, Japan


_#_Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - petroleum, machinery, consumer durables, chemicals,
fertilizer, foodstuffs;

partners - US 35%, Japan, Guatemala, FRG


_#_External debt: $4.5 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (1990 est.); accounts for
23% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 927,000 kW capacity; 2,987 million kWh produced,
980 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
materials, fertilizer, plastic products


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 20-25% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash
commodities - coffee, beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn,
rice, beans, potatoes; normally self-sufficient in food except for
grain; depletion of forest resources resulting in lower timber output


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit production of cannabis on small scattered
plots; transshipment country for cocaine from South America


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $781 million; Communist countries (1971-88), $27 million


_#_Currency: Costa Rican colon (plural - colones);
1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos


_#_Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 105.82 (January
1991), 91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989), 75.805 (1988), 62.776 (1987), 55.986
(1986), 50.453 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified


_#_Highways: 15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 7,010 km gravel,
1,360 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable


_#_Pipelines: refined products, 176 km


_#_Ports: Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas


_#_Merchant marine: 12 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 2,831 GRT/4,506 DWT


_#_Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 173 total, 159 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: very good domestic telephone service; 292,000
telephones; connection into Central American Microwave System;
stations - 71 AM, no FM, 18 TV, 13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard; note - Constitution
prohibits armed forces


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 807,853; 545,541 fit for
military service; 32,149 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $20 million, 0.4% of GDP (1988)
_%_
[email protected]_Cuba
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 110,860 km2; land area: 110,860 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania


_#_Land boundary: 29.1 km with US Naval Base at Guantanamo;
note - Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba


_#_Coastline: 3,735 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only
mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease


_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November
to April); rainy season (May to October)


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and
mountains in the southeast


_#_Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese,
salt, timber, silica


_#_Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures
23%; forest and woodland 17%; other 31%; includes irrigated 10%


_#_Environment: averages one hurricane every other year


_#_Note: largest country in Caribbean; 145 km south of Florida


_*_People
_#_Population: 10,732,037 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Cuban(s); adjective - Cuban


_#_Ethnic divisions: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%


_#_Religion: 85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed power


_#_Language: Spanish


_#_Literacy: 94% (male 95%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 3,578,800 in state sector; services and government
30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%,
transportation and communications 7% (June 1990); economically active
population 4,620,800 (1988)


_#_Organized labor: Workers Central Union of Cuba (CTC), only labor
federation approved by government; 2,910,000 members; the CTC is an
umbrella organization composed of 17 member unions


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cuba


_#_Type: Communist state


_#_Capital: Havana


_#_Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias,
singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial);
Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma,
Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas,
Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
Clara


_#_Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898;
administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)


_#_Constitution: 24 February 1976


_#_Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large
elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 January (1959)


_#_Executive branch: president of the Council of State, first vice
president of the Council of State, Council of State, president of the
Council of Ministers, first vice president of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of the People's
Power (Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular)


_#_Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President of the Council of
State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz
(became Prime Minister in February 1959 and President since 2 December
1976);
First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President
of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December
1976)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party
(PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 16


_#_Elections:

National Assembly of the People's Power - last held NA December
1986 (next to be held December 1991);
results - PCC is the only party;
seats - (510 total) PCC 510 (indirectly elected)


_#_Communists: about 600,000 full and candidate members


_#_Member of: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC,
ICAO, IFAD, IIB, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation
since 1962), OPANAL (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Switzerland - Cuban Interests Section; Counselor Jose Antonio ARBESU
Fraga; 2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)
797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610;

US - protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section;
Principal Officer Alan H. FLANIGAN; Calzada entre L y M, Vedado Seccion,
Havana (mailing address is USINT, c/o International Purchasing Group,
2052 NW 93rd Avenue, Miami, FL 33172); telephone 329-700


_#_Flag: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist
side bears a white five-pointed star in the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, centrally planned and largely state owned,
is highly dependent on the agricultural sector and foreign trade. Sugar
provides about 75% of export revenues and over half is exported to the
USSR. The economy has stagnated since 1985 under policies that have
deemphasized material incentives in the workplace, abolished farmers'
informal produce markets, and raised prices of government-supplied goods
and services. In 1990 the economy probably fell 3%, largely as a result
of declining trade with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Recently
the government has been trying to increase trade with Latin America and
China. Cuba has had difficulty servicing its foreign debt since 1982. The
government currently is encouraging foreign investment in tourist
facilities. Other investment priorities include sugar, basic foods, and
nickel. The annual $4 billion Soviet subsidy, a main prop to Cuba's
threadbare economy, is likely to show a substantial decline over the
next few years in view of the USSR's mounting economic problems. Instead
of highly subsidized trade, Cuba will be shifting to trade at market
prices in convertible currencies. In early 1991, the shortages of fuels,
spare parts, and industrial products in general had become so severe as
to amount to a deindustrialization process in the eyes of some observers.


_#_GNP: $20.9 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate - 3%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment: 6% overall, 10% for women (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $12.46 billion; expenditures $14.45 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - sugar, nickel, shellfish, citrus, tobacco, coffee;

partners - USSR 67%, GDR 6%, China 4% (1988)


_#_Imports: $8.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - capital goods, industrial raw materials, food,
petroleum;

partners - USSR 71%, other Communist countries 15% (1988)


_#_External debt: $6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)


_#_Industrial production: 3% (1988); accounts for 45% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 3,890,000 kW capacity; 16,267 million kWh produced,
1,530 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco
processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals
(particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural
machinery


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and
forestry); key commercial crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits;
other products - coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest
sugar exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar)


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $695 million; Communist countries (1970-89),
$18.5 billion


_#_Currency: Cuban peso (plural - pesos); 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100
centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (linked to the
US dollar)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 14,925 km total; Cuban National Railways operates
5,295 km of 1.435-meter gauge track; 199 km electrified; 9,630 km of
sugar plantation lines of 0.914-1.435-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 26,477 km total; 14,477 km paved, 12,000 km gravel
and earth surfaced (1989 est.)


_#_Inland waterways: 240 km


_#_Ports: Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba;
7 secondary, 35 minor


_#_Merchant marine: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
638,462 GRT/925,380 DWT; includes 54 cargo, 9 refrigerated cargo, 2
cargo/training, 12 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 6 bulk; note - Cuba beneficially owns
an additional 37 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 512,346 DWT under
the registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta


_#_Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 205 total, 176 usable; 75 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: stations - 150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs;
2,140,000 radios; 229,000 telephones; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (including Ground Forces,
Revolutionary Navy, Air and Air Defense Force), Ministry of Interior
Special Troops, Border Guard Troops, Territorial Militia Troops, Youth
Labor Army, Civil Defense, National Revolutionary Police


_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 6,087,253; of the 3,054,158
males 15-49, 1,914,080 are fit for military service; of the 3,033,095
females 15-49, 1,896,449 are fit for military service; 89,194 males and
85,968 females reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.2-$1.4 billion, 6% of GNP (1989 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_Cyprus
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 9,250 km2; land area: 9,240 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 648 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto
autonomous areas - a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60%
of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island)
that are separated by a narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are two
UK sovereign base areas (about 5% of the island's land area)


_#_Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool,
wet winters


_#_Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south


_#_Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment


_#_Land use: arable land 40%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
10%; forest and woodland 18%; other 25%; includes irrigated 10% (most
irrigated lands are in the Turkish-Cypriot area of the island)


_#_Environment: moderate earthquake activity; water resource problems
(no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and
most potable resources concentrated in the Turkish-Cypriot area)


_*_People
_#_Population: 709,343 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Cypriot(s); adjective - Cypriot


_#_Ethnic divisions: Greek 78%; Turkish 18%; other 4%


_#_Religion: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian,
Apostolic, and other 4%


_#_Language: Greek, Turkish, English


_#_Literacy: 90% (male 96%, female 85%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1976)


_#_Labor force: Greek area - 246,100; services 42%, industry 33%,
agriculture 22%; Turkish area - NA (1989)


_#_Organized labor: 156,000 (1985 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Cyprus


_#_Type: republic; a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities
inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in
1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish
invasion of the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de
facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only
internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish
Cypriot President Rauf Denktash declared independence and the formation
of a Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which has been recognized
only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of
intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of
government


_#_Capital: Nicosia


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia,
Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos


_#_Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for
a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution
and governing bodies within the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which
was renamed the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983; a new
Constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum in May 1985


_#_Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October


_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet);
note - there is a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers
(cabinet) in the Turkish area


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli
Antiprosopon); note - there is a unicameral Assembly of the Republic
(Cumhuriyet Meclisi) in the Turkish area


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court
in the Turkish area


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President George VASSILIOU
(since February 1988); note - Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president
of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Greek Cypriot - Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL;
Communist Party), Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS,
Democratic Rally (DESY), Glafcos CLERIDES;
Democratic Party (DEKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU;
United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDES;
Socialist Democratic Renewal Movement (ADESOK), Pavlos DINGLIS, chairman;
Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS;

Turkish area - National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU;
Communal Liberation Party (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI;
Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR;
New Cyprus Party (NKP), Alpay DURDURAN;
New Dawn Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK;
Free Democratic Party, Ismet KOTAK; note - CTP, TKP, and YDP joined
in the coalition Democratic Struggle Party (DMP) for the 22 April
1990 legislative election


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held 14 February and 21 February 1988 (next
to be held February 1993);
results - George VASSILIOU 52%, Glafcos CLERIDES 48%;

House of Representatives - last held 8 December 1985 (next to
be held 19 May 1991);
results - DESY 33.56%, DEKO 27.65%, AKEL (Communist) 27.43%, EDEK 11.07%;
seats - (56 total) DESY 19, DEKO 16, AKEL (Communist) 15, EDEK 6;

Turkish Area: President - last held 22 April 1990 (next to be
held April 1995);
results - Rauf R. DENKTASH 66%, Ismail BOZKURT 32.05%;

Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic - last held 6 May 1990
(next to be held May 1995);
results - UBP (conservative) about 55%, DMP NA%;
seats - (50 total) UBP (conservative) 34, CTP (Communist) 7,
TKP (center-right) 7, New Dawn Party 2


_#_Communists: about 12,000


_#_Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth
Organization (EDON; Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA;
Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK; pro-West); Pan-Cyprian
Labor Federation (PEO; Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot
Workers (SEK; pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions
(Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)


_#_Member of: C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Michael E. SHERIFIS;
Chancery at 2211 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
462-5772; there is a Cypriot Consulate General in New York;

US - Ambassador Robert E. LAMB; Embassy at the corner of Therissos
Street and Dositheos Street, Nicosia (mailing address is FPO New York
09530); telephone [357] (2) 4651511


_#_Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the
name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green
crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize
the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish
communities


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: These data are for the area controlled by the Republic of
Cyprus (information on the northern Turkish-Cypriot area is sparse).
The economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry contributes
about 25% to GDP and employs 35% of the labor force, while the service
sector contributes about 55% to GDP and employs 40% of the labor force.
Rapid growth in exports of agricultural and manufactured products
and in tourism have played important roles in the average 6% rise in GDP
in recent years.


_#_GDP: $5.4 billion, per capita $7,960; real growth rate 5.5%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: below 2% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $178 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $770 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and
shoes;

partners - UK 23%, Greece 10%, Lebanon 9%, Saudi Arabia 4%


_#_Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and
feed grains, machinery;

partners - France 12%, UK 11%, Japan 11%, Italy 10%


_#_External debt: $2.2 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 6.5% (1988); accounts for
27% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 620,000 kW capacity; 1,770 million kWh produced,
2,530 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP and employs 22% of labor force;
major crops - potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, and citrus
fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $292
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $230 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $24 million


_#_Currency: Cypriot pound (plural - pounds) and in Turkish area,
Turkish lira (plural - liras); 1 Cypriot pound (5C) = 100 cents and
1 Turkish lira
(TL) = 100 kurus


_#_Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds (5C) per US$1 - 0.4325 (December
1990), 0.4572 (1990), 0.4933 (1989), 0.4663 (1988), 0.4807 (1987), 0.5167
(1986), 0.6095 (1985); in Turkish area, Turkish liras (TL) per
US$1 - 2,873.9 (December 1990), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3
(1988), 857.2 (1987), 674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 10,780 km total; 5,170 km bituminous surface treated;
5,610 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth


_#_Ports: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos


_#_Merchant marine: 1,169 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
19,310,063 GRT/34,338,028 DWT; 10 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo,



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 19 of 89)