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ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.

_#_Maps: All maps will be available only in the printed version for
the foreseeable future.

_#_Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent
some national claims from being fully extended.

_#_Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All
commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which
excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a
grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.

Captive register - A register of ships maintained by a territory,
possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships
owned in the parent country. Also referred to as an offshore register,
the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive
register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local
variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation
rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive
register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned
abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience
register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register - A national register offering
registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major
flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue
of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal
manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having
relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag
state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority
of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an
open register.

Flag state - The nation in which a ship is registered and which
holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home
or abroad. Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine
how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be
placed on the register.

Internal register - A register of ships maintained as a subset of
a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national
flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of
maritime rules from those on the main national register. These
differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by
foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state
(when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International
Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most
notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental
in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in
attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.

Merchant ship - A vessel that carries goods against payment of
freight. Commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately
restricted to commercial vessels only.

Register - The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as
listed with the maritime authorities of a country. Also, the
compendium of such individual ships' registrations. Registration of
a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws
of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the
nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

_#_Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars
unless otherwise indicated.

_#_Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons
entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons
(based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the
country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000
population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net
emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

_#_Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census
based on statistics from population censuses, vital registration
systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on
assumptions about future trends.

_#_Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would
be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing
years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

_#_Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless
indicated as fiscal year (FY).

_#_Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates.

The Handbook of Economic Statistics, published annually in
September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed
economic information for the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD) countries, Eastern Europe, the USSR,
and selected other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever
The World Factbook is available.


[email protected]_Afghanistan
_#_Total area: 647,500 km2; land area: 647,500 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,826 km total; China 76 km, Iran 936 km,
Pakistan 2,430 km, USSR 2,384 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Disputes: Pashtun question with Pakistan; Baloch question with Iran
and Pakistan; periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights;
insurgency with Iranian and Pakistani involvement; traditional tribal

_#_Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

_#_Natural resources: natural gas, crude oil, coal, copper, talc,
barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and
semiprecious stones

_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 46%; forest and woodland 3%; other 39%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;
soil degradation, desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: US Bureau of the Census - 16,450,304 (July 1991),
growth rate 5.2% (1991) and excludes 3,750,796 refugees in Pakistan
and 1,607,281 refugees in Iran; note - another report indicates a
July 1990 population of 16,904,904, including 3,271,580 refugees in
Pakistan and 1,277,700 refugees in Iran

_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 28 migrants/1,000 population (1991);
note - there are flows across the border in both directions, but data are
fragmentary and unreliable

_#_Infant mortality rate: 164 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 43 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Afghan(s); adjective - Afghan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 50%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara
12-15%; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shia Muslim 15%, other 1%

_#_Language: Pashtu 50%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 35%, Turkic
languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages
(primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%; much bilingualism

_#_Literacy: 29% (male 44%, female 14%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,980,000; agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%,
industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other
10.7%, (1980 est.)

_#_Organized labor: some small government-controlled unions

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Afghanistan

_#_Type: authoritarian

_#_Capital: Kabul

_#_Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat,
singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh,
Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand,
Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar,
Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan,
Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol,
Takhar, Vardak, Zabol; note - there may be a new province of
Nurestan (Nuristan)

_#_Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: adopted 30 November 1987, revised May 1990

_#_Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Saur Revolution, 27 April

_#_Executive branch: president, four vice presidents, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Meli Shura)
consists of an upper house or Council of Elders (Sena) and a lower house
or Council of Representatives (Wolosi Jirga)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President (Mohammad)
NAJIBULLAH (Ahmadzai) (since 30 November 1987); First Vice President
Abdul Wahed SORABI (since 7 January 1991); Prime Minister Fazil Haq
KHALIQYAR (since 21 May 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: main party - Hizbi Watan Homeland
Party (formerly known as the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
or PDPA); there are other, much smaller political parties recognized by
the government

_#_Suffrage: universal, male ages 15-50


Senate - last held NA April 1988 (next to be held April 1991);
results - Hizbi Watan was the only party;
seats - (192 total, 128 elected) Hizbi Watan 128;

House of Representatives - last held NA April 1988 (next to be held
April 1993);
results - Hizbi Watan was the only party;
seats - (234 total) Hizbi Watan 184, opposition 50;
note - members may or may not be affiliated with a political party

_#_Communists: Hizbi Watan Homeland Party (formerly the People's
Democratic Party of Afghanistan or PDPA) claims 200,000 members and no
longer considers itself a Communist party

_#_Other political or pressure groups: the military and other branches
of internal security have been rebuilt by the USSR; insurgency continues
throughout the country; widespread antiregime sentiment and opposition on
religious and political grounds

_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
note - Afghanistan was suspended from the OIC in January 1980, but in
March 1989 the self-proclaimed Mujaheddin Government of Afghanistan
was given membership

_#_Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires
Abdul Ghafur JOUSHAN; Chancery at 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20008;
telephone (202) 234-3770 or 3771;

US - Charge d'Affaires (vacant); Embassy at Ansari Wat, Wazir
Akbar Khan Mina, Kabul; telephone 62230 through 62235 or 62436;
note - US Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green
with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the
black and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi which is shorter and
bears a radiant, rising red sun centered in the black band

_#_Overview: Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor,
landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and
livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations, however,
have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals, including
the nine-year Soviet military occupation (ended 15 February 1989) and the
continuing bloody civil war. Over the past decade, one-third of the
population has fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering about 3.3
million refugees and Iran about 1.3 million. Another 1 million have
probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Large
numbers of bridges, buildings, and factories have been destroyed or
damaged by military action or sabotage. Government claims
to the contrary, gross domestic product almost certainly is
lower than 10 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital
and the disruption of trade and transport.

_#_GDP: $3 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 92% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $306 million (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $236 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities - natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven
carpets, wool, cotton, hides, and pelts;

partners - mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

_#_Imports: $874 million (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities - food and petroleum products;

partners - mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

_#_External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.1% (FY91 plan); accounts
for about 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 480,000 kW capacity; 1,470 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal,

_#_Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal
husbandry; cash products - wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool,

_#_Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis
for the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer
(after Burma) and a major source of hashish

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $322
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $465 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $4.1 billion

_#_Currency: afghani (plural - afghanis); 1 afghani (Af) = 100 puls

_#_Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 586 (March 1991)

_#_Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

_#_Railroads: 9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka
(USSR) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (USSR) to
Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

_#_Highways: 21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km
bituminous-treated gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth
and tracks

_#_Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya,
which handles steamers up to about 500 metric tons

_#_Pipelines: petroleum, oil, and lubricants pipelines - USSR
to Bagram and USSR to Shindand; natural gas, 180 km

_#_Ports: Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)

_#_Civil air: 2 TU-154, 2 Boeing 727, 4 Yak-40, assorted smaller

_#_Airports: 40 total, 36 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and
radiobroadcast services; television introduced in 1980; 31,200
telephones; stations - 5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Special
Guard/National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force
(Sarandoi), Ministry of State Security (WAD), Tribal Militia

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,049,092; 2,171,757 fit for
military service; 166,135 reach military age (22) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $450 million, 15% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_Albania
_#_Total area: 28,750 km2; land area: 27,400 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

_#_Land boundaries: 768 km total; Greece 282 km, Yugoslavia 486 km

_#_Coastline: 362 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specified;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Kosovo question with Yugoslavia; Northern Epirus question
with Greece

_#_Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
summers; interior is cooler and wetter

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, chromium,
copper, timber, nickel

_#_Land use: arable land 21%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and
pastures 15%; forest and woodland 38%; other 22%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur
along southwestern coast; deforestation seems to be slowing

_#_Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

_#_Population: 3,335,044 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Albanian(s); adjective - Albanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs,
Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

_#_Religion: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and
religious observances prohibited; in November 1990 Albania began
allowing private religious practice and was considering the repeal
of the constitutional amendment banning religious activities;
estimates of religious affiliation - Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%,
Roman Catholic 10%

_#_Language: Albanian (Tosk is official dialect), Greek

_#_Literacy: 72% (male 80%, female 63%) age 9 and over can
read and write (1955)

_#_Labor force: 1,500,000 (1987); agriculture about 60%, industry
and commerce 40% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: Central Council of Albanian Trade Unions, 610,000

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Albania

_#_Type: nascent democracy with strong Communist party influence;
basic law has dropped all references to socialism

_#_Capital: Tirane

_#_Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth);
Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh,
Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje,
Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder,
Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore

_#_Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire);
People's Socialist Republic of Albania declared 11 January 1946

_#_Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's
Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution is to be drafted for
adoption in four to six months

_#_Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November (1944)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister of the Council of
Ministers, one deputy prime minister of the Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President of the Republic Ramiz ALIA (since 22
November 1982);

Head of Government - Prime Minister of the interim Council of
Ministers Ylli BUFI (since 5 June 1991);

_#_Political parties and leaders: Albanian Workers Party (AWP),
Ramiz ALIA, first secretary;
Democratic Party (DP), Sali BERISHA, chairman and cofounder with
Gramoz PASHKO;
Albanian Republican Party, Sabri GODO;
Ecology Party, Namik HOTI;
Omonia (Greek minority party), leader NA;
Agrarian Party, leader NA;

note - in December 1990 President ALIA allowed new political parties
to be formed in addition to the AWP for the first time since 1944

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


President - last held 30 April 1991 (next to be held spring 1992);
results - President Ramiz ALIA was reelected with token opposition;

People's Assembly - last held 31 March 1991 (next to be held
spring 1992);
results - AWP 68%, DP 25%;
seats - (250 total) preliminary results AWP 168, DP 75, Omonia 5,
Veterans Association 1, other 1;

note - the AWP's votes came mostly from the countryside while the DP
won majorities in the six-largest cities;

_#_Communists: 147,000 party members (November 1986); note - in
March 1991 the Albanian Workers' Party announced that it considered
itself no longer Communist but socialist


_#_Diplomatic representation: the Governments of the United States and
Albania agreed to reestablish diplomatic relations to be effective
from 15 March 1991 and to exchange diplomatic missions at the level
of ambassador

_#_Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center below a red
five-pointed star outlined in yellow

_#_Overview: As the poorest country in Europe, Albania's development
lags behind even the least favored areas of the Yugoslav economy.
For over 40 years, the Stalinist-type economy has operated on the
principles of central planning and state ownership of the means of
production. In recent years Albania has implemented limited economic
reforms to stimulate its lagging economy, provide incentives, and
decentralize decisionmaking. In an effort to expand international
ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the Soviet
Union and the US. The Albanians have also passed legislation allowing
foreign investment. Albania possesses considerable mineral
resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient in food;
several years of drought have hindered agricultural development.
Numerical estimates of Albanian economic activity are subject to an
especially wide margin of error because the government until recently
did not release economic information.

_#_GNP: $4.1 billion, per capita $1,250; real growth rate NA% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $2.3 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $378 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities - asphalt, bitumen, petroleum products, metals and
metallic ores, electricity, oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco;

partners - Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland,
Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary

_#_Imports: $255 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities - machinery, machine tools, iron and steel products,
textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;

partners - Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Czechoslovakia, Romania,
Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, GDR

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA

_#_Electricity: 1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced,
1,530 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber,
oil, cement, chemicals, basic metals, hydropower

_#_Agriculture: arable land per capita among lowest in Europe;
one-half of work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of
temperate-zone crops and livestock; claims self-sufficiency in grain

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA (1988) $5.8 million

_#_Currency: lek (plural - leke); 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

_#_Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 8.00 (noncommercial fixed rate
since 1986), 4.14 (commercial fixed rate since 1987)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 543 km total; 509 1.435-meter standard gauge, single
track and 34 km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting
Titograd (Yugoslavia) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986

_#_Highways: 16,700 km total; 6,700 km highway and roads, 10,000 km
forest and agricultural (1990)

_#_Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari,
Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 145 km; refined products, 55 km; natural gas,
64 km (1988)

_#_Ports: Durres, Sarande, Vlore

_#_Merchant marine: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,886
GRT/75,993 DWT

_#_Airports: 12 total, 10 usable; more than 5 with permanent-surface
runways; more than 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations - 17 AM, 1 FM, 9 TV; 246,000 TVs
(1990); 210,000 radios

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Albanian People's Army, Albanian Coastal Defense Command,
Air and Air Defense Force, Frontier Troops, Interior Troops

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 900,723; 743,594 fit for
military service; 33,497 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 1.0 billion leks, NA% of GDP (FY90);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 2 of 89)