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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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435 cargo, 76 refrigerated cargo, 20 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 48
container, 4 multifunction large load carrier, 111 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 8 liquefied gas, 17
chemical tanker, 30 combination ore/oil, 360 bulk, 2 vehicle carrier, 44
combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry; Cuba owns at
least 25 of these ships, USSR owns 52, and Yugoslavia owns 1

_#_Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 13 total, 13 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent in the area controlled by the Cypriot
Government (Greek area), moderately good in the Turkish-Cypriot
administered area; 210,000 telephones; stations - 14 AM, 7 (7 repeaters)
FM, 2 (40 repeaters) TV; tropospheric scatter circuits to Greece and
Turkey; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - INTELSAT, 1
Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, and EUTELSAT systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Greek area - Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG;
includes air and naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish
area - Turkish Cypriot Security Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 182,426; 125,839 fit for
military service; 5,169 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $209 million, 5% of GDP (1990 est.)
[email protected]_Czechoslovakia
_#_Total area: 127,870 km2; land area: 125,460 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New York State

_#_Land boundaries: 3,446 km total; Austria 548 km, Germany 815 km,
Hungary 676 km, Poland 1,309 km, USSR 98 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Disputes: Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary

_#_Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

_#_Terrain: mixture of hills and mountains separated by plains and

_#_Natural resources: coal, timber, lignite, uranium, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, zinc

_#_Land use: arable land 40%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
13%; forest and woodland 37%; other 9%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: infrequent earthquakes; acid rain; water pollution;
air pollution

_#_Note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest
and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a
traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the
Danube in central Europe

_#_Population: 15,724,940 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Czechoslovak(s); adjective - Czechoslovak

_#_Ethnic divisions: Czech 62.9%, Slovak 31.8%, Hungarian 3.8%,
Polish 0.5%, German 0.3%, Ukrainian 0.3%, Russian 0.1%, other 0.3%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Orthodox 2%,
other 28%

_#_Language: Czech and Slovak (official), Hungarian

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)

_#_Labor force: 8,200,000 (1987); industry 36.9%, agriculture 12.3%,
construction, communications, and other 50.8% (1982)

_#_Organized labor: Czech and Slovak Confederation of Trade
Unions (CSKOS); new independent trade unions forming

_#_Long-form name: Czech and Slovak Federal Republic; note - on
23 March 1990 the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was renamed the
Czechoslovak Federative Republic; Slovak concerns about their
status in the federation prompted the Federal Assembly to approve the
name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic on 20 April 1990; on 23 April
1990 the name was modified to Czech and Slovak Federal Republic

_#_Type: federal republic in transition to a confederative republic

_#_Capital: Prague

_#_Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republiky,
singular - republika); Czech Republic (Ceska Republika),
Slovak Republic (Slovenska Republika)

_#_Independence: 28 October 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)

_#_Constitution: 11 July 1960; amended in 1968 and 1970; new
Czech, Slovak, and federal constitutions to be drafted in 1991-92

_#_Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes,
modified by Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code in
process of modification to bring it in line with Conference on
Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) obligations and to expunge
Marxist-Leninist legal theory

_#_National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 May (1945) and
Founding of the Republic, 28 October (1918)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Federalni
Shromazdeni) consists of an upper house or Chamber of Nations
(Snemovna Narodu) and a lower house or Chamber of the People
(Snemovna Lidu)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President Vaclav HAVEL;
(interim president from 29 December 1989 and president since
5 July 1990);

Head of Government - Premier Marian CALFA (since
10 December 1989);
Deputy Premier Vaclav VALES (since 28 June 1990);
Deputy Premier Jiri DIENSTBIER (since 28 June 1990);
Deputy Premier Jozef MIKLOSKO (since 28 June 1990);
Deputy Premier Pavel RYCHETSKY (since 28 June 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Civic Forum, Vaclav KLAUS, chairman;
Public Against Violence, Fedor GAL, chairman;
Christian and Democratic Union, Vaclav BENDA;
Christian Democratic Movement, Jan CARNOGURSKY;
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSC), Pavol KANIS, chairman;
KSC toppled from power in November 1989 by massive antiregime
demonstrations, minority role in coalition government since 10 December

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 5 July 1990 (next to be held July 1992);
results - Vaclav HAVEL elected by the Federal Assembly;

Federal Assembly - last held 8-9 June 1990 (next to be held June
results - Civic Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 46%, KSC 13.6%;
seats - (300 total) Civic Forum/Public Against Violence coalition 170,
KSC 47, Christian and Democratic Union/Christian Democratic
Movement 40, Czech, Slovak, Moravian, and Hungarian groups 43

_#_Communists: 760,000 party members (September 1990); about
1,000,000 members lost since November 1989

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Czechoslovak Socialist Party,
Czechoslovak People's Party, Czechoslovak Social Democracy, Slovak
Nationalist Party, Slovak Revival Party, Christian Democratic Party;
over 80 registered political groups fielded candidates in the 8-9 June
1990 legislative election


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rita KLIMOVA;
Chancery at 3900 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
363-6315 or 6316;

US - Ambassador Shirley Temple BLACK; Embassy at Trziste 15,
125 48, Prague 1 (mailing address is AMEM, Box 5630, APO New York
09213-5630); telephone [42] (2) 536641 through 536649

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

_#_Overview: Czechoslovakia is highly industrialized and has a
well-educated and skilled labor force. Its industry, transport, energy
sources, banking, and most other means of production are state owned. The
country is deficient, however, in energy and in many raw materials.
Moreover, its aging capital plant lags well behind West European
standards. Industry contributes almost 50% to GNP and construction
contributes 10%. About 95% of agricultural land is in collectives or
state farms. The centrally planned economy has been tightly linked in
trade (80%) to the USSR and Eastern Europe. Growth has been sluggish,
averaging less than 2% in the period 1982-89. GNP per capita is the
highest in Eastern Europe. As in the rest of Eastern Europe, the sweeping
political changes of 1989-90 have been disrupting normal channels of
supply and compounding the government's economic problems. Having eased
restrictions on private enterprise in 1990 and having adjusted some key
prices, Czechoslovakia is now implementing a broad two-year program
to make the difficult transition from a command to a market economy.
Inflation and unemployment are beginning to rise, albeit from
comparatively low levels.

_#_GNP: $120.3 billion, per capita $7,700; real growth rate - 2.9%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: officially 0.8% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $17.1 billion; expenditures $16.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1991)

_#_Exports: $14.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - machinery and equipment 42.7%; fuels, minerals,
and metals 16.4%; agricultural and forestry products 12.5%, other

partners - USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, FRG, Yugoslavia, Austria,
Bulgaria, Romania, US

_#_Imports: $14.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - machinery and equipment 38.6%;
fuels, minerals, and metals 24.1%; agricultural and forestry
products 16.4%; other 20.9%;

partners - USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, FRG, Yugoslavia, Austria,
Bulgaria, Romania, US

_#_External debt: $7.6 billion, hard currency indebtedness (September

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 3.3% (1990 est.); accounts
for almost 50% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 23,000,000 kW capacity; 90,000 million kWh produced,
5,740 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: iron and steel, machinery and equipment, cement, sheet
glass, motor vehicles, armaments, chemicals, ceramics, wood, paper
products, footwear

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GNP (includes forestry); largely
self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock
production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs,
cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products

_#_Economic aid: donor - $4.2 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist
less developed countries (1954-89)

_#_Currency: koruna (plural - koruny); 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

_#_Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 27.65 (January 1991),
17.95 (1990), 15.05 (1989), 14.36 (1988), 13.69 (1987), 14.99 (1986),
17.14 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 13,103 km total; 12,855 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
102 km 1.520-meter broad gauge, 146 km 0.750- and 0.760-meter narrow
gauge; 2,861 km double track; 3,798 km electrified; government owned

_#_Highways: 73,540 km total; including 517 km superhighway (1988)

_#_Inland waterways: 475 km (1988); the Elbe (Labe) is the principal

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,448 km; refined products, 1,500 km; natural
gas, 8,100 km

_#_Ports: maritime outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin),
Yugoslavia (Rijeka, Koper), Germany (Hamburg, Rostock); principal river
ports are Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe),
Komarno on the Danube, Bratislava on the Danube

_#_Merchant marine: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 363,002 GRT/
565,813 DWT; includes 15 cargo, 6 bulk

_#_Civil air: 47 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 158 total, 158 usable; 40 with permanent-surface
runways; 19 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 4 million telephones; 25% of households
have a telephone; stations - 60 AM, 16 FM, 39 TV (11 Soviet TV
relays); 4.4 million TVs (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Czechoslovak People's Army, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Civil Defense, Border Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,066,419; 3,110,958 fit for
military service; 140,620 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 26.9 billion koruny, NA% of GDP (1991);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
[email protected]_Denmark
_#_Total area: 43,070 km2; land area: 42,370 km2; includes the island
of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark, but
excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of

_#_Land boundaries: 68 km with Germany

_#_Coastline: 3,379 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 4 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland,
Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement
in the Rockall area); Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims
between Greenland and Jan Mayen

_#_Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and
cool summers

_#_Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone

_#_Land use: arable land 61%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland 12%; other 21%; includes irrigated 9%

_#_Environment: air and water pollution

_#_Note: controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

_#_Population: 5,132,626 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Dane(s); adjective - Danish

_#_Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

_#_Language: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect); small
German-speaking minority

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,581,400; private services 36.4%; government services
30.2%; manufacturing and mining 20%; construction 6.8%; agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 5.9%; electricity/gas/water 0.7% (1990)

_#_Organized labor: 65% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Denmark

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Copenhagen

_#_Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter,
singular - amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg,
Fyn, Kobenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde,
Sonderjylland, Staden Kobenhavn*, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjaelland,
Viborg; note - see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland
which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative

_#_Independence: became a constitutional monarchy in 1849

_#_Constitution: 5 June 1953

_#_Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative
acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Folketing)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - Queen MARGRETHE II (since January 1972);
Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26
May 1968);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Poul SCHLUTER (since 10
September 1982)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic, Svend AUKEN;
Conservative, Poul SCHLUTER;
Socialist People's, Holger K. NIELSEN;
Progress Party, Pia KJAERSGAARD;
Center Democratic, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN;
Radical Liberal, Marianne JELVED;
Christian People's, Flemming KOTOED-SVENDSEN;
Left Socialist, Elizabeth BRUN-OLESEN;
Justice, Poul Gerhard KRISTIANSEN;
Socialist Workers Party, leader NA;
Communist Workers' Party (KAP), leader NA;
Common Course, Preben Moller HANSEN;
Green Party, Inger BORLEHMANN

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


Parliament - last held 12 December 1990 (next to be held by
December 1994);
results - Social Democratic 37.4%, Conservative 16.0%, Liberal 15.8%,
Socialist People's 8.3%, Progress Party 6.4%, Center Democratic 5.1%,
Radical Liberal 3.5%, Christian People's 2.3%, other 5.2%;
seats - (175 total; includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe
Islands) Social Democratic 69, Conservative 30, Liberal 29,
Socialist People's 15, Progress Party 12, Center Democratic 9, Radical
Liberal 7, Christian People's 4

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG;
Chancery at 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 234-4300; there are Danish Consulates General at Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, and New York;

US - Ambassador Keith L. BROWN; Embassy at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle
24, 2100 Copenhagen O (mailing address is APO New York 09170);
telephone [45] (31) 42 31 44

_#_Flag: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag;
the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side and that
design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently
adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and

_#_Overview: This modern economy features high-tech
agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive
government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, and high
dependence on foreign trade. The Danish economy is likely to maintain
its slow but steady improvement in 1991. GDP grew by 1.3% in 1990
and probably will grow by about 1.25% in 1991; unemployment is running
close to 10%. In 1990 Denmark had the lowest inflation rate in the EC,
a record trade surplus, and the first balance-of-payments surplus in
26 years. As the government prepares for the economic integration of
Europe during 1992, growth, investment, and competitiveness are expected
to improve, reducing unemployment, inflation, and debt.

_#_GDP: $78.0 billion, per capita $15,200; real growth rate 1.3%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $62.5 billion; expenditures $60 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA billion (1989)

_#_Exports: $34.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - meat and meat products, dairy products, transport
equipment, fish, chemicals, industrial machinery;

partners - EC 52.2% (Germany 19.5%, UK 10.9%, France 6.1%), Sweden
12.5%, Norway 5.8%, US 5.0%, Japan 4.3% (1990)

_#_Imports: $31.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain
and foodstuffs, textiles, paper;

partners - EC 57% (Germany 25.6%, UK 8.4%), Sweden 12.7%, US 6.7%

_#_External debt: $45 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.1% (1989)

_#_Electricity: 11,215,000 kW capacity; 30,910 million kWh produced,
6,030 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and
other wood products

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP and employs 6% of labor force
(includes fishing and forestry); farm products account for nearly 15%
of export revenues; principal products - meat, dairy, grain, potatoes,
rape, sugar beets, fish; self-sufficient in food production

_#_Economic aid: donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89) $5.9 billion

_#_Currency: Danish krone (plural - kroner); 1 Danish krone
(DKr) = 100 ore

_#_Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 5.817 (January
(1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091
(1986), 10.596 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 2,675 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Danish State
Railways (DSB) operate 2,025 km (1,999 km rail line and 121 km rail ferry
services); 188 km electrified, 730 km double tracked; 650 km of
standard-gauge lines are privately owned and operated

_#_Highways: 66,482 km total; 64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone
block; 1,931 km gravel, crushed stone, improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 417 km

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 110 km; refined products, 578 km; natural
gas, 700 km

_#_Ports: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia;
numerous secondary and minor ports

_#_Merchant marine: 281 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,888,064
GRT/7,131,949 DWT; includes 13 short-sea passenger, 85 cargo, 15
refrigerated cargo, 35 container, 40 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 railcar
carrier, 37 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 14 chemical
tanker, 22 liquefied gas, 4 livestock carrier, 14 bulk, 1 combination
bulk; note - Denmark has created its own internal register, called the
Danish International Ship Register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to
meet Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register; by the end of 1990, 258 of the Danish-flag
ships belonged to the DIS

_#_Civil air: 69 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 129 total, 112 usable; 27 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast
services; 4,509,000 telephones; stations - 2 AM, 15 (39 repeaters) FM, 27
(25 repeaters) TV; 7 submarine coaxial cables; 1 earth station operating
in INTELSAT, 4 Atlantic Ocean, EUTELSAT, and domestic systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,369,684; 1,179,991 fit for
military service; 36,991 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $2.4 billion, 2% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_Djibouti
_#_Total area: 22,000 km2; land area: 21,980 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

_#_Land boundaries: 517 km total; Ethiopia 459 km, Somalia 58 km

_#_Coastline: 314 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic

_#_Climate: desert; torrid, dry

_#_Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

_#_Natural resources: geothermal areas

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 91%

_#_Environment: vast wasteland

_#_Note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes
and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia

_#_Population: 346,311 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 117 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 46 years male, 50 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Djiboutian(s); adjective - Djiboutian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Somali (Issa) 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab,
Ethiopian, and Italian 5%

_#_Religion: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

_#_Language: French and Arabic (both official); Somali and Afar widely

_#_Literacy: 48% (male 63%, female 34%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: NA, but a small number of semiskilled laborers at
the port and 3,000 railway workers; 52% of population of working age

_#_Organized labor: 3,000 railway workers

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 20 of 89)