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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Long-form name: Republic of Djibouti

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Djibouti

_#_Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle);
Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

_#_Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France; formerly French Territory
of the Afars and Issas)

_#_Constitution: partial constitution ratified January 1981 by the
National Assembly

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional
practices, and Islamic law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State - President Hassan GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June

Head of Government - Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
September 1978)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - People's Progress
Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


President - last held 24 April 1987 (next to be held April 1993);
results - President Hassan GOULED Aptidon was reelected without

National Assembly - last held 24 April 1987 (next to be
held April 1992); results - RPP is the only party; seats - (65 total)
RPP 65

_#_Communists: NA

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE; Chancery
(temporary) at the Djiboutian Permanent Mission to the UN; 866 United
Nations Plaza, Suite 4011, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 753-3163;

US - Ambassador Robert S. BARRETT IV; Embassy at Villa Plateau du
Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti (mailing address is B. P.
185, Djibouti); telephone [253] 35-39-95

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light
green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a
red five-pointed star in the center

_#_Overview: The economy is based on service activities connected with
the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in
northeast Africa. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port
for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center.
It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is,
therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its
balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment
rate of over 40% continues to be a major problem. Per capita
consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last five years with
a population growth rate of 6% (including immigrants and refugees) and a

_#_GDP: $340 million, $1,030 per capita; real growth rate - 1.0% (1989

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: over 40% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $131 million; expenditures $154 million, including
capital expenditures of $25 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $190 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - hides and skins, coffee (in transit);

partners - Middle East 50%, Africa 43%, Western Europe 7%

_#_Imports: $311 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum products;

partners - EC 36%, Africa 21%, Asia 12%, US 2%

_#_External debt: $355 million (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.1% (1989); manufacturing
accounts for 4% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 110,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced,
580 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as
dairy products and mineral-water bottling

_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits
crop production to mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population
pastoral nomads herding goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $39
million; Western (non-US) countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $1,035 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89),
$149 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $35 million

_#_Currency: Djiboutian franc (plural - francs); 1 Djiboutian franc
(DF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed
rate since 1973)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km
through Djibouti

_#_Highways: 2,900 km total; 280 km bituminous surface, 2,620 km
improved or unimproved earth (1982)

_#_Ports: Djibouti

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 13 total, 10 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of urban facilities in Djibouti and
radio relay stations at outlying places; 7,300 telephones; stations - 2
AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 ARABSAT;
1 submarine cable to Saudi Arabia

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (including Navy and Air Force), paramilitary
National Security Force, National Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 89,519; 52,093 fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $29.9 million, NA% of GDP (1986)
[email protected]_Dominica
_#_Total area: 750 km2; land area: 750 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 148 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy

_#_Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

_#_Natural resources: timber

_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 13%; meadows and pastures
3%; forest and woodland 41%; other 34%

_#_Environment: flash floods a constant hazard; occasional hurricanes

_#_Note: located 550 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

_#_Population: 86,285 (July 1991), growth rate 1.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Dominican(s); adjective - Dominican

_#_Ethnic divisions: mostly black; some Carib indians

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%),
none 2%, unknown 1%, other 5%

_#_Language: English (official); French patois widely spoken

_#_Literacy: 94% (male 94%, female 94%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)

_#_Labor force: 25,000; agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%,
services 28% (1984)

_#_Organized labor: 25% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Commonwealth of Dominica

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Roseau

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark,
Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

_#_Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 3 November 1978

_#_Legal system: based on English common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court


Chief of State - President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET (since
19 December 1983);

Head of Government - Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21
July 1980, elected for a third term 28 May 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES;
Dominica Labor Party (DLP), Michael DOUGLAS;
United Workers Party (UWP), Edison JAMES

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 20 December 1988 (next to be held December
1993); the president is elected by the House of Assembly;

House of Assembly - last held 28 May 1990 (next to be held May
1995); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (30 total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected representatives)
DFP 11, UWP 6, DLP 4

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Dominica Liberation Movement
(DLM), a small leftist group

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: there is no Chancery in the US;

US - no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica

_#_Flag: green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the
vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the horizontal
part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the
cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green
five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10
administrative divisions (parishes)

_#_Overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is
highly vulnerable to climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about
30% of GDP and employs 40% of the labor force. Principal products include
bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, and coconuts. In 1988 the economy
achieved a 5.6% growth in real GDP on the strength of a boost in
construction, higher agricultural production, and growth of the small
manufacturing sector based on the soap and garment industries. In 1989,
however, Hurricane Hugo wiped out 70% of the banana crop and affected
other economic activity. The tourist industry remains undeveloped because
of a rugged coastline and the lack of an international-class airport.

_#_GDP: $153 million, per capita $1,840; real growth rate - 1.7%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.3% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 10% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $48 million; expenditures $85 million,
including capital expenditures of $41 million (FY90)

_#_Exports: $59 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - bananas, coconuts, grapefruit, soap, galvanized

partners - UK 72%, Jamaica 10%, OECS 6%, US 3%, other 9%

_#_Imports: $115 million (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - food, oils and fats, chemicals, fuels and lubricants,
manufactured goods, machinery and equipment;

partners - US 23%, UK 18%, CARICOM 15%, OECS 15%, Japan 5%,
Canada 3%, other 21%

_#_External debt: $73 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.5% in manufacturing (1988
est.); accounts for 11% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 7,000 kW capacity; 16 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: soap, beverages, tourism, food processing, furniture,
cement blocks, shoes

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops - bananas,
citrus, mangoes, root crops, and coconuts; bananas provide the bulk
of export earnings; forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $115 million

_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70
(fixed rate since 1976)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Highways: 750 km total; 370 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth

_#_Ports: Roseau, Portsmouth

_#_Civil air: NA

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 4,600 telephones in fully automatic network;
VHF and UHF link to Saint Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and
Guadeloupe; stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
[email protected]_Dominican Republic
_#_Total area: 48,730 km2; land area: 48,380 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New

_#_Land boundary 275 km with Haiti

_#_Coastline: 1,288 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

_#_Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys

_#_Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

_#_Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
43%; forest and woodland 13%; other 14%; includes irrigated 4%

_#_Environment: subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October);

_#_Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (western one-third is
Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

_#_Population: 7,384,837 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 69 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Dominican(s); adjective - Dominican

_#_Ethnic divisions: mixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%

_#_Language: Spanish

_#_Literacy: 83% (male 85%, female 82%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,300,000-2,600,000; agriculture 49%, services 33%,
industry 18% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: 12% of labor force (1989 est.)

_#_Long-form name: Dominican Republic (no short-form name)

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Santo Domingo

_#_Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias,
singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo,
Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega,
Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez
Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro De Macoris, Santiago,
Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

_#_Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

_#_Constitution: 28 November 1966

_#_Legal system: based on French civil codes

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Joaquin BALAGUER
Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, fifth elected term began 16 August 1990);
Vice President Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso (since 16 August 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

Major parties -
Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo;
Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jose Francisco PENA Gomez;
Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Juan BOSCH Gavino;
Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI), Jacobo MAJLUTA;

Minor parties -
National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier;
Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic (PLRD), Andres Van Der HORST;
Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias WESSIN Chavez;
Constitutional Action Party (PAC), Luis ARZENO Rodriguez;
National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino VINICIO Castillo;
Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert;
Dominican Communist Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde;
Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union (UPA), Ivan RODRIGUEZ;

note - in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
form the Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain
individual party structures

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 or if married; members
of the armed forces and police cannot vote


President - last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994);
results - Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 35.7%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD)

Senate - last held 16 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (30 total) PRSC 16, PLD 12, PRD 2;

Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 May 1990 (next to be
held May 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (120 total) PLD 44, PRSC 41, PRD 33, PRI 2

_#_Communists: an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 members in several legal
and illegal factions; effectiveness limited by ideological differences,
organizational inadequacies, and severe funding shortages

_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest),

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso
(serves concurrently as Vice President); Chancery at
1715 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-6280;
there are Dominican Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles,
Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San
Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands),
Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville, Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto
Rico), and San Francisco;

US - Ambassador Paul D. TAYLOR; Embassy at the corner of
Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo
(mailing address is APO Miami 34041-0008); telephone [809] 541-2171

_#_Flag: a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the
flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red,
the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at
the center of the cross

_#_Overview: The economy is largely dependent on trade; imported
components average 60% of the value of goods consumed in the domestic
market. Rapid growth of free trade zones has established a significant
expansion of manufacturing for export, especially wearing apparel.
Over the past decade tourism has also increased in importance and is a
major earner of foreign exchange and a source of new jobs. Agriculture
remains a key sector of the economy. The principal commercial crop is
sugarcane, followed by coffee, cotton, cocoa, and tobacco. Domestic
industry is based on the processing of agricultural products, durable
consumer goods, minerals, and chemicals. Unemployment is officially
reported at about 30%, but there is considerable underemployment. An
increasing foreign debt burden and galloping inflation are the economy's
greatest weaknesses.

_#_GDP: $6.68 billion, per capita $940; real growth rate 4.2% (1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 29% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $413 million; expenditures $522 million,
including capital expenditures of $218 million (1988)

_#_Exports: $922 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - sugar, coffee, cocoa, gold, ferronickel;

partners - US 60%, EC 19%, Puerto Rico 8% (1990)

_#_Imports: $1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals
and pharmaceuticals;

partners - US 50%

_#_External debt: $4.2 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (1989 est.); accounts
for 18% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,445,000 kW capacity; 4,200 million kWh produced,
580 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and employs 49% of labor
force; sugarcane most important commercial crop, followed by coffee,
cotton, cocoa, and tobacco; food crops - rice, beans, potatoes, corn,
bananas; animal output - cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not
self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $576.5
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $569 million

_#_Currency: Dominican peso (plural - pesos); 1 Dominican peso
(RD$) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: Dominican pesos per US$1 - 11.850 (January 1991),
8.290 (1990), 6.3400 (1989), 6.1125 (1988), 3.8448 (1987), 2.9043 (1986),
3.1126 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges
from 0.558 m to 1.435 m

_#_Highways: 12,000 km total; 5,800 km paved, 5,600 km gravel and
improved earth, 600 km unimproved

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 96 km; refined products, 8 km

_#_Ports: Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata

_#_Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,326
GRT/38,661 DWT

_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 44 total, 30 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: relatively efficient domestic system based on
islandwide radio relay network; 190,000 telephones; stations - 120 AM, no
FM, 18 TV, 6 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,963,260; 1,241,370 fit for
military service; 81,083 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $70 million, 1% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_Ecuador
_#_Total area: 283,560 km2; land area: 276,840 km2; includes
Galapagos Islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Nevada

_#_Land boundaries: 2,010 km total; Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

_#_Coastline: 2,237 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
Galapagos Islands;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Disputes: two sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute

_#_Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

_#_Terrain: coastal plain (Costa), inter-Andean central highlands
(Sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (Oriente)

_#_Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
17%; forest and woodland 51%; other 23% ; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
activity; deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts

_#_Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

_#_Population: 10,751,648 (July 1991), growth rate 2.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Ecuadorian(s); adjective - Ecuadorian

_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian
25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%

_#_Language: Spanish (official); Indian languages, especially Quechua

_#_Literacy: 86% (male 88%, female 84%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,800,000; agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%,
commerce 16%, services and other activities 28% (1982)

_#_Organized labor: less than 15% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Ecuador

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Quito

_#_Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias,
singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo,

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 21 of 89)