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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARLP);

Leftist political parties - National Democratic Union (UDN),
National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), and Popular Social Movement

FMLN front organizations:

Labor fronts include - National Union of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS),
leftist umbrella front group, leads FMLN front network;
National Federation of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), best
organized of front groups and controlled by FMLN's National Resistance
(RN); Social Security Institute Workers Union (STISSS), one of the most
militant fronts, is controlled by FMLN'S Armed Forces of National
Resistance (FARN) and RN;
Association of Telecommunications Workers (ASTTEL);
Centralized Union Federation of El Salvador (FUSS);
Treasury Ministry Employees (AGEMHA);

Nonlabor fronts include - Committee of Mothers and Families of Political
Prisoners, Disappeared Persons, and Assassinated of El Salvador
Nongovernmental Human Rights Commission (CDHES);
Committee of Dismissed and Unemployed of El Salvador (CODYDES);
General Association of Salvadoran University Students (AGEUS);
National Association of Salvadoran Educators (ANDES-21 DE JUNIO);
Salvadoran Revolutionary Student Front (FERS), associated with the
Popular Forces of Liberation (FPL);
Association of National University Educators (ADUES);
Salvadoran University Students Front (FEUS);
Christian Committee for the Displaced of El Salvador (CRIPDES),
an FPL front;
The Association for Communal Development in El Salvador (PADECOES),
controlled by the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP);
Confederation of Cooperative Associations of El Salvador (COACES);

Labor organizations - Federation of Construction and Transport
Workers Unions (FESINCONSTRANS), independent;
Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant association;
Unitary Federation of Salvadoran Unions (FUSS), leftist;
National Federation of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), leftist;
Democratic Workers Central (CTD), moderate;
General Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate;
National Unity of Salvadoran Workers (UNTS), leftist;
National Union of Workers and Peasants (UNOC),
moderate labor coalition of democratic labor organizations;
United Workers Front (FUT);

Business organizations - National Association of Private Enterprise
(ANEP), conservative;
Productive Alliance (AP), conservative;
National Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES),


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Miguel Angel SALAVERRIA;
Chancery at 2308 California Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 265-3480 through 3482; there are Salvadoran Consulates General in
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco;

US - Ambassador William G. WALKER; Embassy at 25 Avenida Norte No.
1230, San Salvador (mailing address is APO Miami 34023); telephone [503]

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue
with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of
arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua which
has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a
triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and
AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras
which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the
white band

_#_Overview: The agricultural sector accounts for 25% of GDP, employs
about 40% of the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports.
Coffee is the major commercial crop, accounting for 45% of export
earnings. The manufacturing sector, based largely on food and beverage
processing, accounts for 18% of GDP and 15% of employment. Economic
losses because of guerrilla sabotage total more than $2.0 billion
since 1979. The costs of maintaining a large military seriously
constrain the government's efforts to provide essential social services.
Nevertheless, growth in national output last year exceeded growth in
population for the first time since 1987.

_#_GDP: $5.4 billion, per capita $1,030; real growth rate 2.8%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 10% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $751 million; expenditures $790 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $571 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - coffee 45%, sugar, cotton, shrimp;

partners - US 49%, FRG 24%, Guatemala 7%, Costa Rica 4%, Japan 4%

_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - petroleum products, consumer goods, foodstuffs,
machinery, construction materials, fertilizer;

partners - US 40%, Guatemala 12%, Venezuela 7%, Mexico 7%, FRG 5%,
Japan 4%

_#_External debt: $2.1 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.4% (1990); accounts for
22% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 682,000 kW capacity; 1,849 million kWh produced,
350 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing, textiles, clothing, beverages,
petroleum, tobacco products, chemicals, furniture

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and 40% of labor force
(including fishing and forestry); coffee most important commercial crop;
other products - sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy
products, shrimp; not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $2.95
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $455 million

_#_Currency: Salvadoran colon (plural - colones); 1 Salvadoran
colon (C) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.0 (April
1991, floating rate since mid-1990); 5.0000 (fixed rate 1986 to mid-1990)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 10,000 km total; 1,500 km paved, 4,100 km gravel,
4,400 km improved and unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

_#_Ports: Acajutla, Cutuco

_#_Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 116 total, 82 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: nationwide trunk radio relay system; connection
into Central American Microwave System; 116,000 telephones; stations - 77
AM, no FM, 5 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police,
Treasury Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,220,088; 780,108 fit for
military service; 71,709 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $220 million, 3.6% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_Equatorial Guinea
_#_Total area: 28,050 km2; land area: 28,050 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

_#_Land boundaries: 539 km total; Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

_#_Coastline: 296 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because of
disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

_#_Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

_#_Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are

_#_Natural resources: timber, crude oil, small unexploited deposits
of gold, manganese, uranium

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 51%; other 33%

_#_Environment: subject to violent windstorms

_#_Note: insular and continental regions rather widely separated

_#_Population: 378,729 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 53 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s);
adjective - Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

_#_Ethnic divisions: indigenous population of Bioko, primarily Bubi,
some Fernandinos; Rio Muni, primarily Fang; less than 1,000 Europeans,
mostly Spanish

_#_Religion: natives all nominally Christian and predominantly Roman
Catholic; some pagan practices retained

_#_Language: Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

_#_Literacy: 50% (male 64%, female 37%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 172,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 66%, services 23%,
industry 11% (1980); labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population
of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: no formal trade unions

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Equatorial Guinea

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Malabo

_#_Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (provincias,
singular - provincia); Bioko, Rio Muni; note - there may now be 6 provinces
named Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele Nzas

_#_Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain; formerly Spanish Guinea)

_#_Constitution: 15 August 1982

_#_Legal system: in transition; partly based on Spanish civil law and
tribal custom

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives of the
People (Camara de Representantes del Pueblo)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal


Chief of State - President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Cristino SERICHE BIOKO MALABO
(since 15 August 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Isidoro Eyi MONSUY ANDEME
(since 15 August 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - Democratic Party for
Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO, party leader

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


President - last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June 1996);
results - President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO was
reelected without opposition;

Chamber of People's Representatives - last held 10 July 1988 (next
to be held 10 July 1993);
results - PDGE is the only party;
seats - (41 total) PDGE 41

_#_Communists: no significant number

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Damaso OBIANG NDONG; Chancery
at 801 Second Avenue, Suite 1403, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212)

US - Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires William MITHOEFER;
Embassy at Calle de Los Ministros, Malabo (mailing address is P. O.
Box 597, Malabo; telephone [240] (9) 2185, 2406, 2507

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red
with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of
arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow
six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands)
above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a
scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)

_#_Overview: The economy, destroyed during the regime of former
President Macias Nguema, is now based on agriculture, forestry,
and fishing, which account for about 60% of GNP and nearly all exports.
Subsistence agriculture predominates, with cocoa, coffee, and wood
products providing income, foreign exchange, and government
revenues. There is little industry. Commerce accounts
for about 10% of GNP, and the construction, public works, and service
sectors for about 34%. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium,
iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil exploration,
taking place under concessions offered to US, French, and Spanish firms,
has been moderately successful, and some revenues from oil exports
will begin rolling in by mid-1991.

_#_GDP: $144 million, per capita $411; real growth rate 2.9% (1988

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.9% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $23 million; expenditures $31 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988)

_#_Exports: $41 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - coffee, timber, cocoa beans;

partners - Spain 44%, FRG 19%, Italy 12%, Netherlands 11% (1987)

_#_Imports: $57.1 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities - petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery;

partners - Spain 34%, Italy 16%, France 14%, Netherlands 8% (1987)

_#_External debt: $195 million (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 6.8% (1990 est.); acounts
for about 4% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced,
170 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: fishing, sawmilling

_#_Agriculture: cash crops - timber and coffee from Rio Muni, cocoa
from Bioko; food crops - rice, yams, cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts,
manioc, livestock

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-89), $14
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $112 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $55 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1 - 256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Highways: Rio Muni - 1,024 km; Bioko - 216 km

_#_Ports: Malabo, Bata

_#_Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,413
GRT/6,699 DWT; includes 1 cargo and 1 passenger-cargo

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 4 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: poor system with adequate government services;
international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European
countries; 2,000 telephones; stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 79,641; 40,369 fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 11% of GNP (FY81 est.)
[email protected]_Ethiopia
_#_Total area: 1,221,900 km2; land area: 1,101,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,141 km total; Djibouti 459 km, Kenya 861 km,
Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 2,221 km

_#_Coastline: 1,094 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a
Provisional Administrative Line; possible claim by Somalia based on
unification of ethnic Somalis; territorial dispute with Somalia over
the Ogaden; separatist movement in Eritrea; antigovernment insurgencies
in Tigray and other areas

_#_Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation;
some areas prone to extended droughts

_#_Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

_#_Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash

_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
41%; forest and woodland 24%; other 22%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification; frequent droughts; famine

_#_Note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest
shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; major resettlement
project - that was ongoing in rural areas and would have significantly
altered population distribution and settlement patterns over the next
several decades - has been derailed because of ongoing civil wars

_#_Population: 53,191,127 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 114 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 53 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Ethiopian(s); adjective - Ethiopian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%,
Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

_#_Religion: Muslim 40-45%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35-40%, animist
15-20%, other 5%

_#_Language: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga,
Somali, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

_#_Literacy: 62% (male NA%, female NA%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1983 est.)

_#_Labor force: 18,000,000; agriculture and animal
husbandry 80%, government and services 12%, industry and construction 8%

_#_Organized labor: All Ethiopian Trade Union formed by the government
in January 1977 to represent 273,000 registered trade union members

_#_Long-form name: People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

_#_Type: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
Democratic Front (EPRDF) took control in Addis Ababa; on 29 May 1991
Issayas AFEWORKE, secretary general of the Eritrean People's Liberation
Front (EPLF), announced the formation of a provisional government in
Eritrea, in preparation for an eventual referendum on independence
for the province

_#_Capital: Addis Ababa

_#_Administrative divisions: 25 administrative regions (astedader
akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) and 5
autonomous regions* (rasgez akababiwach, singular - rasgez
akababi); Addis Abeba (Addis Ababa), Arsi, Aseb*,
Asosa, Bale, Borena, Debub Gonder, Debub Shewa, Debub Welo, Dire
Dawa*, Ertra (Eritrea)*, Gambela, Gamo Gofa, Ilubabor, Kefa,
Metekel, Mirab Gojam, Mirab Harerge, Mirab Shewa, Misrak Gojam,
Misrak Harerge, Nazaret, Ogaden*, Omo, Semen Gonder,
Semen Shewa, Semen Welo, Sidamo, Tigray*, Welega

_#_Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

_#_Constitution: 12 September 1987

_#_Legal system: complex structure with civil, Islamic, common, and
customary law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Revolution Day, 12 September (1974)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of State
prime minister, five deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Shengo)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - Interim President Meles ZENAWI (since 1 June

Head of Government - Acting Prime Minister Tamrat LAYNE (since 6
June 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - Workers' Party of
Ethiopia (WPE)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 10 September 1987 (next to be held September
results - MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the National Assembly, but
resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991;

National Assembly - last held 14 June 1987 (next to be
held NA);
results - WPE was the only party;
seats - (835 total) WPE 835

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Oromo Liberation Front;
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP)

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad
interim GIRMA Amare; Chancery at 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC
20008; telephone (202) 234-2281 or 2282;

US - Charge d'Affaires Robert G. HOUDEK; Embassy at Entoto Street,
Addis Ababa (mailing address is P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa);
telephone [251] (01) 550666

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red;
Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and the colors of
her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon
independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

_#_Overview: Ethiopia is one of the poorest and least developed
countries in Africa. Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture,
which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total
employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The
manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural
sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less then 10% of
agriculture, is state run. Favorable agricultural weather largely
explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89.

_#_GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $130, real growth rate - 0.4%
(FY89 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA

_#_Budget: revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including
capital expenditures of $842 million (FY88)

_#_Exports: $429 million (f.o.b., FY88);

commodities - coffee 60%, hides;

partners - US, FRG, Djibouti, Japan, PDRY, France, Italy,
Saudi Arabia

_#_Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY88);

commodities - food, fuels, capital goods;

partners - USSR, Italy, FRG, Japan, UK, US, France

_#_External debt: $2.6 billion (1988)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (FY89 est.); accounts
for 13% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 330,000 kW capacity; 700 million kWh produced,
14 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals,
metals processing, cement

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 45% of GDP and is the most important
sector of the economy even though frequent droughts and poor cultivation
practices keep farm output low; famines not uncommon; export crops of
coffee and oilseeds grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of
agricultural production at subsistence level; principal crops and
livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and
other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.0 billion

_#_Currency: birr (plural - birr); 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 2.0700 (fixed rate)

_#_Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July

_#_Railroads: 988 km total; 681 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km
0.950-meter gauge (nonoperational)

_#_Highways: 44,300 km total; 3,650 km bituminous, 9,650 km gravel,
3,000 km improved earth, 28,000 km unimproved earth

_#_Ports: Aseb, Mitsiwa

_#_Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 69,398
GRT/89,457 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off cargo, 1 livestock
carrier, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 21 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 153 total, 111 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 49 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: open-wire and radio relay system adequate for
government use; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; radio relay to Kenya and
Djibouti; stations - 4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 45,000 TV sets; 3,300,000 radios;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 11,717,614; 6,072,112 fit for
military service; 609,346 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 8.5% of GDP (1988)
[email protected]_Europa Island
(French possession)
_#_Total area: 28 km2; land area: 28 km2

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 23 of 89)