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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 22.2 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: NA

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; heavily wooded

_#_Environment: wildlife sanctuary

_#_Note: located in the Mozambique Channel 340 km west of Madagascar

_#_Population: uninhabited

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of
the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220 to 2,439 m

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Telecommunications: 1 meteorological station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
[email protected]_Falkland Islands

(Islas Malvinas)
(dependent territory of the UK)
_#_Total area: 12,170 km2; land area: 12,170 km2; includes the two
main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,288 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 100 meter depth;

Exclusive fishing zone: 150 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

_#_Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
except in January and February, but does not accumulate

_#_Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating

_#_Natural resources: fish and wildlife

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 99%; forest and woodland 0%; other 1%

_#_Environment: poor soil fertility and a short growing season

_#_Note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors

_#_Population: 1,968 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Falkland Islander(s); adjective - Falkland Island

_#_Ethnic divisions: almost totally British

_#_Religion: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, and United Free
Church; Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education age
5 to 15 (1988)

_#_Labor force: 1,100 (est.); agriculture, mostly
sheepherding about 95%

_#_Organized labor: Falkland Islands General Employees Union, 400

_#_Long-form name: Colony of the Falkland Islands

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Stanley

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: 3 October 1985

_#_Legal system: English common law

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government - Governor William Hugh FULLERTON (since NA

_#_Political parties: NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Legislative Council - last held 11 October 1989 (next to be
held October 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (10 total, 8 elected) number of seats by party NA

_#_Member of: ICFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the
outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep
raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire
(whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing

_#_Overview: The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or
indirectly employs most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to
meet domestic consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are
primarily those for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments
of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins.
Rich stocks of fish in the surrounding waters are not presently exploited
by the islanders. So far efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry
have been unsuccessful. In 1987 the government began selling
fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands
exclusive fishing zone. These license fees amount to more than $40
million per year and are a primary source of income for the
government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the
abundant wildlife and trout fishing.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1980-87 average)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%; labor shortage

_#_Budget: revenues $62.7 million; expenditures $41.8 million,
excluding capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)

_#_Exports: at least $14.7 million;

commodities - wool, hides and skins, and other;

partners - UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)

_#_Imports: at least $13.9 million;

commodities - food, clothing, fuels, and machinery;

partners - UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 9,200 kW capacity; 17 million kWh produced, 8,680 kWh
per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: wool and fish processing

_#_Agriculture: predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds;
some fodder and vegetable crops

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $109 million

_#_Currency: Falkland pound (plural - pounds); 1 Falkland pound
(5F) = 100 pence

_#_Exchange rates: Falkland pound (5F) per US$1 - 0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the
British pound

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Highways: 510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 km gravel, and 400 km
unimproved earth

_#_Ports: Port Stanley

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: government-operated radiotelephone and private
VHF/CB radio networks provide effective service to almost all points on
both islands; 590 telephones; stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station with links through London to other countries

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal
Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines); Police Force

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
[email protected]_Faroe Islands
(part of the Danish realm)
_#_Total area: 1,400 km2; land area: 1,400 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 764 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

_#_Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 98%

_#_Environment: precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal
lowlands; archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited

_#_Note: strategically located along important sea lanes in
northeastern Atlantic about midway between Iceland and Shetland Islands

_#_Population: 48,151 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Faroese (sing., pl.); adjective - Faroese

_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Scandinavian population

_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran

_#_Language: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 17,585; largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
transportation, and commerce

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark

_#_Capital: Torshavn

_#_Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

_#_Independence: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark

_#_Constitution: Danish

_#_Legal system: Danish

_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

_#_Executive branch: Danish monarch, high commissioner, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet (Landsstyri)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Logting)

_#_Judicial branch: none


Chief of State - Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Atli P. DAM (since 15
January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
two-party ruling coalition - Social Democratic Party, Atli P. DAM;
People's Party, Jogvan SUNDSTEIN;

opposition - Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN;
Republican Party, Signer HANSEN;
Progressive and Fishing Industry Party-Christian People's Party
(PFIP-CPP), leader NA; Progress Party, leader NA; Home Rule Party, Hilmar

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


Faroese Parliament - last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held
November 1994); results - Social Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%,
Cooperation Coalition Party 18.9%, Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule
8.8%, PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%;
seats - (32 total) two-party coalition 17 (Social Democratic 10, People's
Party 7), Cooperation Coalition Party 6, Republican Party 4,
Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2;

Danish Parliament - last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be
held by December 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (2 total) Social Democratic 1, People's Party 1; note - the
Faroe Islands elects two representatives to the Danish Parliament

_#_Communists: insignificant number

_#_Member of:

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

_#_Flag: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

_#_Overview: The Faroese, who have long been enjoying the affluent
living standards of the Danes and other Scandinavians,
now must cope with the decline of the all-important fishing
industry and with an external debt twice the size of annual
income. When the nations of the world extended their fishing
zones to 200 nautical miles in the early 1970s, the Faroese
no longer could continue their traditional long-distance fishing
and subsequently depleted their own nearby fishing areas; one
estimate foresaw a 25% drop in fish catch in 1990 alone. Half the
fishing fleet is for sale, and the 22 fish-processing plants work
at only half capacity. The government no longer can maintain its
high level of spending on roads and tunnels, hospitals, sports
facilities, and other social welfare programs.

_#_GDP: $662 million, per capita $14,000; real growth rate 3%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%, but increasing

_#_Budget: revenues $442 million; expenditures $442 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $343 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs,
transport equipment;

partners - Denmark 16%, UK 14%, FRG 13.4%, US 10%, France 9%,
Japan 5%

_#_Imports: $344 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities - machinery and transport equipment 30%,
manufactures 16%, food and livestock 15%, chemicals 6%, fuels 4%;

partners: Denmark 44%, Norway 16%, FRG 6%, Sweden 6%, US 3%

_#_External debt: $1.3 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 80,000 kW capacity; 280 million kWh produced,
5,910 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor
force; principal crops - potatoes and vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual
fish catch about 360,000 metric tons

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Danish krone (plural - kroner); 1 Danish krone
(DKr) = 100 ore

_#_Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 5.817 (January
1991), 6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091
(1986), 10.596 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Highways: 200 km

_#_Ports: Torshavn, Tvoroyri

_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,249
GRT/11,887 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 2 cargo, 2
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo; note - a subset of the
Danish register

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good international communications; fair
domestic facilities; 27,900 telephones; stations - 1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters)
FM, 3 (29 repeaters) TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no organized native military forces; only a small
Police Force is maintained

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark
[email protected]_Fiji
_#_Total area: 18,270 km2; land area: 18,270 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,129 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;
rectilinear shelf claim added;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

_#_Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper; offshore oil

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures
3%; forest and woodland 65%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes from November to January;
includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited

_#_Note: located 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific

_#_Population: 744,006 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 12 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Fijian(s); adjective - Fijian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Indian 49%, Fijian 46%, European, other Pacific
Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%

_#_Religion: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%),
Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%; note - Fijians are mainly Christian,
Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim minority (1986)

_#_Language: English (official); Fijian; Hindustani

_#_Literacy: 86% (male 90%, female 81%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985 est.)

_#_Labor force: 235,000; subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners
18%, salary earners 15% (1987)

_#_Organized labor: about 45,000 employees belong to some 46 trade
unions, which are organized along lines of work and ethnic origin (1983)

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Fiji

_#_Type: military coup leader Major General Sitiveni Rabuka formally
declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

_#_Capital: Suva

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

_#_Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987);
a new Constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated
on 25 July 1990

_#_Legal system: based on British system

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: the bicameral Parliament, consisting of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives,
was dissolved following the coup of 14 May 1987; the Constitution of 23
September 1988 provides for a bicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu GANILAU
(since 5 December 1987);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 5
December 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Josefata KAMIKAMICA (since NA
October 1991);
note - Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA served as prime minister from 10 October
1970 until the 5-11 April 1987 election; after a second coup led by
Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA on 25 September 1987, Ratu Sir Kamisese
MARA was reappointed as prime minister

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Fijian Political Party (primarily Fijian), leader NA;
National Federation (primarily Indian), Siddiq KOYA;
Western United Front (Fijian), Ratu Osea GAVIDI;
Fiji Labor Party, Adi Kuini BAVADRA

_#_Suffrage: none


House of Representatives - last held 14 May 1987 (next to be
held July 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats, ethnic
Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) number of seats
by party NA

_#_Communists: some

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Charge d'Affaires Ratu Finau MARA;
Chancery at Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007;
telephone (202) 337-8320; there is a Fijian Consulate in New York;

US - Ambassador Evelyn I. H. TEEGEN; Embassy at 31 Loftus Street,
Suva (mailing address is P. O. Box 218, Suva); telephone [679] 314-466 or

_#_Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag;
the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the
cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree,
bananas, and a white dove

_#_Overview: Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large
subsistence sector. Sugar exports are a major source of foreign exchange
and sugar processing accounts for one-third of industrial output.
Industry, including sugar milling, contributes 13% to GDP. Fiji
traditionally had earned considerable sums of hard currency from the
250,000 tourists who visited each year. In 1987, however, after two
military coups, the economy went into decline. GDP dropped by 7.8% in
1987 and by another 2.5% in 1988; political uncertainty created a drop in
tourism, and the worst drought of the century caused sugar production
to fall sharply. In contrast, sugar and tourism turned in strong
performances in 1989, and the economy rebounded vigorously. In 1990
the economy received a setback from cyclone Sina which cut sugar
output by an estimated 21%.

_#_GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $1,693; real growth rate 3.5%
(1991 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (1991 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.9 (1991 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $314 million; expenditures $355 million,
including capital expenditures of $81 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $646 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.);

commodities - sugar 40%, gold, clothing, copra, processed fish,

partners - EC 31%, Australia 21%, Japan 8%, US 6%

_#_Imports: $840 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.);

commodities - machinery and transport 32%, food 15%, petroleum
products, consumer goods, chemicals;

partners - Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%

_#_External debt: $428 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.4% (1991 est.); accounts
for 13% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 215,000 kW capacity; 330 million kWh produced, 430
kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, fishing, clothing,
lumber, small cottage industries

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is
sugarcane; coconuts, cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, and bananas; small
livestock sector includes cattle, pigs, horses, and goats

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-87), $732 million

_#_Currency: Fijian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Fijian dollar
(F$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.4476 (January
1991), 1.4809 (1990), 1.4833 (1989), 1.4303 (1988), 1.2439 (1987), 1.1329
(1986), 1.1536 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the
government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation

_#_Highways: 3,300 km total (1984) - 390 km paved; 1,200 km
bituminous-surface treatment; 1,290 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized soil surface; 420 unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

_#_Ports: Lambasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva

_#_Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 34,214
GRT/37,161 DWT; includes 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container,
1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

_#_Civil air: 1 DC-3 and 1 light aircraft

_#_Airports: 26 total, 24 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern local, interisland, and international
(wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph,
and teleprinter facilities; regional radio center; important COMPAC cable
link between US-Canada and New Zealand-Australia; 53,228 telephones;
stations - 7 AM, 1 FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Fiji Military Force (FMF; Army, Navy, Police)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 190,120; 104,861 fit for
military service; 7,879 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $25.8 million, 2.5% of GDP (1988)
[email protected]_Finland
_#_Total area: 337,030 km2; land area: 305,470 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

_#_Land boundaries: 2,628 km total; Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km,
USSR 1,313 km

_#_Coastline: 1,126 km excluding islands and coastal indentations

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 6 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

_#_Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively
mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current,
Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

_#_Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

_#_Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 24 of 89)