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NEGL%; forest and woodland 76%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land;
population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain


_#_Note: long boundary with USSR; Helsinki is northernmost national
capital on European continent


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,991,131 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 80 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Finn(s); adjective - Finnish


_#_Ethnic divisions: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar


_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%,
none 9%, other 1%


_#_Language: Finnish 93.5%, Swedish (both official) 6.3%; small Lapp-
and Russian-speaking minorities


_#_Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,470,000; services 38.2%, mining and manufacturing
22.7%, commerce 14.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8.8%,
construction 8.0%, transportation and communications 7.2% (1989)


_#_Organized labor: 80% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Finland


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Helsinki


_#_Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit,
singular - laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi,
Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa


_#_Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)


_#_Constitution: 17 July 1919


_#_Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court
may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of State (Valtioneuvosto)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Eduskunta


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991);
Deputy Prime Minister Ilkka KANERVA (since 26 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

government coalition - Center Party, Esko AHO;
National Coalition (Conservative) Party, Ilkka SUOMINEN; and
Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole NORRBACK;

other parties - Social Democratic Party, Pertti PAASIO;
Leftist Alliance (Communist) consisting of People's Democratic League and
Democratic Alternative, Claes ANDERSSON;
Green League, Heidi HAUTALA;
Rural Party, Heikki RIIHIJAERVI;
Finnish Christian League, Esko ALMGREN;
Liberal People's Party, Kyosti LALLUKKA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held 31 January-1 February and 15 February
1988 (next to be held January 1994);
results - Mauno KOIVISTO 48%, Paavo VAYRYNEN 20%, Harri HOLKERI 18%;

Eduskunta - last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March
1995);
results - Center Party 24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%,
Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal People's Party 0.8%;
seats - (200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic Party 48,
National Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
19, Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish Christian League
8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1


_#_Communists: 28,000 registered members; an additional 45,000 persons
belong to People's Democratic League


_#_Other political or pressure groups:
Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Esko-Juhani TENNILA;
Constitutional Rightist Party;
Finnish Pensioners Party;
Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI; Chancery at
3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington DC 20016; telephone (202) 363-2430;
there are Finnish Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York,
and Consulates in Chicago and Houston;

US - Ambassador John G. WEINMANN; Embassy at Itainen Puistotie
14A, SF-00140, Helsinki (mailing address is APO New York 09664);
telephone [358] (0) 171931


_#_Flag: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in
the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market
economy, with per capita output nearly three-fourths the US figure.
Its main economic force is the manufacturing sector - principally
the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is important, with
the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and
several minerals, Finland depends on imported raw materials, energy, and
some components of manufactured goods. Because of the climate,
agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in
basic commodities. The economy, which experienced an average of 4.9%
annual growth between 1987 and 1989, leveled off in 1990 and is now
in a recession facing negative growth in 1991. The clearing account
system between Finland and the Soviet Union in the postwar period - mainly
Soviet oil and gas for Finnish manufactured goods - had kept Finland
isolated from world recessions; the system, however, was dismantled on
1 January 1991 in favor of hard currency trade. As a result, Finland must
increase its competitiveness in certain sectors, for example, textiles,
foodstuffs, paper, and metals, and has already begun to shift trade
westward. Finland, as a member of EFTA, is negotiating a European
Economic Area arrangement with the EC which would allow for free
movement of capital, goods, services, and labor within the organization.


_#_GDP: $77.3 billion, per capita $15,500; real growth rate - 0.1%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.0% (1991 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1991 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $35.1 billion; expenditures $33.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.4 billion (1990)


_#_Exports: $23.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and
footwear;

partners - EC 44.0% (UK 12.0%, FRG 10.8%), USSR 14.5%, Sweden 14.3%,
US 6.4%


_#_Imports: $24.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn
and fabrics, fodder grains;

partners - EC 44.5% (FRG 17.3%, UK 6.6%), Sweden 13.6%, USSR 11.5%,
US 6.3%


_#_External debt: $5.3 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 3.0% (1991 est.); accounts
for 28% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 13,324,000 kW capacity; 49,330 million kWh produced,
9,940 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: metal manufacturing and shipbuilding, forestry and wood
processing (pulp, paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals,
textiles, clothing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GNP (including forestry); livestock
production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an
important export earner and a secondary occupation for the rural
population; main crops - cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85%
self-sufficient, but short of food and fodder grains; annual fish catch
about 160,000 metric tons


_#_Economic aid: donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7
billion


_#_Currency: markka (plural - markkaa); 1 markka (FMk) or
Finmark = 100 pennia


_#_Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 3.6421 (January 1991),
3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988), 4.3956 (1987), 5.0695
(1986), 6.1979 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a
total of 5,863 km 1.524-meter gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track
and 1,445 km are electrified


_#_Highways: about 103,000 km total, including 35,000 km paved
(bituminous, concrete, bituminous-treated surface) and 38,000 km unpaved
(stabilized gravel, gravel, earth); additional 30,000 km of private
(state-subsidized) roads


_#_Inland waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km
suitable for steamers


_#_Pipelines: natural gas, 580 km


_#_Ports: Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku; 6 secondary, numerous
minor ports


_#_Merchant marine: 83 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 807,020
GRT/831,774 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 10 short-sea passenger, 16 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 23 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 14 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 8 bulk


_#_Civil air: 42 major transport


_#_Airports: 160 total, 157 usable; 57 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: good service from cable and radio relay
network; 3,140,000 telephones; stations - 4 AM, 42 (101 relays) FM, 79
(197 relays) TV; 2 submarine cables; satellite service via Swedish earth
stations; earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 EUTELSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including
Sea Guard)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,313,346; 1,089,217 fit for
military service; 32,866 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 1.5% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_France
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 547,030 km2; land area: 545,630 km2; includes Corsica
and the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas
administrative divisions


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado


_#_Land boundaries: 2,892.4 km total; Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km,
Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km,
Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km


_#_Coastline: 3,427 km (includes Corsica, 644 km)


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12-24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Canada (Saint Pierre and
Miquelon); Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims
Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin
Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton
Island; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land)


_#_Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters
and hot summers along the Mediterranean


_#_Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and
west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in
east


_#_Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc,
potash


_#_Land use: arable land 32%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
23%; forest and woodland 27%; other 16%; includes irrigated 2%


_#_Environment: most of large urban areas and industrial centers in
Rhone, Garonne, Seine, or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical
wind known as mistral


_#_Note: largest West European nation


_*_People
_#_Population: 56,595,587 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 82 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women);
adjective - French


_#_Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North
African, Indochinese, and Basque minorities


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%,
Muslim (North African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%


_#_Language: French (100% of population); rapidly declining regional
dialects (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
Flemish)


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)


_#_Labor force: 24,170,000; services 61.5%, industry 31.3%,
agriculture 7.3% (1987)


_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force (est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: French Republic


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Paris


_#_Administrative divisions: metropolitan France - 22 regions
(regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne,
Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse,
Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon,
Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais,
Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes,
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes;

note - the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see separate
entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon)


_#_Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna;
note - the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica


_#_Independence: unified by Clovis in 486, First Republic proclaimed
in 1792


_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962


_#_Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts


_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
1981);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Edith CRESSON (since 15 May
1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR, formerly UDR), Jacques CHIRAC;
Union for French Democracy (UDF, federation of PR, CDS, and RAD),
Valery Giscard d'ESTAING;
Republican Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET;
Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Pierre MEHAIGNERIE;
Radical (RAD), Yves GALLARD;
Socialist Party (PS), Pierre MAUROY;
Left Radical Movement (MRG), Yves COLLIN;
Communist Party (PCF), Georges MARCHAIS;
National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995);
results - Second Ballot Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%;

Senate - last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1992); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments
and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 93,
UDF 143 (PR 53, CDS 65, RAD 25), PS 64, PCF 16, independents 2,
unknown 3;

National Assembly - last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held
June 1993);
results - Second Ballot PS-MRG 48.7%, RPR 23.1%, UDF 21%, PCF 3.4%,
other 3.8%;
seats - (577 total) PS 275, RPR 132, UDF 90, UDC 40, PCF 25, independents
15


_#_Communists: 700,000 claimed but probably closer to 150,000;
Communist voters, 2.8 million in 1988 election


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor
union (Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly 2.4 million
members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members
est.; independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members
(est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale
des Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French
Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat)


_#_Member of: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BDEAC,
BIS, CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECA (associate),
ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT, G-5, G-7, G-10, IABD, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI; Chancery at
4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 944-6000;
there are French Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
Los Angeles, New Orleans, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico);

US - Ambassador Walter J. P. CURLEY; Embassy at 2 Avenue
Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08 (mailing address is APO New York 09777);
telephone [33] (1) 42-96-12-02 or 42-61-80-75; there are US Consulates
General in Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, and Strasbourg


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and
red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and
colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including those
of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Ivory Coast, and Luxembourg; the official flag
for all French dependent areas


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: One of the world's most developed economies, France
has substantial agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern
industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of
modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
agricultural producer in Western Europe. France is largely
self-sufficient in agricultural products and is a major exporter of
wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector generates about
one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has become crucial
to the economy. After sluggish growth during the period 1982-87, the
economy expanded at a rapid 3.8% pace in 1988-89. The economy
slowed down in 1990, with growth of 2.0% expected in 1991.
The economy has had difficulty generating enough jobs for new
entrants into the labor force, resulting in a high unemployment rate,
which probably will rise to around 10% during the slowdown.
The steadily advancing economic integration within the European
Community is a major force affecting the fortunes of the various economic
sectors.


_#_GDP: $873.5 billion, per capita $15,500; real growth rate 2.8%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 9% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $207.6 billion; expenditures $224.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $34 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $181.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and
clothing;

partners - FRG 16%, Italy 12.1%, UK 9.5%, Spain 9.5%,
Netherlands 9.2%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.9%, US 6.6%, Japan 1.9%,
USSR 1.0% (1989 est.)


_#_Imports: $201.6 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
products, chemicals, iron and steel products;

partners - FRG 19.4%, Italy 11.6%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.2%,
Netherlands 8.6%, US 7.6%, Spain 7.4%, UK 7.1%, Japan 4.1%,
USSR 1.4% (1989 est.)


_#_External debt: $59.3 billion (December 1987)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.7% (1989); accounts
for 26% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 109,972,000 kW capacity; 403,570 million kWh produced,
7,210 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, and tourism


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GNP (including fishing and
forestry); one of the world's top five wheat producers; other principal
products - beef, dairy products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine
grapes; self-sufficient for most temperate-zone foods; shortages include
fats and oils and tropical produce, but overall net exporter of farm
products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among world's top
20 countries and is all used domestically


_#_Economic aid: donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1
billion


_#_Currency: French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes


_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.8 (May 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,568 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; 11,674 km electrified, 15,132 km double or
multiple track; 2,138 km of various gauges (1.000-meter to 1.440-meter),
privately owned and operated


_#_Highways: 1,551,400 km total; 33,400 km national highway;
347,000 km departmental highway; 421,000 km community roads; 750,000 km
rural roads; 5,401 km of controlled-access divided autoroutes; about
803,000 km paved


_#_Inland waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 3,059 km; refined products, 4,487 km; natural
gas, 24,746 km


_#_Ports: maritime - Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque,
Fos-Sur-Mer, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Rouen, Sete, Toulon;
inland - 42


_#_Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,141,276
GRT/5,006,695 DWT; includes 8 short-sea passenger, 15 cargo, 18
container, 2 multifunction large-load carrier, 29 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
34 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 chemical tanker,
6 liquefied gas, 2 specialized tanker, 11 bulk; note - France also
maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen
Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia


_#_Civil air: 195 (1989 est.)


_#_Airports: 470 total, 460 usable; 246 with permanent-surface
runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 34 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
136 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: highly developed system provides satisfactory
telephone, telegraph, radio and TV broadcast services; 39,200,000
telephones; stations - 40 AM, 138 (777 relays) FM, 216 (8,902 relays) TV;
25 submarine coaxial cables; communication satellite earth stations
operating in INTELSAT, 3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, EUTELSAT,
MARISAT, and domestic systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,366,492; 12,077,706 fit for
military service; 395,128 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $29.7 billion, 3.6% of GDP (1990)
_%_
[email protected]_French Guiana
(overseas department of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 91,000 km2; land area: 89,150 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana


_#_Land boundaries: 1,183 km total; Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km


_#_Coastline: 378 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and
Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature
variation


_#_Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small
mountains


_#_Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered),
cinnabar, kaolin, fish


_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 82%; other 18%


_#_Environment: mostly an unsettled wilderness


_*_People
_#_Population: 101,603 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 25 of 89)