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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Environment: deforestation

_#_Note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the
continent of Africa

_#_Population: 874,553 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 138 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 47 years male, 51 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Gambian(s); adjective - Gambian

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%,
Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%); non-Gambian 1%

_#_Religion: Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%

_#_Language: English (official); Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other
indigenous vernaculars

_#_Literacy: 27% (male 39%, female 16%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 400,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 75.0%, industry,
commerce, and services 18.9%, government 6.1%; 55% population of
working age (1983)

_#_Organized labor: 25-30% of wage labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of The Gambia

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Banjul

_#_Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower
River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank, Upper River, Western

_#_Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK); The Gambia and Senegal
signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982)
that called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as
Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

_#_Constitution: 24 April 1970

_#_Legal system: based on a composite of English common law,
Koranic law, and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Alhaji Sir Dawda
Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice President Bakary Bunja DARBO
(since 12 May 1982)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA;
Gambian People's Party (GPP), Assan Musa CAMARA;
United Party (UP);
People's Democratic Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


President - last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992);
results - Sir Dawda JAWARA (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 25.2%,
Assan Musa CAMARA (GPP) 13.7%;

House of Representatives - last held on 11 March 1987 (next to
be held by March 1992);
results - PPP 56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%;
seats - (43 total, 36 elected) PPP 31, NCP 5

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH; Chancery at
Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20005;
telephone (202) 842-1356 or 842-1359;

US - Ambassador Arlene RENDER; Embassy at Pipeline Road
(Kairaba Avenue), Fajara, Banjul (mailing address is P. M. B. No. 19,
Banjul); telephone Serrekunda [220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white
edges, and green

_#_Overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural
resources and has a limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's
poorest countries with a per capita income of about $230. About 75%
of the population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising,
which contributes 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing
activity - processing peanuts, fish, and hides - accounts for less than
10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia imports
one-third of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods. Exports
are concentrated on peanut products (about 75% of total value).

_#_GDP: $195 million, per capita $230; real growth rate 6.0% (FY90

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.0% (FY91)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $79 million; expenditures $84 million,
including capital expenditures of $21 million (FY90)

_#_Exports: $116 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities - peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm

partners - Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1% other 5% (1989)

_#_Imports: $147 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities - foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel,
machinery and transport equipment;

partners - Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR/EE 9%, US 6%, other 3%

_#_External debt: $336 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 6.7%; accounts for 5.8%
of GDP (FY90)

_#_Electricity: 29,000 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced, 80 kWh
per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural
machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the
population; imports one-third of food requirements; major export crop is
peanuts; the principal crops - millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava,
palm kernels; livestock - cattle, sheep, and goats; forestry and fishing
resources not fully exploited

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $492 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $39 million

_#_Currency: dalasi (plural - dalasi); 1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs

_#_Exchange rates: dalasi (D) per US$1 - 7.610 (January 1991),
7.883 (1990), 7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987),
6.9380 (1986), 3.8939 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Highways: 3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite,
and 2,151 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 400 km

_#_Ports: Banjul

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate network of radio relay and wire;
3,500 telephones; stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, paramilitary Gendarmerie, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 188,393; 95,133 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 0.7% of GDP (1988)
[email protected]_Gaza Strip
_#_Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967
ended with Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the
Sinai, and the Golan Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords
and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative,
the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship
with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to
be negotiated among the concerned parties. Camp David further specifies
that these negotiations will resolve the respective boundaries. Pending
the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of
the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be determined. In the view of
the US, the term West Bank describes all of the area west of the Jordan
under Jordanian administration before the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. With
respect to negotiations envisaged in the framework agreement, however, it
is US policy that a distinction must be made between Jerusalem and the
rest of the West Bank because of the city's special status and
circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the final status of
Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the rest of the
West Bank.

_#_Total area: 380km2; land area: 380 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington,

_#_Land boundaries: 62 km total; Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

_#_Coastline: 40 km

_#_Maritime claims: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

_#_Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

_#_Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

_#_Terrain: flat to rolling, sand and dune covered coastal plain

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 13%, permanent crops 32%, meadows and
pastures 0%, forest and woodland 0%, other 55%

_#_Environment: desertification

_#_Note: there are 18 Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip

_#_Population: 642,253 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991);
in addition, there are 2,500 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1990

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 41 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: NA

_#_Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2%

_#_Religion: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%,
Jewish 0.3%

_#_Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: (excluding Israeli Jewish settlers) small
industry, commerce and business 32.0%, construction 24.4%, service
and other 25.5%, and agriculture 18.1% (1984)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Note: The Gaza Strip is currently governed by Israeli military
authorities and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the
final status of the Gaza Strip will be determined by negotiations among
the concerned parties. These negotiations will determine how this area is
to be governed.

_#_Overview: Nearly half the labor force of the Gaza Strip is
employed across the border by Israeli industrial, construction, and
agricultural enterprises, with worker transfer funds accounting for 46%
of GNP in 1990. The once dominant agricultural sector now contributes
only 13% to GNP, about the same as that of the construction sector, and
industry accounts for 7%. Gaza depends upon Israel for 90% of its
imports and as a market for 80% of its exports. Unrest in the territory
in 1988-91 (intifadah) has raised unemployment and substantially
lowered the incomes of the population. Furthermore, the Persian Gulf
crisis dealt a severe blow to the Gaza Strip in 1990 and on into 1991.
Worker remittances from the Gulf states have plunged, unemployment has
increased, and export revenues have fallen dramatically. The risk of
malnutrition is a real possibility in 1991.

_#_GNP: $270 million, per capita $430; real growth rate - 25%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $36.6 million; expenditures $32.0 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1986)

_#_Exports: $88 million;

commodities - citrus;

partners - Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)

_#_Imports: $260 million;

commodities - food, consumer goods, construction materials;

partners - Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: power supplied by Israel

_#_Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the
Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in an
industrial center

_#_Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef,
dairy products

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural - shekels);
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

_#_Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.0120 (January
1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878
(1986), 1.1788

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-March 31

_#_Railroads: one line, abandoned and in disrepair, but trackage

_#_Highways: small, poorly developed indigenous road network

_#_Ports: facilities for small boats to service Gaza

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway less than 1,220 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: NA

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 136,311; NA fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
[email protected]_Germany
_#_Total area: 356,910 km2; land area: 349,520 km2; comprises the
formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic
Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3 October 1990

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

_#_Land boundaries: 3,790 km total; Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km,
Czechoslovakia 815 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km,
Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

_#_Coastline: 2,389 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of
Baltic Sea - 3 nm (extends, at one point, to 16 nm in the
Helgolander Bucht); remainder of Baltic Sea - 12 nm

_#_Disputes: the boundaries of Germany were set by the Treaty on the
Final Settlement With Respect to Germany signed 12 September 1990 in
Moscow by the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic
Republic, France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet
Union; this treaty entered into force on 15 March 1991; a subsequent
treaty between Germany and Poland, reaffirming the German-Polish
boundary, was signed on 14 November 1990 and is set to be ratified in
1991; the US Government is seeking to settle the property claims of US
nationals against the former GDR

_#_Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and
summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

_#_Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in

_#_Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite,
uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel

_#_Land use: arable land 34%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 16%; forest and woodland 30%; other 19%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: air and water pollution; ground water, lakes, and
air quality in eastern Germany are especially bad; significant
deforestation in the eastern mountains caused by air pollution and acid

_#_Note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the
entrance to the Baltic Sea

_#_Population: 79,548,498 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - German(s); adjective - German

_#_Ethnic divisions: primarily German; small Danish and Slavic

_#_Religion: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or
other 18%

_#_Language: German

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)

_#_Labor force: 36,750,000; industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53%

_#_Organized labor: 47% of labor force (1986 est.)

_#_Long-form name: Federal Republic of Germany

_#_Type: federal republic

_#_Capital: Berlin; note - the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take
place over a period of years with Bonn retaining many administrative

_#_Administrative divisions: 16 states (lander, singular - land);
Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg,
Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen,
Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein,

_#_Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided
into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945
following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany)
proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones;
German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October
1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and
East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power rights formally
relinquished 15 March 1991

_#_Constitution: 23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as
Basic Law

_#_Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: 3 October 1990, German Unity Day

_#_Executive branch: president, chancellor, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral parliament (no official name
for the two chambers as a whole) consists of an upper chamber or
Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower chamber or Federal Diet

_#_Judicial branch:
Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)

Chief of State - President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER
(since 1 July 1984);

Head of Government - Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL
(since 4 October 1982)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman;
Christian Social Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL;
Free Democratic Party (FDP), Otto Count LAMBSDORFF, chairman;
Social Democratic Party (SPD), Bjoern ENGHOLM, chairman;
Green Party - Volmer LUDGER, Christine WEISKE, co-chairmen
(after the 2 December 1990 election the East and West German
Green Parties united);
Alliance 90 includes three parties - New Forum, Jens REICH, Sebastian
PFLUGBEIL, spokespersons; Democracy Now, Konrad WEISS, spokesperson;
and Initiative, Peace, and Human Rights Party, Gerd POPPE;
Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS, formerly the East German
Communist Party), Gregor GYSI, chairman;
Republikaner, Franz SCHONHUBER;
National Democratic Party (NPD), Martin MUSSGNUG;
Communist Party (DKP), Herbert MIES

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

Federal Diet - last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held
by December 1994); results - CDU 36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%,
Green Party (West Germany) 3.9%, PDS 2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%,
Alliance 90/Green Party (East Germany) 1.2%, other 2.1%;
seats - (662 total, 656 statutory with special rules to allow for
slight expansion) CDU 268, SPD 239, FDP 79, CSU 51, PDS 17, Alliance
90/Green Party (East Germany) 8; note - special rules for this
election allowed former East German parties to win seats if they
received at least 5% of vote in eastern Germany

West - about 40,000 members and supporters;
East - 284,000 party members (December 1990)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and veterans

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN,

_#_Diplomatic representation:

Ambassador Jeurgen RUHFUS; Chancery at 4645 Reservoir Road NW,
Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 298-4000; there are German
Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and New York, and Consulates
in Miami and New Orleans;

US - Ambassador-designate Robert M. KIMMITT; Embassy at Deichmanns
Avenue, 5300 Bonn 2 (mailing address is APO New York 09080); telephone
[49] (228) 3391; there is a US Branch Office in Berlin and US Consulates
General in Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

_#_Overview: The newly unified German economy presents a starkly
contrasting picture. Western Germany has an advanced market economy
and is a leading exporter. It experienced faster-than-projected real
growth largely because of demand in eastern Germany for western German
goods. Western Germany has a highly urbanized and skilled population
which enjoys excellent living standards, abundant leisure time, and
comprehensive social welfare benefits. Western Germany is relatively
poor in natural resources, coal being the most important mineral.
Western Germany's world-class companies manufacture technologically
advanced goods. The region's economy is mature: manufacturing and service
industries account for the dominant share of economic activity, and raw
materials and semimanufactured products constitute a large proportion of
imports. In 1989 manufacturing accounted for 31% of GDP, with other
sectors contributing lesser amounts. In recent years, gross fixed
investment has accounted for about 21% of GDP. In 1990 GDP in the western
region was an estimated $16,300 per capita.

In contrast, eastern Germany's obsolete command economy, once
dominated by smokestack heavy industries, has been undergoing a
wrenching change to a market economy. Industrial production in early
1991 is down 50% from the same period last year, due largely to the
slump in domestic demand for eastern German-made goods and the ongoing
economic restructuring. The FRG's legal, social welfare, and economic
systems have been extended to the east, but economic
restructuring - privatizing industry, establishing clear property rights,
clarifying responsibility for environmental clean-up, and removing
Communist-era holdovers from management - is proceeding slowly
so far, deterring outside investors. The region is one of the world's
largest producers of low-grade lignite coal, but has few other resources.
The quality of statistics from eastern Germany remains poor; Bonn is
still trying to bring statistics for the region in line with West German

The most challenging economic problem of a united Germany is the
reconstruction of eastern Germany's economy - specifically, finding the
right mix of fiscal, regulatory, monetary, and tax policies that
will spur investment in the east without derailing western Germany's
healthy economy or damaging relations with Western partners. The
biggest danger is that soaring unemployment in eastern Germany, which
could climb to the 30 to 40% range, could touch off labor disputes
or renewed mass relocation to western Germany and erode investor
confidence in eastern Germany. Overall economic activity grew an
estimated 4.6% in western Germany in 1990, while dropping roughly 15% in
eastern Germany. Per capita GDP in the eastern region was approximately
$8,700 in 1990.

_#_GDP: $1,157.2 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 1.7%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices):
West - 3.0% (1989);
East - 0.8% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate:
West - 7.1% (1990);
East - 1% (1989); 3% (first half, 1990)

West - revenues $539 billion; expenditures $563 billion, including
capital expenditures of $11.5 billion (1988);
East - revenues $147.0 billion; expenditures $153.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1988)


West - $324.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine
tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products),
agricultural products 4.9%, raw materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%;

partners - EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 9%, Italy 9%, UK 9%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 18%, US 10%, Eastern
Europe 4%, OPEC 3% (1987);

East - $32.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - machinery and transport equipment 47%, fuels and
metals 16%, consumer goods 16%, chemical products and building
materials 13%, semimanufactured goods and processed foodstuffs 8%;

partners - USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, FRG, Hungary, Bulgaria,
Switzerland, Romania, EC, US (1989)


West - $247.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - manufactures 68.5%, agricultural products 12.0%,
fuels 9.7%, raw materials 7.1%;

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 27 of 89)