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[email protected]_Algeria
_#_Total area: 2,381,740 km2; land area: 2,381,740 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 6,343 km total; Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km,
Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km,
Western Sahara 42 km

_#_Coastline: 998 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria

_#_Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

_#_Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
uranium, lead, zinc

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 13%; forest and woodland 2%; other 82%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes;

_#_Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

_#_Population: 26,022,188 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 32 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 57 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Algerian(s); adjective - Algerian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and
Jewish 1%

_#_Language: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

_#_Literacy: 50% (male 63%, female 36%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1987)

_#_Labor force: 3,700,000; industry and commerce 40%, agriculture
24%, government 17%, services 10% (1984)

_#_Organized labor: 16-19% of labor force claimed; General Union of
Algerian Workers (UGTA) is the only labor organization and is
subordinate to the National Liberation Front

_#_Long-form name: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Algiers

_#_Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayat, singular - wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
M'sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

_#_Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976

_#_Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of
various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly
(Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State - President Chadli BENDJEDID (since 7 February 1979);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Sid Ahmed GHOZALI (since
6 June 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Liberation Front (FLN), Chadli BENDJEDID, president;
Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), Abassi MADANI;
the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and as
of 31 December 1990 over 30 legal parties existed

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held on 22 December 1988 (next to be held December
1993); results - President BENDJEDID was reelected without opposition;

National People's Assembly - last held on 26 February 1987 (next
were to be held 27 June 1991 but postponed indefinitely because
of civil unrest);
results - FLN was the only party;
seats - (281 total) FLN 281; note - the government held multiparty
elections (municipal and wilaya) in June 1990, the first in Algerian
history; results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters

_#_Communists: 400 (est.); Communist party banned 1962

_#_Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-19,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abderrahmane BENSID;
Chancery at 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 328-5300;

US - Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS; Embassy at 4 Chemin Cheich
Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers (mailing address is B. P. Box 549,
Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers); telephone [213] (2) 601-425 or 255, 186;
there is a US Consulate in Oran

_#_Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white
with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent,
star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state

_#_Overview: The exploitation of oil and natural gas products forms
the backbone of the economy. Algeria depends on hydrocarbons for nearly
all of its export receipts, about 30% of government revenues, and nearly
25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in oil prices led to a booming
economy and helped to finance an ambitious program of industrialization.
Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the mismanagement of Algeria's
highly centralized economy, have brought the nation to its most serious
social and economic crisis since independence. The government has
promised far-reaching reforms, including giving public-sector companies
more autonomy, encouraging private-sector activity, boosting gas and
nonhydrocarbon exports, and proposing a major overhaul of the banking
and financial systems, but to date has made little progress.

_#_GDP: $54 billion, per capita $2,130; real growth rate 2.5%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.6% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 26% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $16.7 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $6.6 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - petroleum and natural gas 98%;

partners - Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, France, US

_#_Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - capital goods 29%, consumer goods 30%;

partners - France 25%, Italy 8%, FRG 8%, US 6-7%

_#_External debt: $26.6 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate -3% (1989 est.); accounts for
30% of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 5,156,000 kW capacity; 14,900 million kWh
produced, 580 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining,
electrical, petrochemical, food processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GDP and employs 24% of labor
force; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, and sugar; farm
production includes wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits,
sheep,and cattle

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $8.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion

_#_Currency: Algerian dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Algerian dinar
(DA) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 13.581 (January
1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988), 4.8497 (1987), 4.7023
(1986), 5.0278 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 4,146 km total; 2,632 km standard gauge (1.435 m),
1,258 km 1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified;
215 km double track

_#_Highways: 80,000 km total; 60,000 km concrete or bituminous,
20,000 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 6,612 km; refined products, 298 km; natural
gas, 2,948 km

_#_Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Jijel, Mers el Kebir,
Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda

_#_Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179
GRT/1,063,994 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 2 vehicle
carrier, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized

_#_Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 145 total, 134 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 66 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service in
the north, sparse in the south; 693,000 telephones; stations - 26 AM, no
FM, 113 TV; 1,550,000 TV sets; 3,500,000 receiver sets; 6 submarine
cables; coaxial cable or radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco,
and Tunisia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT, and 15 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense,
National Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,142,818; 3,780,873 fit for
military service; 293,175 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $857 million, 1.8% of GDP (1991)
[email protected]_American Samoa
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 199 km2; land area: 199 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 116 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds;
annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April,
dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited
coastal plains, two coral atolls

_#_Natural resources: pumice and pumicite

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 75%; other 10%

_#_Environment: typhoons common from December to March

_#_Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in
the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected
by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location about
3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about
halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

_#_Population: 43,052 (July 1991), growth rate 2.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 8 immigrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - American Samoan(s); adjective - American Samoan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 90%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan
2%, other 6%

_#_Religion: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant denominations and other 30%

_#_Language: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
languages) and English; most people are bilingual

_#_Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 11,145; government 48%, tuna canneries 33%, other
19% (1986 est.)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Note: about 65,000 American Samoans live in the States of
California and Washington and 20,000 in Hawaii

_#_Long-form name: Territory of American Samoa

_#_Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US

_#_Capital: Pago Pago

_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

_#_Independence: none (territory of the US)

_#_Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

_#_National holiday: Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

_#_Executive branch: President of the US, governor, lieutenant

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) consists
of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State - President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989);
Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government - Governor Peter Tali COLEMAN (since 20
January 1989);
Lieutenant Governor Galea'i POUMELE (since NA 1989)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
nationals, not US citizens


Governor - last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992); results - Peter T. COLEMAN was elected (percent of vote NA);

Senate - last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November
results - senators elected by county councils from 12 senate
seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA;

House of Representatives - last held NA November 1990 (next to be
held November 1992);
results - representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts;
seats - (21 total, 20 elected and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swain's

US House of Representatives - last held 19 November 1990 (next
to be held November 1992);
results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as a nonvoting delegate

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: IOC, SPC

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

_#_Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the
fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan
symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

_#_Note: administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of
Territorial and International Affairs; indigenous inhabitants are US
nationals, not citizens of the US

_#_Overview: Economic development is strongly linked to the US, with
which American Samoa does 90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna
processing plants are the backbone of the private-sector economy, with
canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries are the second-largest
employer, exceeded only by the government. Other economic activities
include meat canning, handicrafts, dairy farming, and a slowly developing
tourist industry.

_#_GNP: $190 million, per capita $5,210; real growth rate NA% (1985)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 13.4% (1986)

_#_Budget: revenues $51.2 million; expenditures $59.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1990)

_#_Exports: $288 million (f.o.b., 1987);

commodities - canned tuna 93%;

partners - US 99.6%

_#_Imports: $346 million (c.i.f., 1987);

commodities - building materials 18%, food 17%, petroleum
products 14%;

partners - US 72%, Japan 7%, NZ 7%, Australia 5%, other 9%

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 42,000 kW capacity; 85 million kWh produced,
2,020 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign supplies
of raw tuna)

_#_Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams,
copra, pineapples, papayas

_#_Economic aid: $21,042,650 million in operational funds and
$5,948,931 million in construction funds for capital improvement projects
from the US Department of Interior (1991)

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_#_Railroads: none

_#_Highways: 350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved

_#_Ports: Pago Pago, Ta'u

_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m
(international airport at Tafuna, near Pago Pago); small airstrips on
Ta'u and Ofu

_#_Telecommunications: 6,500 telephones; stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV;
good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station, 1 COMSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
[email protected]_Andorra
_#_Total area: 450 km2; land area: 450 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: 125 km total; France 60 km, Spain 65 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers

_#_Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

_#_Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber,
iron ore, lead

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 56%; forest and woodland 22%; other 20%

_#_Environment: deforestation, overgrazing

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: 53,197 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 16 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Andorran(s); adjective - Andorran

_#_Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%,
French 6%, other 3%

_#_Religion: virtually all Roman Catholic

_#_Language: Catalan (official); many also speak some French and

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: none

_#_Long-form name: Principality of Andorra

_#_Type: unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president
of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally
by officials called verguers

_#_Capital: Andorra la Vella

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies,
singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les
Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

_#_Independence: 1278

_#_Constitution: none; some pareatges and decrees, mostly custom and

_#_Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

_#_Executive branch: two co-princes (president of France, bishop of
Seo de Urgel in Spain), two designated representatives (French veguer,
Episcopal veguer), two permanent delegates (French prefect for the
department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish vicar general for the Seo
de Urgel diocese), president of government, Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys
(Consell General de las Valls)

_#_Judicial branch: civil cases - Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan
(France) or the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel
(Spain); criminal cases - Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes)


Chiefs of State - French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21
May 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS;
Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Joan MARTI y Alanis (since 31
January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Batalla;

Head of Government - Oscar RIBAS Reig (since NA January 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: political parties not yet legally
recognized; traditionally no political parties but partisans for
particular independent candidates for the General Council on the basis of
competence, personality, and orientation toward Spain or France; various
small pressure groups developed in 1972; first formal political party,
Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976 and reorganized in
1979 as Andorran Democratic Party

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


General Council of the Valleys - last held 11 December 1989
(next to be held December 1993);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Member of: CSCE, INTERPOL, IOC

_#_Diplomatic representation: Andorra has no mission in the US;

US - includes Andorra within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District
and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically; Consul General
Ruth A. DAVIS; Consulate General at Via Layetana 33, Barcelona 3, Spain
(mailing address APO NY 09286); telephone [34] (3) 319-9550

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and
Romania which do not have a national coat of arms in the center
lar to the

_#_Overview: The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An
estimated 12 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's
duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Agricultural
production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to
be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. The
rapid pace of European economic integration is a potential threat to
Andorra's advantages from its duty-free status.

_#_GDP: $727 million, per capita $14,000; real growth rate NA%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: none

_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA

_#_Exports: $0.017 million (f.o.b., 1986);

commodities - electricity;

partners - France, Spain

_#_Imports: $531 million (f.o.b., 1986);

commodities - consumer goods, food;

partners - France, Spain

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced,
2,800 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco,
smuggling, banking

_#_Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye,
wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: French franc (plural - francs) and Spanish peseta
(plural - pesetas); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes and 1 Spanish peseta
(Pta) = 100 centimos

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 95.20 (January
1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05
(1986), 170.04 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 96 km

_#_Telecommunications: international digital microwave network;
international landline circuits to France and Spain; stations - 1 AM, no
FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
[email protected]_Angola
_#_Total area: 1,246,700 km2; land area: 1,246,700 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,198 km total; Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km,
Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km

_#_Coastline: 1,600 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 20 nm

_#_Disputes: civil war since independence on 11 November 1975;
on 31 May 1991 Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS
and Jonas SAVIMBI, leader of the National Union for the Total
Independence of Angola (UNITA), signed a peace treaty that calls for
multiparty elections between September and November 1992, an
internationally monitored cease-fire, and termination of outside
military assistance

_#_Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has
cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to

_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 3 of 89)