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_#_Nationality: noun - Icelander(s); adjective - Icelandic


_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians
and Celts


_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3%, none 1% (1988)


_#_Language: Icelandic


_#_Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1976 est.)


_#_Labor force: 134,429; commerce, finance, and services 55.4%, other
manufacturing 14.3%., agriculture 5.8%, fish processing 7.9%, fishing
5.0% (1986)


_#_Organized labor: 60% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Iceland


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Reykjavik


_#_Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular - sysla)
and 14 independent towns* (kaupstadhir, singular - kaupstadhur); Akranes*,
Akureyri*, Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla,
Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla,
Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*,
Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasysla,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla,
Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*,
Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla,
Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vestmannaeyjar*,
Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-Hunavatnssysla,
Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla


_#_Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)


_#_Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944


_#_Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic,
17 June (1944)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Althingi with an Upper
House (Efri Deild) and a Lower House (Nedri Deild)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Haestirettur)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1
August 1980);

Head of Government - Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since
30 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Independence (conservative), David ODDSSON;
Progressive, Steingrimur HERMANNSSON;
Social Democratic, Jon Baldvin HANNIBALSSON;
People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON;
Citizens Party (conservative nationalist), Julius SOLNES;
Women's List


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


_#_Elections:

President - last held on 29 June 1980 (next scheduled for June
1992); results - there were no elections in 1984 and 1988 as President
Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was unopposed;

Althing - last held on 20 April 1991 (next to be held by
April 1995);
results - Independence 38.6%, Progressive 18.9%, Social Democratic 15.5%,
People's Alliance 14.4%, Womens List 8.13%, Liberals 1.2%, other 3.27%
seats - (63 total) Independence 26, Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10,
People's Alliance 9, Womens List 5


_#_Communists: less than 100 (est.), some of whom participate in the
People's Alliance


_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tomas A. TOMASSON; Chancery
at 2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-6653 through 6655; there is an Icelandic Consulate General in New
York;

US - Ambassador Charles E. COBB, Jr.; Embassy at Laufasvegur 21,
Box 40, Reykjavik (mailing address is FPO New York 09571-0001); telephone
[354] (1) 29100


_#_Flag: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Iceland's prosperous Scandinavian-type economy is
basically capitalistic, but with extensive welfare measures, low
unemployment, and comparatively even distribution of income. The economy
is heavily dependent on the fishing industry, which provides nearly 75%
of export earnings. In the absence of other natural resources, Iceland's
economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. As a result of
climbing fish prices in 1990 and a noninflationary labor agreement,
Iceland is pulling out of a recession, which began in mid-1988 with a
sharp decline in fish prices and an imposition of quotas on fish catches
to conserve stocks. Inflation was down sharply from 20% in 1989
to 8% in 1990.


_#_GDP: $4.2 billion, per capita $16,300; real growth rate 0%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 1.8% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.58 billion; expenditures $1.66 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1990)


_#_Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum,
diatomite;

partners - EC 67.7% (UK 25.3%, FRG 12.7%), US 9.9%,
Japan 6%


_#_Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum,
foodstuffs, textiles;

partners - EC 49.8% (FRG 12.4%, Denmark 8.6%, UK 8.1%), US 14.4%,
Japan 5.6%


_#_External debt: $3 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 0.8% (1988 est.); accounts
for 22% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced,
20,780 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon
production, hydropower


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GDP (including fishing);
fishing is most important economic activity, contributing nearly 75%
to export earnings; principal crops - potatoes and turnips;
livestock - cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in crops; fish catch of
about 1.4 million metric tons in 1989


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1
million


_#_Currency: krona (plural - kronur);
1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar


_#_Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1 - 55.216
(January 1991), 58.284 (1990), 57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988), 38.677
(1987), 41.104 (1986), 41.508 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen and concrete; 1,284 km
bituminous treated and gravel; 10,893 km earth


_#_Ports: Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik,
Seydhisfjordhur, Siglufjordhur, Vestmannaeyjar; numerous minor ports


_#_Merchant marine: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,409
GRT/73,279 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container,
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker, 1 bulk


_#_Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 99 total, 92 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate domestic service, wire and radio
communication system; 135,000 telephones; stations - 10 AM, 17 (43 relays)
FM, 14 (132 relays) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no armed forces; State Criminal Police, Coast Guard;
Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense Force
(IDF) headquartered at Keflavik


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 69,644; 62,248 fit for military
service; no conscription or compulsory military service


_#_Defense expenditures: none
_%_
[email protected]_India
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 3,287,590 km2; land area: 2,973,190 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than one-third the size of the US


_#_Land boundaries: 14,103 km total; Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605
km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km


_#_Coastline: 7,000 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: boundaries with Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan; water
sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges
and Pakistan over the Indus


_#_Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in
north


_#_Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling
plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north


_#_Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world),
iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas,
diamonds, crude oil, limestone


_#_Land use: arable land 55%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 23%; other 17%; includes irrigated 13%


_#_Environment: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common;
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution;
desertification


_#_Note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important
Indian Ocean trade routes


_*_People
_#_Population: 866,351,738 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 59 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Indian(s); adjective - Indian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and
other 3%


_#_Religion: Hindu 82.6%, Muslim 11.4%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2.0%,
Buddhist 0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%


_#_Language: Hindi, English, and 14 other official languages - Bengali,
Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya,
Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; 24 languages spoken by
a million or more persons each; numerous other languages and dialects,
for the most part mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the national language
and primary tongue of 30% of the people; English enjoys associate status
but is the most important language for national, political, and
commercial communication; Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is
spoken widely throughout northern India


_#_Literacy: 48% (male 62%, female 34%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 284,400,000; 67% agriculture (FY85)


_#_Organized labor: less than 5% of the labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of India


_#_Type: federal republic


_#_Capital: New Delhi


_#_Administrative divisions: 25 states and 7 union territories*;
Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,
Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*,
Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala,
Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya,
Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan,
Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal


_#_Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 26 January 1950


_#_Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review
of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations


_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic,
26 January (1950)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an
upper house or Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or
House of the People (Lok Sabha)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Ramaswamy Iyer VENKATARAMAN (since 25
July 1987); Vice President Dr. Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 3 September
1987);

Head of Government - Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since
21 June 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president;
Bharatiya Janata Party, L. K. ADVANI;
Janata Dal Party, V. P. SINGH;
Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), E. M. S. NAMBOODIRIPAD;
Communist Party of India (CPI), C. Rajeswara RAO;
Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), N. T. Rama RAO;
All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a regional party
in Tamil Nadu), JAYALALITHA;
Samajwadi Janata Party, CHANDRA SHEKHAR;
Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY;
Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY;
Bahujana Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM;
Congress (S) Party, leader NA;
Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan SINGH;
Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu),
M. KARUNANIDHI;
Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab;
National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir), Farooq
ABDULLAH;
Asom Gana Parishad (a regional party in Assam), Prafulla MAHANTA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

People's Assembly - last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June
1991 (next to be held by November 1996);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (545 total), 509 elected - Congress (I) Party 225,
Bharatiya Janata Party 117,
Janata Dal Party 55,
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 35,
Communist Party of India 13,
Telugu Desam 12,
AIADMK 11,
Samajwadi Janata Party 5,
Shiv Sena 4,
RSP 4,
BSP 1,
Congress (S) Party 1, other 26; note - second and third rounds of
voting were delayed because of the assassination of Congress
President Rajiv GANDHI on 21 May 1991


_#_Communists: 466,000 members claimed by CPI, 361,000 members claimed
by CPI/M; Communist extremist groups, about 15,000 members


_#_Other political or pressure groups: various separatist groups
seeking greater communal autonomy; numerous religious or
militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam Sena, Anand Marg,
Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-6,
G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abid HUSSEIN;
Chancery at 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 939-7000; there are Indian Consulates General in
Chicago, New York, and San Francisco;

US - Ambassador William CLARK, Jr.; Embassy at Shanti Path,
Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi; telephone [91] (11) 600651; there are US
Consulates General in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and
green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white
band; similar to the flag of Niger which has a small orange disk centered
in the white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: India's economy is a mixture of traditional
village farming and handicrafts, modern agriculture, old and new branches
of industry, and a multitude of support services. It presents both the
entrepreneurial skills and drives of the capitalist system and
widespread government intervention of the socialist mold. Growth of 4%
to 5% annually in the 1980s has softened the impact of population growth
on unemployment, social tranquility, and the environment. Agricultural
output has continued to expand, reflecting the greater use of modern
farming techniques and improved seed that have helped to make India
self-sufficient in food grains and a net agricultural exporter. However,
tens of millions of villagers, particularly in the south, have not
benefited from the green revolution and live in abject poverty. Industry
has benefited from a partial liberalization of controls. The growth rate
of the service sector has also been strong. India, however, has been
challenged more recently by much lower foreign exchange reserves, higher
inflation, and a large debt service burden.


_#_GNP: $254 billion, per capita $300; real growth rate 4.5% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.0% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $34 billion; expenditures $54 billion, including
capital expenditures of $13.3 billion (FY91)


_#_Exports: $17.0 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities - gems and jewelry, engineering goods, clothing,
textiles, chemicals, tea, coffee, fish products;

partners - EC 25%, US 19%, USSR and Eastern Europe 17%, Japan 10%


_#_Imports: $24.8 billion (c.i.f., FY90);

commodities - petroleum, capital goods, uncut gems and jewelry,
chemicals, iron and steel, edible oils;

partners - EC 33%, Middle East 19%, Japan 10%, US 9%, USSR and
Eastern Europe 8%


_#_External debt: $69.8 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.4% (1990); accounts
for about 25% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 70,000,000 kW capacity; 245,000 million kWh produced,
290 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, steel, machinery,
transportation equipment, cement, jute manufactures, mining, petroleum,
power, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 30% of GNP and employs 67% of
labor force; self-sufficient in food grains; principal crops - rice,
wheat, oilseeds, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes;
livestock - cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and poultry; fish catch of
about 3 million metric tons ranks among the world's top 10 fishing
nations


_#_Illicit drugs: licit producer of opium poppy for the
pharmaceutical trade, but some opium is diverted to illicit
international drug markets; major transit country for illicit narcotics
produced in neighboring countries


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-88), $20.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million;
USSR (1970-89), $11.6 billion; Eastern Europe (1970-89), $105 million


_#_Currency: Indian rupee (plural - rupees);
1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise


_#_Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1 - 18.329 (January
1990), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611
(1986), 12.369 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad
gauge, 24,051 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter
and 0.610 meter); 12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified


_#_Highways: 1,633,300 km total (1986); 515,300 km secondary and
1,118,000 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth


_#_Inland waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 3,497 km; refined products, 1,703 km; natural
gas, 902 km (1989)


_#_Ports: Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore,
Port Blair (Andaman Islands)


_#_Merchant marine: 308 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,087,451
GRT/10,150,460 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 8 passenger-cargo,
100 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 54 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil,
115 bulk, 2 combination bulk


_#_Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 345 total, 288 usable; 198 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 57 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
88 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: poor domestic telephone service, international
radio communications adequate; 4,700,000 telephones; stations - 96 AM,
4 FM, 274 TV (government controlled); domestic satellite system for
communications and TV; 3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; submarine
cables to Malaysia and United Arab Emirates


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Border Security
Forces, Coast Guard, Assam Rifles


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 232,793,714; 137,259,444 fit
for military service; about 9,431,908 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $9.2 billion, 3.5% of GNP (FY91)
_%_
[email protected]_Indian Ocean
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 73,600,000 km2; Arabian Sea, Bass Strait, Bay of
Bengal, Java Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, Timor Sea,
and other tributary water bodies


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of the
US; third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but
larger than the Arctic Ocean)


_#_Coastline: 66,526 km


_#_Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon
(June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and
October/November in the north Indian Ocean and January/February in the
south Indian Ocean


_#_Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad,
circular system of currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal
of surface currents in the north Indian Ocean - low pressure over
southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest
monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high
pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the
northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean
floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the
Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninety
East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java Trench


_#_Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules


_#_Environment: endangered marine species include the dugong, seals,
turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and
Red Sea


_#_Note: major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz,
Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok
Strait; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near
Antarctica from May to October


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Indian Ocean provides a major transportation highway
for the movement of petroleum products from the Middle East to Europe
and North and South American countries. Fish from the ocean are of
growing economic importance to many of the bordering countries as a
source of both food and exports. Fishing fleets from the USSR, Japan,
Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean for mostly shrimp and
tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore
areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western Australia. An estimated
40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean.
Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are
actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South
Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.


_#_Industries: based on exploitation of natural resources,
particularly marine life, minerals, oil and gas production, fishing, sand
and gravel aggregates, placer deposits


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India),
Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia),
Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne (Australia), Richard's Bay (South Africa)


_#_Telecommunications: no submarine cables
_%_
[email protected]_Indonesia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,919,440 km2; land area: 1,826,440 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 2,602 km total; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New
Guinea 820 km


_#_Coastline: 54,716 km


_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province)
disputed with Portugal


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands


_#_Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior
mountains


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, tin, natural gas liquids, nickel,
timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver


_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
7%; forest and woodland 67%; other 15%; includes irrigated 3%


_#_Environment: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited);
occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation


_#_Note: straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major
sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 193,560,494 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 34 of 89)