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_#_Infant mortality rate: 73 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Indonesian(s); adjective - Indonesian


_#_Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock comprising Javanese
45.0%, Sundanese 14.0%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other
26.0%


_#_Religion: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%,
Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)


_#_Language: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official);
English and Dutch leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most
widely spoken of which is Javanese


_#_Literacy: 77% (male 84%, female 68%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 67,000,000; agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%,
construction 4%, transport and communications 3% (1985 est.)


_#_Organized labor: 3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor
force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Indonesia


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Jakarta


_#_Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi,
singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa,
singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district**
(daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta
Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat,
Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku,
Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan,
Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat,
Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*


_#_Independence: 17 August 1945 (from Netherlands; formerly
Netherlands or Dutch East Indies)


_#_Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of
1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959


_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives
(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note - the People's Consultative
Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus
500 indirectly elected members who meet every five years to elect the
president and vice president and, theoretically, to determine national
policy


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Gen. (Ret.)
SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Lt. Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO
(since 11 March 1983)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.)
WAHONO, general chairman;
Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI - federation of former Nationalist and
Christian Parties), SOERYADI, chairman;
Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties),
Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age


_#_Elections:

House of Representatives - last held on 23 April 1987
(next to be held 23 April 1992);
results - Golkar 73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%;
seats - (500 total - 400 elected, 100 appointed) Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40


_#_Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March
1966; current strength about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in
organized activity; pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5
million


_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC,
OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY;
Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 775-5200; there are Indonesian Consulates General in
Houston, New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in Chicago and San
Francisco;

US - Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5,
Jakarta (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96356);
telephone [62] (21) 360-360; there are US Consulates in Medan and
Surabaya


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to
the flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland
which is white (top) and red


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist
institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on
deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural
wealth yet, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a
poor country. GDP growth in 1985-89 averaged about 4%, somewhat short of
the more than 5% rate needed to absorb the 2.3 million workers annually
entering the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is
an important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor
force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer,
Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops - rubber and
palm oil - and textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export
and job generation. Industrial output now accounts for 30% of GDP
based on a supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil,
natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates
the external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's
revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989. However, the economy's
growth is very dependent on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports.
Japan is Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid.


_#_GDP: $94 billion, per capita $490; real growth rate 6.0%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.8% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 3%; underemployment 44% (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $17.2 billion; expenditures $23.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $8.9 billion (FY91)


_#_Exports: $25.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%,
textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%;

partners - Japan 40%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, Europe 16% (1990)


_#_Imports: $21.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured
goods 16%;

partners - Japan 23%, US 13%, EC, Singapore


_#_External debt: $58.5 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 11.6% (1989 est.); accounts
for 30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced,
200 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical
fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP, subsistence food production;
small-holder and plantation production for export; rice, cassava,
peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, copra, other tropical products;
products - poultry meat, beef, pork, eggs


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating
plantings and prosecuting traffickers


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $22.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $175 million


_#_Currency: Indonesian rupiah (plural - rupiahs);
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)


_#_Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 1,907.5 (January
1991), 1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987),
1,282.6 (1986), 1,110.6 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km
0.750-meter gauge, 78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km
electrified; all government owned


_#_Highways: 119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial,
and 73,508 km district roads


_#_Inland waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and
Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 2,505 km; refined products, 456 km; natural
gas, 1,703 km (1989)


_#_Ports: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang,
Semarang, Surabaya


_#_Merchant marine: 365 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,647,632
GRT/2,481,432 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo,
215 cargo, 7 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier,
80 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical tanker,
5 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 25 bulk


_#_Civil air: about 216 commercial transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 470 total, 436 usable; 111 with permanent-surface
runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
63 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: interisland microwave system and HF police net;
domestic service fair, international service good; radiobroadcast
coverage good; 763,000 telephones (1986); stations - 618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station; and 1 domestic satellite
communications system


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 50,572,652; 29,893,127 fit for
military service; 2,149,673 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.4 billion, 1.8% of GNP (1988)
_%_
[email protected]_Iran
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,648,000 km2; land area: 1,636,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska


_#_Land boundaries: 5,492 km total; Afghanistan 936 km, Iraq 1,458 km,
Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, USSR 1,690 km


_#_Coastline: 3,180 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 50 nm in the Sea of Oman; continental
shelf limit, continental shelf boundaries, or median lines in the Persian
Gulf;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations on 14
October 1990 following the end of the war that began on 22 September
1980; progress had been made on the major issues of contention - troop
withdrawal, prisoner-of-war exchanges, demarcation of the border,
freedom of navigation, and sovereignty over the the Shatt al Arab
waterway - but written agreements had yet to be drawn up when frictions
reemerged in March 1991 in the wake of Shia and Kurdish revolts in
Iraq that Baghdad accused Tehran of supporting;
Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR;
occupies three islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by UAE (Jazireh-ye
Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or
Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); periodic
disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Boluch question with
Afghanistan and Pakistan


_#_Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast


_#_Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts


_#_Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur


_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 27%; forest and woodland 11%; other 54%; includes irrigated 2%


_#_Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; desertification


_*_People
_#_Population: 59,051,082 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 65 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Iranian(s); adjective - Iranian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 25%, Kurd 9%, Gilaki
and Mazandarani 8%, Lur 2%, Baloch 1%, Arab 1%, other 3%


_#_Religion: Shia Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Bahai 1%


_#_Language: 58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic
dialects, 9% Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other


_#_Literacy: 54% (male 64%, female 43%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 15,400,000; agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21%;
shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)


_#_Organized labor: none


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Iran


_#_Type: theocratic republic


_#_Capital: Tehran


_#_Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha,
singular - ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari,
Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr,
Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars,
Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman,
Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer
Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran,
Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan


_#_Independence: 1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed


_#_Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of
the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership


_#_Legal system: the new Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government


_#_National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)


_#_Executive branch: cleric (faqih), president, Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly
(Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Cleric and functional Chief of State - Leader of the Islamic
Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989);

Head of Government - President Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI
(since 3 August 1989);


_#_Political parties and leaders: there are at least 14 licensed
parties; the three most important are - Tehran Militant Clergy
Association, Mohammad Reza MAHDAVI-KANI;
Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
MUSAVI-KHOINIHA;
Fedaiyin Islam Organization, Sadeq KHALKHALI


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 15


_#_Elections:

President - last held NA July 1989 (next to be held April 1993);
results - Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI was elected with only token
opposition;

Islamic Consultative Assembly - last held 8 April 1988 (next
to be held June 1992); results - percent of vote by party
NA;
seats - (270 seats total) number of seats by party NA


_#_Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est.
sympathizers; crackdown in 1983 crippled the party; trials of captured
leaders began in late 1983 and remain incomplete


_#_Other political or pressure groups: groups that generally
support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah, Hojjatiyeh Society,
Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line
of the Imam; armed political groups that have been almost completely
repressed by the government include Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO),
People's Fedayeen, and Kurdish Democratic Party; the Society for the
Defense of Freedom is a group of liberal nationalists that has been
repressed by the government for accusing it of corruption


_#_Member of: CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Algeria - Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-4990;

US - protecting power in Iran is Switzerland


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red;
the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red
is
centered
in the white band; Allah Akbar (God is Great) in white Arabic
script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and
11 times along the top edge of the red band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since the 1979 revolution, the banks, petroleum industry,
transportation, utilities, and mining have been nationalized, but the
new five-year plan - the first since the revolution - passed in January
1990, calls for the transfer of many government-controlled enterprises
to the private sector. Disruptions from the bitter war with Iraq,
massive corruption, mismanagement, demographic pressures, and ideological
rigidities have kept economic growth at depressed levels. Oil accounts
for over 90% of export revenues. A combination of war damage and low oil
prices brought a 2% drop in GNP in 1988. GNP probably rose slightly in
1989, considerably short of the 3.2% population growth rate in 1989.
Heating oil and gasoline are rationed. Agriculture has suffered from the
war, land reform, and shortages of equipment and materials. The five-year
plan seeks to reinvigorate the economy by increasing the role of the
private sector, boosting nonoil income, and securing foreign loans. The
plan is overly ambitious but probably will generate some short-term
relief.


_#_GNP: $80.0 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate 0.5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-50% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $63 billion; expenditures $80 billion, including
capital expenditures of $23 billion (FY90 est.)


_#_Exports: $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides;

partners - Japan, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, France, FRG


_#_Imports: $11.6 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs,
pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products;

partners - FRG, Japan, Turkey, UK, Italy


_#_External debt: $4-5 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 14,579,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced,
740 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other
building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and
vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)


_#_Agriculture: principal products - wheat, rice, other grains, sugar
beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not
self-sufficient in food


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and
international drug trade


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.6 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $976 million;
note - aid fell sharply following the 1979 revolution


_#_Currency: Iranian rial (plural - rials); 1 Iranian rial (IR) =
100 dinars; note - domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of
the toman (plural - tomans), which equals 10 rials


_#_Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1 - 64.941 (January 1991),
68.096 (1990), 72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987), 78.760
(1986), 91.052 (1985) at the official rate; black market rate 1,400
(January 1991)


_#_Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km
1.676-meter gauge; 730 km under construction from Bafq to Bandar Abbas


_#_Highways: 140,072 km total; 46,866 km gravel and crushed stone;
49,440 km improved earth; 42,566 km bituminous and bituminous-treated
surfaces; 1,200 km (est.) rural road network


_#_Inland waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980
because of Iran-Iraq war


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,900 km; natural
gas, 3,300 km


_#_Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war),
Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e
Khomeyni, Bandar-e Shahid Rajai, Khorramshahr (largely
destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war)


_#_Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,634,204
GRT/8,671,769 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 33
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3
refrigerated cargo, 49 bulk, 2 combination bulk


_#_Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 214 total, 186 usable; 80 with permanent-surface runways;
17 with runways over 3,659 m; 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 70 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: radio relay extends throughout country; system
centered in Tehran; 2,143,000 telephones; stations - 62 AM, 30 FM, 250
TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT; HF and microwave to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, and
USSR


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air
Force, Air Defense, and Revolutionary Guard Corps (includes Basij
militia and own ground, air, and naval forces);
a merger of the Komiteh, Police, and Gendarmerie has produced a new
Security Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 12,750,593; 7,588,711 fit for
military service; 576,321 reach military age (21) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $13 billion, 13.3% of GNP (1991 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_Iraq
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 434,920 km2; land area: 433,970 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho


_#_Land boundaries: 3,454 km total; Iran 1,458 km, Iraq - Saudi Arabia
Neutral Zone 191 km, Jordan 134 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 495 km,
Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km


_#_Coastline: 58 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations on 14
October 1990 following the end of the war that began on 22 September
1980; progress had been made on the major issues of
contention - troop withdrawal, prisoner-of-war exchanges, demarcation of
the border, freedom of navigation, and sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab
waterway - but written agreements had yet to be drawn up when frictions
reemerged in March 1991 in the wake of Shia and Kurdish revolts in
Iraq that Baghdad accused Tehran of supporting; Kurdish question
among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; shares Neutral Zone with
Saudi Arabia - in December 1981, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed a boundary
agreement that divides the zone between them, but the agreement must
be ratified before it becomes effective; Iraqi forces invaded and
occupied Kuwait from 2 August 1990 until 27 February 1991; in April 1991
official Iraqi acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 687, which
demands that Iraq accept its internationally recognized border with
Kuwait, ended earlier claims to Bubiyan and Warbah Islands or to
all of Kuwait; periodic disputes with upstream riparian Syria over
Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over water development plans by
Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers


_#_Climate: desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless
summers


_#_Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains
along borders with Iran and Turkey


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur


_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland 3%; other 75%; includes irrigated 4%


_#_Environment: development of Tigris-Euphrates river systems
contingent upon agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air
and water pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion;
desertification


_*_People
_#_Population: 19,524,718 (July 1991), growth rate 3.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Iraqi(s); adjective - Iraqi


_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian
or other 5%


_#_Religion: Muslim 97%, (Shia 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), Christian
or other 3%


_#_Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions),
Assyrian, Armenian


_#_Literacy: 60% (male 70%, female 49%) age 15 and over can



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 35 of 89)