United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

. (page 36 of 89)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 36 of 89)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,400,000 (1989); services 48%, agriculture 30%,
industry 22%, severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force about
1,600,000 (July 1990)

_#_Organized labor: less than 10% of the labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Iraq

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Baghdad

_#_Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat,
singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna,
Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At
Tamim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala,
Karbala, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

_#_Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

_#_Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim
Constitution); new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts,
civil law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, chairman of the
Revolutionary Command Council, vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command
Council, prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Council of

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Majlis Watani)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation


Chief of State - President Saddam HUSAYN (since 16 July 1979);
Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974);
Vice President Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991);

_#_Head of Government - Prime Minister Sadun HAMMADI (since 27 March
1991); Deputy Prime Minister Tariq AZIZ (since NA 1979);
Deputy Prime Minister Muhammad Hamza al-ZUBAYDI (since 27 March 1991)

_#_Political parties: National Progressive Front is a coalition of the
Arab Bath Socialist Party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, and Kurdistan
Revolutionary Party

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 18


National Assembly - last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA);
results - Sunni Arabs 53%, Shia Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Christians
2% est.; seats - (250 total) number of seats by party NA

_#_Communists: about 1,500 hardcore members

_#_Other political or pressure groups: political parties and activity
severely restricted; possibly some opposition to regime from disaffected
members of the regime, Army officers, and religious and ethnic dissidents

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-19,

_#_Diplomatic representation: no Iraqi representative in Washington;
Chancery at 1801 P Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)

US - no US representative in Baghdad since mid-January 1991;
Embassy in Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad
(mailing address is P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad); telephone [964] (1)
719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the
white band; the phrase Allahu Akbar (God is Great) in green Arabic
script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of
the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf
crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars but no script
and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also similar to the
flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

_#_Overview: The Bathist regime engages in extensive central
planning and management of industrial production and foreign trade while
leaving some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to
private enterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector,
which has provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s
financial problems, caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year
war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran, led the
government to implement austerity measures and to borrow heavily and
later reschedule foreign debt payments. After the end of hostilities in
1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new
pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Agricultural development
remained hampered by labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations
caused by previous land reform and collectivization programs. The
industrial sector, although accorded high priority by the government,
also was under financial constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August
1990, subsequent international economic embargoes, and military actions
by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically
changed the economic picture. Oil exports were cut to near zero,
and industrial and transportation facilities severely damaged.

_#_GNP: $35 billion, per capita $1,940; real growth rate 5%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-40% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: less than 5% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $NA billion; expenditures $35 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $12.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur;

partners - US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, France, Italy, USSR (1989)

_#_Imports: $10.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - manufactures, food;

partners - US, FRG, Turkey, UK, Romania, Japan, France (1989)

_#_External debt: $40 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt to Arab
Gulf states

_#_Industrial production: NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 9,902,000 kW capacity; 20,000 million kWh produced,
1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials,
food processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP but 30% of labor
force; principal products - wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other
fruit, cotton, wool; livestock - cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in
food output

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $627 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1980-90), more than $30
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.9 billion

_#_Currency: Iraqi dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000

_#_Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 0.3109 (fixed rate
since 1982)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 2,962 km total; 2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
505 km 1.000-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 25,479 km total; 8,290 km paved, 5,534 km improved earth,
11,655 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980
because of Iran-Iraq war; Tigris and Euphrates navigable by shallow-draft
steamers (of little importance); Shatt al Basrah canal navigable in
sections by shallow-draft vessels

_#_Ports: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, Al Basrah

_#_Merchant marine: 43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 944,253
GRT/1,691,368 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 17 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker; note - since the 2 August 1990
invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi forces, Iraq has sought to register at least
part of its merchant fleet under convenience flags; none of the Iraqi
flag merchant fleet was trading internationally as of 1 January 1991

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 4,350 km; 725 km refined products; 1,360 km
natural gas

_#_Civil air: 64 major transport aircraft (including 30 IL-76s
used by the Iraq Air Force)

_#_Airports: 111 total, 102 usable; 73 with permanent-surface runways;
9 with runways over 3,659 m; 52 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good network consists of coaxial cables, radio
relay links, and radiocommunication stations; 632,000 telephones;
stations - 9 AM, 1 FM, 81 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 GORIZONT Atlantic Ocean in the
Intersputnik system; coaxial cable and radio relay to Kuwait, Jordan,
Syria, and Turkey

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force,
Border Guard Force, Internal Security Forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,270,592; 2,380,439 fit for
military service; 228,277 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
[email protected]_Iraq - Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
_#_Total area: 3,520 km2; land area: 3,520 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

_#_Land boundaries: 389 km total; 191 km Iraq, 198 km Saudi Arabia

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Climate: harsh, dry desert

_#_Terrain: sandy desert

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other (sandy desert) 100%

_#_Environment: harsh, inhospitable

_#_Note: landlocked; located west of quadripoint with Iraq, Kuwait,
and Saudi Arabia

_#_Population: uninhabited

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: joint administration by Iraq and Saudi Arabia; in December
1981, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed a boundary agreement that divides
the zone between them, but the agreement must be ratified before it
becomes effective

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Highways: none; some secondary roads

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the joint responsibility of Iraq and Saudi Arabia
[email protected]_Ireland
_#_Total area: 70,280 km2; land area: 68,890 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

_#_Land boundary: 360 km with UK

_#_Coastline: 1,448 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no precise definition;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall
continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland
and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

_#_Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current;
mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the

_#_Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by
rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

_#_Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite,
copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

_#_Land use: arable land 14%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 71%; forest and woodland 5%; other 10%

_#_Environment: deforestation

_#_Population: 3,489,165 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.);
adjective - Irish

_#_Ethnic divisions: Celtic, with English minority

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%,
other 1% (1981)

_#_Language: Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language
generally used, with Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the
western seaboard

_#_Literacy: 98% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,293,000; services 57.0%, manufacturing and
construction 26.1%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 15.0%,
energy and mining 1.9% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 36% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Dublin

_#_Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim,
Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon,
Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

_#_Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1937

_#_Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified
by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of
an upper house or Senate (Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dail Eireann)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November

Head of Government - Prime Minister Charles J. HAUGHEY (since
12 July 1989, the fourth time elected as Prime Minister)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Fianna Fail, Charles HAUGHEY;
Labor Party, Richard SPRING;
Fine Gael, John BRUTON;
Communist Party of Ireland, Michael O'RIORDAN;
Workers' Party, Proinsias DEROSSA;
Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS;
Progressive Democrats, Desmond O'MALLEY;
note - Prime Minister HAUGHEY heads a coalition consisting of the
Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November
1997); results - Mary Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%;

Senate - last held on 17 February 1987 (next to be held February
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 30, Fine Gael 16, Labor 3,
Independents 11;

House of Representatives - last held on 12 July 1989 (next to be
held NA June 1994);
results - Fianna Fail 44.0%, Fine Gael 29.4%, Labor Party 9.3%,
Progressive Democrats 5.4%, Workers' Party 4.9%, Sinn Fein 1.1%,
independents 5.9%;
seats - (166 total) Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 55, Labor Party 15,
Workers' Party 7, Progressive Democrats 6, independents 6

_#_Communists: under 500


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Padraic N. MACKERNAN;
Chancery at 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 462-3939; there are Irish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago,
New York, and San Francisco;

US - Ambassador Richard A. MOORE; Embassy at 42 Elgin Road,
Ballsbridge, Dublin; telephone [353] (1) 688777

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
orange; similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast which is shorter and
has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also
similar to the flag of Italy which is shorter and has colors of green
(hoist side), white, and red

_#_Overview: The economy is small, open, and trade dependent.
Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry,
which accounts for 37% of GDP and about 80% of exports and employs 26%
of the labor force. The government has successfully reduced the rate of
inflation from double-digit figures in the late 1970s to 3.3% in
1990. In 1987, after years of deficits, the balance of payments was
brought into the black. Unemployment, however, is a serious problem. A
1990 unemployment rate of 16.6% placed Ireland along with Spain as the
countries with the worst jobless records in Western Europe.

_#_GDP: $33.9 billion, per capita $9,690; real growth rate 4.1%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 16.6% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $11.3 billion; expenditures $11.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (1990)

_#_Exports: $24.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial
machinery, live animals, animal products;

partners - EC 74% (UK 34%, FRG 11%, France 10%), US 8%

_#_Imports: $20.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - food, animal feed, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum
products, machinery, textiles, clothing;

partners - EC 66% (UK 41%, FRG 9%, France 4%), US 16%

_#_External debt: $16.0 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1990); accounts for
37% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 4,957,000 kW capacity; 14,480 million kWh produced,
4,080 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GNP and 15% of the labor force;
principal crops - turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat;
livestock - meat and dairy products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food
shortages include bread grain, fruits, vegetables

_#_Economic aid: donor - ODA commitments (1980-89), $90 million

_#_Currency: Irish pound (plural - pounds); 1 Irish pound (5Ir) =
100 pence

_#_Exchange rates: Irish pounds (5Ir) per US$1 - 0.5656 (January
1991), 0.6030 (1990), 0.7472 (1989), 0.6553 (1988), 0.6720 (1987), 0.7454
(1986), 0.9384 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km
1.602-meter gauge, government owned; 485 km double track; 38 km

_#_Highways: 92,294 km total; 87,422 km surfaced, 4,872 km gravel or
crushed stone

_#_Inland waterways: limited for commercial traffic

_#_Pipelines: natural gas, 225 km

_#_Ports: Cork, Dublin, Shannon Estuary, Waterford

_#_Merchant marine: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 138,967
GRT/164,628 DWT; includes 4 short-sea passenger, 31 cargo, 2
refrigerated cargo, 3 container, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6 bulk

_#_Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 40 total, 37 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: small, modern system using cable and radio
relay circuits; 900,000 telephones; stations - 45 AM, 16 (29 relays) FM,
18 (68 relays) TV; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps), National
Police (GARDA)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 871,578; 705,642 fit for
military service; 33,175 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $458 million, 1.6% of GDP (1990 est.)
[email protected]_Israel
(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
_#_Note: The Arab territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war
are not included in the data below. As stated in the 1978 Camp David
Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace
initiative, the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their
relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel
and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. The Camp
David Accords further specify that these negotiations will resolve the
location of the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this
process, it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and
Gaza Strip has yet to be determined (see West Bank and Gaza Strip
entries). On 25 April 1982 Israel relinquished control of the Sinai to
Egypt. Statistics for the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are included in
the Syria entry.

_#_Total area: 20,770 km2; land area: 20,330 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Jersey

_#_Land boundaries: 1,006 km total; Egypt 255 km, Jordan 238 km,
Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307, Gaza Strip 51 km

_#_Coastline: 273 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

_#_Disputes: separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the
1949 Armistice Line; differences with Jordan over the location
of the 1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries;
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with status
to be determined; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in
southern Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan

_#_Climate: temperate; hot and dry in desert areas

_#_Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central
mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

_#_Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand,
sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

_#_Land use: arable land 17%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures
40%; forest and woodland 6%; other 32%; includes irrigated 11%

_#_Environment: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited
arable land and natural water resources pose serious constraints;

_#_Note: there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank, 38 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 18 in the Gaza Strip, and 14
Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

_#_Population: 4,477,105 (July 1991), growth rate 1.5% (1991);
includes 90,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 13,000 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 2,500 in the Gaza Strip, and 120,000 in
East Jerusalem (1990 est.)

_#_Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Israeli(s); adjective - Israeli

_#_Ethnic divisions: Jewish 83%, non-Jewish (mostly Arab) 17%

_#_Religion: Judaism 82%, Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim) 14%,
Christian 2%, Druze and other 2%

_#_Language: Hebrew (official); Arabic used officially for Arab
minority; English most commonly used foreign language

_#_Literacy: 92% (male 95%, female 89%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1983)

_#_Labor force: 1,400,000 (1984 est.); public services 29.3%;
industry, mining, and manufacturing 22.8%; commerce 12.8%; finance and
business 9.5%; transport, storage, and communications 6.8%; construction
and public works 6.5%; personal and other services 5.8%; agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 5.5%; electricity and water 1.0% (1983)

_#_Organized labor: 90% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: State of Israel

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the
US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz);
Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

_#_Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

_#_Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a
constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the
basic laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law

_#_Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate
regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
legal systems; in December 1985 Israel informed the UN Secretariat that
it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 10 May 1989; Israel declared
independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the
holiday may occur in April or May

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, vice prime minister,

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral parliament (Knesset)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President Chaim HERZOG (since 5 May 1983);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR (since 20 October

_#_Political parties and leaders: Israel currently has a coalition
government comprising eleven parties that hold 66 of the Knesset's
120 seats;

Members of the government - Likud bloc, Prime Minister Yitzhak

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 36 of 89)