United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

. (page 38 of 89)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 38 of 89)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Charles GOMIS; Chancery at
2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)

US - Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN; Embassy at 5 Rue Jesse Owens,
Abidjan (mailing address is 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan); telephone [225]
21-09-79 or 21-46-72

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and
green; similar to the flag of Ireland which is longer and has the colors
reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag
of Italy which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on
the flag of France

_#_Overview: Ivory Coast is among the world's largest producers
and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently,
the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices
for coffee and cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the
government to diversify, the economy is still largely dependent on
agriculture and related industries. The agricultural sector accounts for
over one-third of GDP and about 80% of export earnings and employs about
85% of the labor force. A collapse of world cocoa and coffee prices in
1986 threw the economy into a recession, from which the country had not
recovered by 1990.

_#_GDP: $10 billion, per capita $800; real growth rate - 2.9% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 14% (1985)

_#_Budget: revenues $2.8 billion (1989 est.); expenditures $4.1
billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, cotton,
bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton;

partners - France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)

_#_Imports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - manufactured goods and semifinished products 50%,
consumer goods 40%, raw materials and fuels 10%;

partners - France, other EC, Nigeria, US, Japan (1985)

_#_External debt: $15.0 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 6% (1989); accounts for
17% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,081,000 kW capacity; 2,440 million kWh produced,
210 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile
assembly, textiles, fertilizer, beverage

_#_Agriculture: most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP
and 80% to exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber,
bananas, palm kernels, rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet
potatoes; not self-sufficient in bread grain and dairy products

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis on a small scale for
the international drug trade

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.9 billion

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1 - 256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge,
single track, except 25 km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)

_#_Highways: 46,600 km total; 3,600 km bituminous and
bituminous-treated surface; 32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite,
and improved earth; 11,000 km unimproved

_#_Inland waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous
coastal lagoons

_#_Ports: Abidjan, San-Pedro

_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,945 GRT/
90,684 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 1 chemical tanker

_#_Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft, including multinationally
owned Air Afrique fleet

_#_Airports: 48 total, 41 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: system above African average; consists of
open-wire lines and radio relay links; 87,700 telephones; stations - 3 AM,
17 FM, 11 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; 2 coaxial
submarine cables

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,981,269; 1,543,412 fit for
military service; 145,693 males reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $199 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)
[email protected]_Jamaica
_#_Total area: 10,990 km2; land area: 10,830 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,022 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

_#_Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone

_#_Land use: arable land 19%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures
18%; forest and woodland 28%; other 29%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes (especially July to November);
deforestation; water pollution

_#_Note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica
Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal

_#_Population: 2,489,353 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Jamaican(s); adjective - Jamaican

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian
and Afro-East Indian 3.0%, white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%,
other 1.2%

_#_Religion: predominantly Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%,
Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seven-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%,
Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%,
other 39.1%, including some spiritualist cults (1982)

_#_Language: English, Creole

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,062,100; services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry
19%; unemployed 17.5% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 24% of labor force (1989)

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Kingston

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover,
Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine,
Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny,

_#_Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 6 August 1962

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August),
6 August 1990

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Florizel A. GLASSPOLE (since 2 March

Head of Government - Prime Minister Michael MANLEY
(since 13 February 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's National Party (PNP), Michael MANLEY;
Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward SEAGA;
Workers' Party of Jamaica (WPJ), Trevor MUNROE

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Representatives - last held 9 February 1989 (next to be
held by February 1994);
results - PNP 57%, JLP 43%;
seats - (60 total) PNP 45, JLP 15

_#_Communists: Workers' Party of Jamaica (Marxist-Leninist)

_#_Other political or pressure groups:
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-19, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Richard BERNAL;
Chancery at Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone
(202) 452-0660; there are Jamaican Consulates General in Miami and New

US - Ambassador Glen A. HOLDEN; Embassy at 3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual
Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, Kingston; telephone (809) 929-4850

_#_Flag: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four
triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

_#_Overview: The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism.
In 1985 it suffered a setback with the closure of some facilities in the
bauxite and alumina industry, a major source of hard currency earnings.
Since 1986 an economic recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions
began to improve for the bauxite and alumina industry because of
increases in world metal prices. The recovery has also been supported by
growth in the manufacturing and tourism sectors. In September 1988,
Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on crops and the electric power
system, a sharp but temporary setback to the economy. By October 1989 the
economic recovery from the hurricane was largely complete and real growth
was up about 3% for 1989. In 1990, 3.5% economic growth was led by
mining and tourism.

_#_GDP: $3.9 billion, per capita $1,580; real growth rate 3.5% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.0% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 18.2% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.0 billion; expenditures $1.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $197 million (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.02 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - bauxite, alumina, sugar, bananas;

partners - US 36%, UK, Canada, Norway, Trinidad and Tobago

_#_Imports: $1.83 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - petroleum, machinery, food, consumer goods,
construction goods;

partners - US 48%, UK, Venezuela, Canada, Japan, Trinidad and Tobago

_#_External debt: $4.1 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts
for almost 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,122,000 kW capacity; 2,508 million kWh produced,
1,030 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing,
light manufactures

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GDP, 22% of work force,
and 17% of exports; commercial crops - sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus,
potatoes, and vegetables; livestock and livestock products include
poultry, goats, milk; not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis; transshipment point
for ships carrying cocaine and cannabis from central and South America
to North America

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.2
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.45 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $27 million;
Communist countries (1974-89), $349 million

_#_Currency: Jamaican dollar (plural - dollars);
1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1 - 8.106 (January
1991), 7.184 (1990), 5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987), 5.4778
(1986), 5.5586 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 370 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 18,200 km total; 12,600 km paved, 3,200 km gravel,
2,400 km improved earth

_#_Pipelines: refined products, 10 km

_#_Ports: Kingston, Montego Bay

_#_Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,048
GRT/21,412 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk

_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 41 total, 25 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fully automatic domestic telephone network;
127,000 telephones; stations - 10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Coast Guard and Air
Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 628,225; 446,229 fit for
military service; no conscription; 26,442 reach minimum volunteer
age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $20 million, less than 1% of GDP (FY91)
[email protected]_Jan Mayen
(territory of Norway)
_#_Total area: 373 km2; land area: 373 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 124.1 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

_#_Disputes: Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims beween
Greenland and Jan Mayen

_#_Climate: arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

_#_Terrain: volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is
the highest peak, with an elevation of 2,277 meters

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: barren volcanic island with some moss and grass;
volcanic activity resumed in 1970

_#_Note: located north of the Arctic Circle about 590 km
north-northeast of Iceland between the Greenland Sea and the
Norwegian Sea

_#_Population: no permanent inhabitants

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: territory of Norway

_#_Note: administered by a governor (sysselmann) resident in
Longyearbyen (Svalbard)

_#_Overview: Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable
natural resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services
for employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on
the island.

_#_Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced,
NA kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220 to 2,439 m

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Telecommunications: radio and meteorological station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway
[email protected]_Japan
_#_Total area: 377,835 km2; land area: 374,744 km2; includes Bonin
Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima,
Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than California

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 29,751 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm (3 nm in international straits - La Perouse
or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western channels of the Korea or
Tsushima Strait)

_#_Disputes: Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the
Habomai island group occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by
Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto
(Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

_#_Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

_#_Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 13%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 67%; other 18%; includes irrigated 9%

_#_Environment: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500
seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis

_#_Note: strategic location in northeast Asia

_#_Population: 124,017,137 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 10 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 82 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Japanese (sing., pl.); adjective - Japanese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Japanese 99.4%, other (mostly Korean) 0.6%

_#_Religion: most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites
so the percentages add to more than 100% - Shinto 95.8%,
Buddhist 76.3%, Christian 1.4%, other 12% (1985)

_#_Language: Japanese

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)

_#_Labor force: 63,330,000; trade and services 54%; manufacturing,
mining, and construction 33%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%;
government 3% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: about 29% of employed workers; public service
76.4%, transportation and telecommunications 57.9%, mining 48.7%,
manufacturing 33.7%, services 18.2%, wholesale, retail, and restaurant

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Tokyo

_#_Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures (fuken, singular and
plural); Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima,
Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate,
Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi,
Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa,
Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima,
Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

_#_Independence: 660 BC, traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu

_#_Constitution: 3 May 1947

_#_Legal system: civil law system with English-American influence;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

_#_Executive branch: emperor, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper
house or House of Councillors (Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Shugi-in)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Kiichi MIYAZAWA (since 5
November 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Toshiki KAIFU, president; Keizo OBUCHI,
secretary general;
Japan Socialist Party (JSP), T. DOI, chairman;
Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Keigo OUCHI, chairman;
Japan Communist Party (JCP), K. MIYAMOTO, Presidium chairman;
Komeito (Clean Government Party, CGP), Koshiro ISHIDA, chairman

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


House of Councillors - last held on 23 July 1989 (next to be held
23 July 1992); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (252 total, 100 elected) LDP 109, JSP 67, CGP 21, JCP 14,
other 41;

House of Representatives - last held on 18 February 1990
(next to be held by February 1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (512 total) LDP 275, JSP 136, CGP 45, JCP 16, DSP 14,
other parties 5, independents 21; note - 9 independents are expected
to join the LDP, 5 the JSP

_#_Communists: about 490,000 registered Communist party members

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NEA, OAS (observer),

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ryohei MURATA; Chancery at
2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
939-6700; there are Japanese Consulates General in Agana (Guam),
Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City
(Missouri), Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Seattle,
and Portland (Oregon), and a Consulate in Saipan (Northern Mariana

US - Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST; Embassy at 10-1, Akasaka
1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo (mailing address is APO San Francisco
96503); telephone [81] (3) 3224-5000; there are US Consulates General
in Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, and Sapporo and a Consulate in Fukuoka

_#_Flag: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without
rays) in the center

_#_Overview: Although Japan has few natural resources, since 1971 it
has become the world's third-largest economy, ranking behind only the
US and the USSR. Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic,
and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan advance
rapidly, notably in high-technology fields. Industry, the most important
sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and
fuels. Self-sufficent in rice, Japan must import 50% of its requirements
for other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's
largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global
catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular: a 10% average in the
1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990 strong investment and
consumption spending helped maintain growth at 5.6%. Inflation remains
low at 3.1% despite higher oil prices and rising wages because of a
tight labor market. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus, $52
billion in 1990, which supports extensive investment in foreign

_#_GNP: $2,115.2 billion, per capita $17,100; real growth rate 5.6%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2.1% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $499 billion; expenditures $532 billion, including
capital expenditures (public works only) of $52 billion (FY90)

_#_Exports: $286.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - manufactures 97% (including machinery 38%, motor
vehicles 17%, consumer electronics 10%);

partners - US 31%, Southeast Asia 29%, Western Europe 21%, Communist
countries 3%, Middle East 3%

_#_Imports: $234.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - manufactures 50%, fossil fuels 24%, foodstuffs and raw
materials 26%;

partners - Southeast Asia 23%, US 23%, Western Europe 18%,
Middle East 13%, Communist countries 7%

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.6% (1990 est.); accounts for
30% of GDP (mining and manufacturing)

_#_Electricity: 191,000,000 kW capacity; 790,000 million kWh produced,
6,390 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronic,
textiles, chemicals, automobiles, fishing, telecommunications

_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 2% of GNP; highly subsidized and
protected sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal
crops - rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include
pork, poultry, dairy and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food
production; shortages of wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish
catch of 11.9 million metric tons in 1988

_#_Economic aid: donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $83.2
billion; ODA outlay of $7.9 billion in 1989

_#_Currency: yen (plural - yen); 1 yen (3) = 100 sen

_#_Exchange rates: yen (3) per US$1 - 133.88 (January 1991), 144.79
(1990), 137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986),
238.54 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 27,327 km total; 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
and 25,315 km predominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge; 5,724 km
doubletrack and multitrack sections, 9,038 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge
electrified, 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard-gauge electrified (1987)

_#_Highways: 1,098,900 km total; 718,700 km paved, 380,200 km gravel,
crushed stone, or unpaved; 3,900 km national expressways, 46,544 km
national highways, 43,907 km principal local roads, 86,930 km prefectural
roads, and 917,619 other (1987)

_#_Inland waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 38 of 89)