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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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inland seas

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 84 km; refined products, 322 km; natural gas,
1,800 km

_#_Ports: Chiba, Muroran, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Tomakomai, Nagoya, Osaka,
Tokyo, Yokkaichi, Yokohama, Kawasaki, Niigata, Fushiki-Toyama, Shimizu,
Himeji, Wakayama-Shimozu, Shimonoseki, Tokuyama-Shimomatsu

_#_Merchant marine: 1,019 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
22,396,958 GRT/34,683,035 DWT; includes 9 passenger, 55 short-sea
passenger, 4 passenger cargo, 95 cargo, 40 container, 33
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 125 refrigerated cargo, 99 vehicle carrier, 231
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 14 chemical tanker, 41
liquefied gas, 11 combination ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 257 bulk, 2
combination bulk; note - Japan also owns a large flag of convenience
fleet, including up to 40% of the total number of ships under Panamanian

_#_Civil air: 360 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 165 total, 157 usable; 129 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 29 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
56 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service;
64,000,000 telephones; stations - 318 AM, 58 FM, 12,350 TV (196
major - 1 kw or greater); satellite earth stations - 4 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; submarine cables to US (via Guam),
Philippines, China, and USSR

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime
Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force),
Maritime Safety Agency (Coast Guard)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 32,256,893; 27,771,374 fit for
military service; 992,255 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 1.0% of GNP (1990 est.)
[email protected]_Jarvis Island
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 4.5 km2; land area: 4.5 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 8 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

_#_Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

_#_Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging
habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

_#_Note: 2,090 km south of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, just
south of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands

_#_Population: uninhabited

_#_Note: Millersville settlement on western side of island
occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when
it was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical
Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use
permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators

_#_Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish
and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only - one boat landing area in the
middle of the west coast and another near the southwest corner of the

_#_Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually
by the US Coast Guard
[email protected]_Jersey
(British crown dependency)
_#_Total area: 117 km2; land area: 117 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 70 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

_#_Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north

_#_Natural resources: agricultural land

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; about 58% of land under

_#_Environment: about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

_#_Note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; 27 km
from France

_#_Population: 84,331 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Channel Islander(s); adjective - Channel Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent

_#_Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New
Church, Methodist, Presbyterian

_#_Language: English and French (official), with the Norman-French
dialect spoken in country districts

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education
age 5 to 16

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: none

_#_Long-form name: Bailiwick of Jersey

_#_Type: British crown dependency

_#_Capital: Saint Helier

_#_Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Independence: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and

_#_Legal system: English law and local statute

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States

_#_Judicial branch: Royal Court


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government - Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief
Air Marshal Sir John SUTTON (since NA 1990); Bailiff Peter CRILL (since

_#_Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


Assembly of the States - last held NA (next to be held NA);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (56 total, 52 elected) 52 independents

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: none

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Flag: white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron
saint of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag

_#_Overview: The economy is based largely on financial services,
agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially
flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey
breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important
export earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EC countries. In 1986
the finance sector overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP,
accounting for 40% of the island's output. In recent years the government
has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that
an electronics industry has developed alongside the traditional
manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy requirements are
imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 8% (1987 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $308.0 million; expenditures $284.4 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1985)

_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities - light industrial and electrical goods,
foodstuffs, textiles;

partners - UK

_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities - machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals;

partners - UK

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 50,000 kW standby capacity (1990); power supplied by

_#_Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

_#_Agriculture: potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Jersey pound (plural - pounds); 1 Jersey pound (5J) =
100 pence

_#_Exchange rates: Jersey pounds (5J) per US$1 - 0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Ports: Saint Helier, Gorey, Saint Aubin

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m (Saint

_#_Telecommunications: 63,700 telephones; stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1
TV; 3 submarine cables

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
[email protected]_Johnston Atoll
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 2.8 km2; land area: 2.8 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 10 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade
winds with little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters

_#_Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until about 1890)

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: some low-growing vegetation

_#_Note: strategic location 1,328 km west-southwest of Honolulu in
the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way between Hawaii and
the Marshall Islands; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural
islands; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands
formed from coral dredging; closed to the public; former nuclear weapons
test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System

_#_Population: 1,325 (December 1990); all US government personnel and

_#_Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US
Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the
Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of
the National Wildlife Refuge system

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

_#_Flag: the flag of the US is used

_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to
US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All
food and manufactured goods must be imported.

_#_Electricity: supplied by the United States Military

_#_Ports: Johnston Island

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,743 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent system including 60-channel submarine
cable, Autodin/SRT terminal, digital telephone switch, Military
Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), commercial satellite television
system (receive only), and UHF/VHF air-ground radio, marine
VHF/FM Channel 16

_#_Note: US Coast Guard operates a LORAN transmitting station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
[email protected]_Jordan
(see separate West Bank entry)
_#_Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended
with Israel in control of the West Bank. As stated in the 1978 Camp David
Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace
initiative, the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their
relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and
Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. The Camp David
Accords further specify that these negotiations will resolve the location
of the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it
is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip has
yet to be determined.

_#_Total area: 91,880 km2; land area: 91,540 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

_#_Land boundaries: 1,586 km total; Iraq 134 km, Israel 238 km,
Saudi Arabia 742 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

_#_Coastline: 26 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: differences with Israel over the location of the
1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries

_#_Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to

_#_Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west;
Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

_#_Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 0.5%; meadows and
pastures 1%; forest and woodland 0.5%; other 94%; includes irrigated 0.5%

_#_Environment: lack of natural water resources; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

_#_Population: 3,412,553 (July 1991), growth rate 4.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 73 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Jordanian(s); adjective - Jordanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8%

_#_Language: Arabic (official); English widely understood among
upper and middle classes

_#_Literacy: 80% (male 89%, female 70%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 572,000 (1988); agriculture 20%, manufacturing and
mining 20% (1987 est.)

_#_Organized labor: about 10% of labor force

_#_Note: 1.5-1.7 million Palestinians live on the East Bank (55-60%
of the population), most are Jordanian citizens

_#_Long-form name: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Amman

_#_Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (muhafazat,
singular - muhafazah); Al Balqa, Al Karak, Al Mafraq,
Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa, Irbid, Maan

_#_Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration; formerly Trans-Jordan)

_#_Constitution: 8 January 1952

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial
review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister,

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-Umma)
consists of an upper house or House of Notables (Majlis al-Aayan) and a
lower house or House of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab); note - the
House of Deputies was dissolved by King Hussein on 30 July 1988 as
part of Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank and in November 1989
the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held, with no seats
going to Palestinians on the West Bank

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation


Chief of State - King HUSSEIN Ibn Talal I (since 11 August 1952);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Tahir al-MASRI (since 17 June

_#_Political parties and leaders: none; after the 1989 parliamentary
elections, King Hussein promised to allow the formation of political
parties; a national charter that sets forth the ground rules for
democracy in Jordan - including the creation of political parties - has
been completed but not yet approved

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


House of Representatives - last held 8 November 1989 (next to be
held November 1993); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (80 total) Muslim Brotherhood 22, Independent Islamic bloc
10, Democratic bloc (mostly leftist) 15, Liberal bloc (traditionalist)
7, Nationalist bloc (traditionalist) 14, independent 12

_#_Communists: party actively repressed, membership less than 500

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hussein A. HAMMAMI;
Chancery at 3504 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-2664;

US - Ambassador Roger Gram HARRISON; Embassy on Jebel Amman, Amman
(mailing address is P. O. Box 354, Amman, or APO New York 09892);
telephone [962] (6) 644-371

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green
with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small
white seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the
seven fundamental laws of the Koran

_#_Overview: Jordan was a secondary beneficiary of the oil boom of
the late 1970s and early 1980s, when its annual GNP growth averaged
10-12%. Recent years, however, have witnessed a sharp reduction in grant
aid from Arab oil-producing countries and a dropoff in worker
remittances, with national growth averaging 1-2%. Imports - mainly oil,
capital goods, consumer durables, and foodstuffs - have been outstripping
exports by roughly $2 billion annually, the difference being made up by
aid, remittances, and borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian Government
agreed to implement an IMF austerity program designed to tackle the
country's serious economic problems. The program sought to gradually
reduce the government's budget deficit over the next several years and
implement badly needed structural reforms in the economy. In return for
agreeing to the IMF program, Jordan was granted IMF standby loans of over
$100 million. Recognizing that it would be unable to cover its debt
obligations, the government also began debt rescheduling negotiations
with creditors in mid-1989. The onset of the Gulf crisis in August 1990
forced the government to shelve the IMF program and suspend most debt
payments and rescheduling negotiations. Economic prospects for 1991
are especially gloomy, given the unsettled conditions in the Middle

_#_GNP: $4.6 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate - 15%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (January 1991 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.05 billion; expenditures $1.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)

_#_Exports: $0.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - fruits and vegetables, phosphates, fertilizers;

partners - Iraq, Saudi Arabia, India, Kuwait, Japan, China,
Yugoslavia, Indonesia

_#_Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - crude oil, textiles, capital goods, motor vehicles,

partners - EC, US, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Turkey, Romania, China,

_#_External debt: $8 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 15% (1990 est.); accounts
for 20% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 981,000 kW capacity; 3,500 million kWh produced,
1,180 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; principal products are
wheat, barley, citrus fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; livestock - sheep,
goats, poultry; large net importer of food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $44 million

_#_Currency: Jordanian dinar (plural - dinars);
1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

_#_Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.6670 (January
1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989), 0.3709 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499
(1986), 0.3940 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 619 km 1.050-meter gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 7,500 km; 5,500 km asphalt, 2,000 km gravel and crushed

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 209 km

_#_Ports: Al Aqabah

_#_Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,870
GRT/38,187 DWT; includes 1 bulk, 1 cargo

_#_Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 19 total, 16 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay, cable, and
radio; 81,500 telephones; stations - 4 AM, 3 FM, 24 TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT,
1 domestic TV receive-only; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq, Saudi
Arabia, and Syria; radio relay to Lebanon is inactive; a microwave
network linking Syria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Jordan

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Jordan Arab Army, Royal Jordanian Air Force,
Royal Jordanian Coast Guard, Public Security Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 778,353; 555,144 fit for
military service; 39,879 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $377 million, 12.4% of GNP (1990)
[email protected]_Juan de Nova Island
(French possession)
_#_Total area: 4.4 km2; land area: 4.4 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 24.1 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: undetermined

_#_Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 90%; other 10%

_#_Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; wildlife sanctuary

_#_Note: located in the central Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Africa and Madagascar

_#_Population: uninhabited

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the
Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Railroads: short line going to a jetty

_#_Airports: 1 with nonpermanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
[email protected]_Kenya
_#_Total area: 582,650 km2; land area: 569,250 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

_#_Land boundaries: 3,477 km total; Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km,
Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

_#_Coastline: 536 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide
with international boundary; possible claim by Somalia based on
unification of ethnic Somalis

_#_Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

_#_Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great
Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west

_#_Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes,
rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
7%; forest and woodland 4%; other 85%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: unique physiography supports abundant and varied
wildlife of scientific and economic value; deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; glaciers on Mt. Kenya

_#_Note: Kenyan Highlands one of the most successful agricultural
production regions in Africa

_#_Population: 25,241,978 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 39 of 89)