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plateau


_#_Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates,
copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 23%; forest and woodland 43%; other 32%


_#_Environment: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
plateau; desertification


_#_Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire


_*_People
_#_Population: 8,668,281 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 151 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 46 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Angolan(s); adjective - Angolan


_#_Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%,
Mestico 2%, European 1%, other 22%


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant
15% (est.)


_#_Language: Portuguese (official); various Bantu dialects


_#_Literacy: 42% (male 56%, female 28%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 2,783,000 economically active; agriculture 85%,
industry 15% (1985 est.)


_#_Organized labor: about 450,695 (1980)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: People's Republic of Angola


_#_Type: in transition from a one-party Marxist state to a multiparty
democracy with a strong presidential system


_#_Capital: Luanda


_#_Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias,
singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango,
Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte,
Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire


_#_Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)


_#_Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11
August 1980, and 6 March 1991


_#_Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary
law; recently modified to accommodate multipartyism and increased use of
free markets


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)


_#_Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Assembleia do
Povo)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Jose Eduardo dos
SANTOS (since 21 September 1979)


_#_Political parties and leaders: only one party exists - the
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party
(MPLA), Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS - although others are expected to
form as legalization of a multiparty system proceeds;
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) lost to
the MPLA and Cuban military support forces in the immediate
postindependence struggle, but is to receive recognition as a legal party


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections: first nationwide, multiparty elections to be held
between September and November 1992


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO,
FLS, G-77, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a
centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for
80 to 90% of the population, but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil
production is the most lucrative sector of the economy, contributing
about 50% to GDP. In recent years, however, the impact of fighting an
internal war has severely affected the nonoil economy, and food has to be
imported. For the long run, Angola has the advantage of rich natural
resources, notably gold, diamonds, and arable land. To realize its
economic potential Angola not only must secure domestic peace but also
must reform government policies that have led to distortions and
imbalances throughout the economy.


_#_GDP: $7.9 billion, per capita $925; real growth rate 2.0% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23.2% (1988)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $2.6 billion; expenditures $4.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $963 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - oil,liquified petroleum gas, diamonds, coffee, sisal,
fish and fish products, timber, cotton;

partners - US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil, France


_#_Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - capital equipment (machinery and electrical
equipment), food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing,
medicines; substantial military deliveries;

partners - US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil


_#_External debt: $7.0 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60%
of GDP, including petroleum output


_#_Electricity: 506,000 kW capacity; 770 million kWh produced,
90 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: petroleum, diamonds, mining, fish processing, food
processing, brewing, tobacco, sugar, textiles, cement, basic metal
products


_#_Agriculture: cash crops - coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar,
manioc, tobacco; food crops - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains,
bananas; livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry
2% of total agricultural output; disruptions caused by civil war
and marketing deficiencies require food imports


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1,005 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion


_#_Currency: kwanza (plural - kwanza); 1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 lwei


_#_Exchange rates: kwanza (Kz) per US$1 - 29.62 (fixed rate since 1976)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km
0.600-meter gauge; limited trackage in use because of insurgent attacks;
sections of the Benguela Railroad closed because of insurgency


_#_Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment,
29,350 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved
earth


_#_Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 179 km


_#_Ports: Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda


_#_Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker


_#_Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 315 total, 183 usable; 28 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 58 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair system of wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter routes; high frequency used extensively for military/Cuban
links; 40,300 telephones; stations - 17 AM, 13 FM, 2 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense
Organization and Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,080,837; 1,047,500 fit for
military service; 92,430 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
[email protected]_Anguilla
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 91 km2; land area: 91 km2


_#_Comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 61 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds


_#_Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone


_#_Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobster


_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; mostly rock with sparse
scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds


_#_Environment: frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July
to October)


_#_Note: located 270 km east of Puerto Rico


_*_People
_#_Population: 6,922 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Anguillan(s); adjective - Anguillan


_#_Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent


_#_Religion: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%


_#_Language: English (official)


_#_Literacy: 95% (male 95%, female 95%) age 12 and over can
read and write (1984)


_#_Labor force: 2,780 (1984)


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: The Valley


_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Constitution: 1 April 1982


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: High Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Brian G. J. CANTY (since NA 1989);

Head of Government - Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since NA March
1984, served previously from February 1977 to May 1980)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile GUMBS;
Anguilla United Party (AUP), Ronald WEBSTER;
Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Assembly - last held 27 February 1989 (next to
be held February 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1


_#_Communists: none


_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and
light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design
centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since
30 May 1990


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy
depends heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and
remittances from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited
from a boom in tourism. Development is planned to improve the
infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist facilities, and
also light industry. Improvement in the economy has reduced
unemployment from 40% in 1984 to about 5% in 1988.


_#_GDP: $23 million, per capita $3,300; real growth rate
8.2% (1988 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1988 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $10.4 million; expenditures $11.0 million,
including capital expenditures of $1.1 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities - lobster and salt;

partners - NA


_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities - NA;

partners - NA


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 2,000 kW capacity; 6 million kWh produced, 870 kWh
per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, boat building, salt, fishing (including
lobster)


_#_Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs,
cattle, poultry


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $38 million


_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)


_#_Fiscal year: NA


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 60 km surfaced


_#_Ports: Road Bay, Blowing Point


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways of
1,100 m (Wallblake Airport)


_#_Telecommunications: modern internal telephone system; 890
telephones; stations - 3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay link to island of
Saint Martin


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
[email protected]_Antarctica
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: about 14,000,000 km2; land area: about 14,000,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US;
second-smallest continent (after Australia)


_#_Land boundaries: see entry on _#_Disputes


_#_Coastline: 17,968 km


_#_Maritime claims: see entry on _#_Disputes


_#_Disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty
Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina,
Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency),
Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; Brazil has noted possible Latin claims;
the US and USSR do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations
and have made no claims themselves (but reserve the right to do so); no
formal claims have been made in the sector between 90o west and
150o west


_#_Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica colder than West Antarctica
because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has most
moderate climate; warmest temperatures occur in January along the coast
and average slightly below freezing


_#_Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet, with average
elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897
meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria
Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and Ross Island on
McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of coastline
and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent


_#_Natural resources: none presently exploited; coal and iron ore;
chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, and hydrocarbons have been
found in small uncommercial quantities


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; pastures 0%;
meadows and forest and woodland 0%; other 100% (ice 98%, barren rock
2%)


_#_Environment: mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity) winds blow
coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot
of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise
around the coast, as does a circumpolar ocean current; during
summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than
is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; in April 1991 it was
reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from
harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to its lowest level ever over
Antarctica; subject to active volcanism (Deception Island and isolated
areas of West Antarctica); other seismic activity rare and weak


_#_Note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent


_*_People
_#_Population: no indigenous inhabitants; staffing of research
stations varies seasonally;

Summer (January) population - 4,120; Argentina 207, Australia 268,
Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 16,
France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59,
South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA,
South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666,
USSR 565 (1989-90);

Winter (July) population - 1,066 total; Argentina 150, Australia
71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5,
India 21, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12,
UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, USSR 313 (1989-90);

Year-round stations - 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1,
Chile 3, China 2, France 1, Germany 2, Greenpeace 1, India 2, Japan 2,
South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 1, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3,
USSR 6 (1990-91);

Summer only stations - 34 total; Argentina 1, Australia 3, Chile 5,
Finland 1, Germany 4, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, NZ 2, Norway 1,
Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US 3, USSR 5 (1989-90)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered
into force on 23 June 1961, established for at least 30 years a legal
framework for peaceful use, scientific research, and deferral of legal
questions regarding territorial claims. Administration is carried out
through consultative member meetings - the last meeting was held in Madrid
(Spain) in April 1991.


Consultative (voting) members include seven nations that claim
portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and
nonclaimant nations. The US and other nations have made no claims, but
have reserved the right to claim territory. The US does not recognize the
claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding
nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date
indicates an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations
are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the
UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983),
China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India
(1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru
(1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
(1985), the US, and the USSR.


Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parenthesis,
are - Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988),
Cuba (1984), Czechoslovakia (1962), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987),
Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania
(1971), and Switzerland (1990).


Antarctic Treaty Summary:

Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military
activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel
and equipment may be used for peaceful scientific and logistics purposes;

Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation
shall continue;

Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel in
cooperation with the UN and other international agencies;

Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial
claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force;

Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive
wastes;

Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves
south of 60o 00%19 south, but that the water areas be covered by
international law;

Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including
aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations,
installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities
and the introduction of military personnel must be given;

Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists
by their own states;

Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among
member nations;

Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any
country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty;

Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties
concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ;

Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and
amending the treaty among involved nations.


Other agreements: more than 150 recommendations adopted at
treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments
include - Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and
Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972);
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
(1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was
subsequently rejected by some signatories and is likely to be replaced in
1991 by a comprehensive environmental protection agreement that defers
minerals development for a long period.


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off
the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad. Exploitation of
mineral resources is unlikely because of technical difficulties, high
costs, and objections by environmentalists.


_*_Communications
_#_Airports: 37 total; 27 usable; none with permanent hard-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: none; Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty states that advance
notice of all activities and the introduction of military personnel must
be given
_%_
[email protected]_Antigua and Barbuda
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 440 km2; land area: 440 km2; includes Redonda


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 153 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation


_#_Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some
higher volcanic areas


_#_Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters
tourism


_#_Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 7%; forest and woodland 16%; other 59%


_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to
October); insufficient freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline
provides many natural harbors


_#_Note: 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico


_*_People
_#_Population: 63,917 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 74 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Antiguan(s); adjective - Antiguan


_#_Ethnic divisions: almost entirely of black African origin; some of
British, Portuguese, Lebanese, and Syrian origin


_#_Religion: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some
Roman Catholic


_#_Language: English (official), local dialects


_#_Literacy: 89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over having
completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)


_#_Labor force: 30,000; commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%,
industry 7% (1983)


_#_Organized labor: Antigua and Barbuda Public Service Association
(ABPSA), membership 500; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), 10,000
members; Antigua Workers Union (AWU), 10,000 members (1986 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Saint John's


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter,
Saint Philip


_#_Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 1 November 1981


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1
November 1981, previously Governor since 1976);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr. (since
NA 1976)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere C. BIRD, Sr., Lester BIRD;
United National Democratic Party (UNDP), Dr. Ivor HEATH


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1989 (next to be
held 1994);
results - percentage of vote by party NA;
seats - (17 total) ALP 15, UNDP 1, independent 1


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Antigua Caribbean Liberation



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 4 of 89)