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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Infant mortality rate: 69 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 64 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Kenyan(s); adjective - Kenyan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Kikuyu 21%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 11%,
Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, Asian, European, and Arab 1%

_#_Religion: Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 28%, indigenous beliefs
26%, Muslim 6%

_#_Language: English and Swahili (official); numerous indigenous

_#_Literacy: 69% (male 80%, female 58%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 9.2 million (includes unemployed); the total
employed is 1.37 million (14.8% of the labor force); services
54.8%, industry 26.2%, agriculture 19.0% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 390,000 (est.)

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Kenya

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Nairobi

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast,
Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North-Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

_#_Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK; formerly British East

_#_Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964;
reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, and 1988

_#_Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic
law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations; constitutional amendment in 1982 made Kenya a de jure
one-party state

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Daniel Teroitich
arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice President George SAITOTI
(since 10 May 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - Kenya African National
Union (KANU), Daniel T. arap MOI, president

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held on 21 March 1988 (next to be held
by March 1993);
results - President Daniel T. arap MOI was reelected;

National Assembly - last held on 21 March 1988
(next to be held by March 1993); results - KANU is the only party;
seats - (202 total, 188 elected) KANU 200

_#_Communists: may be a few Communists and sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: labor unions; exile
opposition - Mwakenya and other groups

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Denis Daudi AFANDE; Chancery
at 2249 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-6101; there
are Kenyan Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York;

US - Ambassador Smith HEMPSTONE, Jr.; Embassy at the corner of Moi
Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi (mailing address is P. O. Box
30137, Nairobi or APO New York 09675); telephone [254] (2) 334141; there
is a US Consulate in Mombasa

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green;
the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed
spears is superimposed at the center

_#_Overview: A serious underlying economic problem is Kenya's 3.6%
annual population growth rate - one of the highest in the world. In the
meantime, GDP growth in the near term has kept slightly ahead of
population - annually averaging 4.9% in the 1986-90 period. Undependable
weather conditions and a shortage of arable land hamper long-term
growth in agriculture, the leading economic sector.

_#_GDP: $8.5 billion, per capita $360; real growth rate 4% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.9% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%, but there is a high level of unemployment
and underemployment

_#_Budget: revenues $2.0 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA billion (FY89)

_#_Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - tea 25%, coffee 21%, petroleum products 7% (1989);

partners - EC 44%, Africa 25%, Asia 5%, US 5%, Middle East 4% (1988)

_#_Imports: $2.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - machinery and transportation equipment 29%,
petroleum and petroleum products 15%, iron and steel 7%,
raw materials, food and consumer goods (1989 est.);

partners - EC 45%, Asia 11%, Middle East 12%, US 5% (1988)

_#_External debt: $5.8 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.4% (1989 est.); accounts
for 17% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 730,000 kW capacity; 2,700 million kWh produced,
110 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture,
batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing,
oil refining, cement, tourism

_#_Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 29% of GDP,
about 80% of the work force, and over 50% of exports; cash
crops - coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple; food products - corn, wheat,
sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products; food output not keeping
pace with population growth

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis used mostly for
domestic consumption; widespread cultivation of cannabis and qat on
small plots; transit country for heroin and methaqualone en route
from Southwest Asia to West Africa, Western Europe, and the US

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $839
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $6.7 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $83 million

_#_Currency: Kenyan shilling (plural - shillings);
1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 24.427 (January
1991), 22.915 (1990), 20.572 (1989), 17.747 (1988), 16.454 (1987), 16.226
(1986), 16.432 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Railroads: 2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 64,590 km total; 7,000 km paved, 4,150 km gravel,
remainder improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries
of Kenya; principal inland port is at Kisumu

_#_Pipelines: refined products, 483 km

_#_Ports: Mombasa, Lamu

_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 249 total, 213 usable; 22 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 47 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: in top group of African systems; consists of
radio relay links, open-wire lines, and radiocommunication stations;
260,000 telephones; stations - 11 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV; satellite earth
stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTLESAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General
Service Unit of the Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,444,247; 3,362,290 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $100 million, 1.0% of GDP (1989 est.)
[email protected]_Kingman Reef
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 3 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

_#_Terrain: low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about
1 meter

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; wet or
awash most of the time

_#_Note: located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa; maximum
elevation of about 1 meter makes this a navigational hazard; closed to
the public

_#_Population: uninhabited

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the
US Navy

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and
American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
[email protected]_Kiribati
_#_Total area: 717 km2; land area: 717 km2; includes three island
groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,143 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive

_#_Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 51%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 3%; other 46%

_#_Environment: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to
March; 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited

_#_Note: Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great
phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea
in French Polynesia and Nauru

_#_Population: 71,137 (July 1991), growth rate 1.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 33 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 63 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 58 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - I-Kiribati (sing., pl.); adjective - I-Kiribati

_#_Ethnic divisions: Micronesian

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 52.6%, Protestant (Congregational) 40.9%,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985)

_#_Language: English (official), Gilbertese

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 7,870 economically active (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: Kiribati Trades Union Congress - 2,500 members

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Kiribati; note - pronounced Kiribas

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Tarawa

_#_Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands; note - a new administrative structure of 6 districts
(Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern
Gilberts, Tarawa) may have been changed to 20 island councils (one for
each of the inhabited islands) named Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae,
Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei,
Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina

_#_Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK; formerly Gilbert Islands)

_#_Constitution: 12 July 1979

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Ieremia TABAI
(since 12 July 1979); Vice President Teatao TEANNAKI (since 20 July 1979)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Gilbertese National Party;
Christian Democratic Party, Teburoro TITO, secretary;
essentially not organized on the basis of political parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held on 12 May 1987 (next to be held May 1991);
results - Ieremia TABAI 50.1%, Tebruroro TITO 42.7%, Tetao

House of Assembly - last held on 19 March l987 (next to be held
May 1991); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (40 total; 39 elected) percent of seats by party NA

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP (associate), IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) lives in Tarawa

US - none

_#_Flag: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over
a yellow rising sun and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy
white stripes to represent the ocean

_#_Overview: The country has few national resources. Commercially
viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence
in 1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports.
The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Real GDP declined
about 8% in 1987, as the fish catch fell sharply to only one-fourth the
level of 1986 and copra production was hampered by repeated rains. Output
rebounded strongly in 1988, with real GDP growing by 17%. The upturn in
economic growth came from an increase in copra production and a good fish
catch. Following the strong surge in output in 1988, GNP increased 1%
in 1989 and again in 1990.

_#_GDP: $36.8 million, per capita $525; real growth rate 1.0% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.0% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1985); considerable underemployment

_#_Budget: revenues $29.9 million; expenditures $16.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $14.0 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $5.8 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - fish 55%, copra 42%;

partners - EC 20%, Marshall Islands 12%, US 8%, American
Samoa 4% (1985)

_#_Imports: $26.7 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - foodstuffs, fuel, transportation equipment;

partners - Australia 39%, Japan 21%, NZ 6%, UK 6%, US 3% (1985)

_#_External debt: $2.0 million (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.0% (1988 est.); accounts
for less than 4% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 13 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fishing, handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fishing); copra
and fish contribute about 95% to exports; subsistence farming
predominates; food crops - taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables;
not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $258 million

_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural - dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: NA

_#_Highways: 640 km of motorable roads

_#_Inland waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line

_#_Ports: Banaba and Betio (Tarawa)

_#_Civil air: 2 Trislanders; no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 22 total; 21 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 1,400 telephones; stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no military force maintained; the Police Force carries
out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties; there are small
police posts on all islands

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
[email protected]_Korea, North
_#_Total area: 120,540 km2; land area: 120,410 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Mississippi

_#_Land boundaries: 1,671 km total; China 1,416 km, South Korea 238
km, USSR 17 km

_#_Coastline: 2,495 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Military boundary line: 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the
exclusive economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea (all foreign vessels and
aircraft without permission are banned)

_#_Disputes: short section of boundary with China is indefinite;
Demarcation Line with South Korea

_#_Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

_#_Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow
valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

_#_Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower

_#_Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
NEGL%; forest and woodland 74%; other 7%; includes irrigated 9%

_#_Environment: mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible,
and sparsely populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe

_#_Note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and USSR

_#_Population: 21,814,656 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Korean(s); adjective - Korean

_#_Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous

_#_Religion: Buddhism and Confucianism; religious activities now
almost nonexistent

_#_Language: Korean

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 9,615,000; agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%;
shortage of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 1,600,000 members; single-trade union system
coordinated by the General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea under the
Central Committee

_#_Long-form name: Democratic People's Republic of Korea; abbreviated

_#_Type: Communist state; dictatorship

_#_Capital: P'yongyang

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and
3 special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Chagang-do,
Hamgyong-namdo, Hamgyong-bukto, Hwanghae-namdo, Hwanghae-bukto,
Kaesong-si*, Kangwon-do, Namp'o-si*, P'yongan-bukto,
P'yongan-namdo, P'yongyang-si*, Yanggang-do

_#_Independence: 9 September 1948

_#_Constitution: adopted 1948, revised 27 December 1972

_#_Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese
influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 9 September (1948)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, premier, eleven
vice premiers, State Administration Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (Ch'oego
Inmin Hoeui)

_#_Judicial branch: Central Court


Chief of State - President KIM Il-song (since 28 December 1972);
Designated Successor KIM Chong-il (son of President, born 16 February

Head of Government - Premier YON Hyong-muk (since NA December 1988)

_#_Political parties and leaders: major party - Korean Workers' Party
(KWP), KIM Il-song, general secretary, and his son, KIM Chong-il,
secretary, Central Committee;
Korean Social Democratic Party, YI Kye-paek, chairman;
Chondoist Chongu Party, CHONG Sin-hyok, chairman

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 17


President - last held 24 May 1990 (next to be held 1994);
results - President KIM Il-song was reelected without opposition;

Supreme People's Assembly - last held on 24 May 1990 (next
to be held 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (687 total) the KWP approves a single list of candidates
who are elected without opposition; minor parties hold a few seats

_#_Communists: KWP claims membership of about 3 million

_#_Member of: FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, IMF (observer), IMO, IOC,

_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and
blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band
is a white disk with a red five-pointed star

_#_Overview: More than 90% of this command economy is socialized;
agricultural land is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95%
of manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is unusually
tight even for a Communist country because of the small size and
homogeneity of the society and the strict one-man rule of Kim. Economic
growth during the period 1984-90 averaged approximately 3%. Abundant
natural resources and hydropower form the basis of industrial
development. Output of the extractive industries includes coal, iron ore,
magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals.
Manufacturing emphasis is centered on heavy industry, with light industry
lagging far behind. Despite the use of high-yielding seed varieties,
expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of fertilizers, North Korea
has not yet become self-sufficient in food production. Four consecutive
years of poor harvests, coupled with distribution problems, have led to
chronic food shortages. North Korea remains far behind South Korea in
economic development and living standards.

_#_GNP: $29.7 billion, per capita $1,390; real growth rate 2%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: officially none

_#_Budget: revenues $15.6 billion; expenditures $15.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $1.95 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural
products, manufactures;

partners - USSR, China, Japan, Hong Kong, FRG, Singapore

_#_Imports: $2.85 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - petroleum, machinery and equipment, coking coal,

partners - USSR, Japan, China, Hong Kong, FRG, Singapore

_#_External debt: $7 billion (1991)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 6,440,000 kW capacity; 40,250 million kWh produced,
1,890 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: machine building, military products, electric power,
chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force;
principal crops - rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and
livestock products - cattle, hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in
grain; fish catch estimated at 1.7 million metric tons in 1987

_#_Economic aid: Communist countries, $1.4 billion a year in the 1980s

_#_Currency: North Korean won (plural - won);
1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon

_#_Exchange rates: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 2.2 (March 1991),
2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December 1989), 2.13 (December 1988), 0.94
(March 1987), NA (1986), NA (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 4,535 km total; 3,870 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
665 km 0.762-meter narrow gauge; 159 km double track;
3,175 km electrified; government owned (1989)

_#_Highways: about 30,000 km (1989); 98.5% gravel, crushed stone, or
earth surface; 1.5% concrete or bituminous

_#_Inland waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 37 km

_#_Ports: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam, Namp'o, Wonsan, Songnim,
Najin, Sonbong

_#_Merchant marine: 68 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 465,801
GRT/709,442 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger,
1 passenger-cargo, 58 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 4 bulk, 1 combination bulk

_#_Airports: 55 total, 55 usable (est.); about 30 with
permanent-surface runways; fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; 20
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations - 18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 200,000 TV sets;
3,500,000 radio receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Korean People's Army (includes of the Army, Navy,
Air Force), Civil Security Forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,381,859; 3,899,606 fit for
military service; 214,690 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 20-25% of GNP (1991 est.);
note - the officially announced but suspect figure is $1.7 billion,

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 40 of 89)