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Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool
to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling
plateau and low mountains in northeast


_#_Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold


_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
2%; forest and woodland 39%; other 55%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to
deforestation


_*_People
_#_Population: 2,730,446 (July 1991), growth rate 3.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 124 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 59 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Liberian(s); adjective - Liberian


_#_Ethnic divisions: indigenous African tribes, including Kpelle,
Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and
Bella 95%; descendants of repatriated slaves known as Americo-Liberians
5%


_#_Religion: traditional 70%, Muslim 20%, Christian 10%


_#_Language: English (official); more than 20 local languages of the
Niger-Congo language group; English used by about 20%


_#_Literacy: 40% (male 50%, female 29%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 510,000, including 220,000 in the monetary economy;
agriculture 70.5%, services 10.8%, industry and commerce 4.5%, other
14.2%; non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management
and engineering jobs; 52% of population of working age


_#_Organized labor: 2% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Liberia


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Monrovia


_#_Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa,
Grand Cape Mount, Grand Jide, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland,
Montserrado, Nimba, Rivercess, Sino


_#_Independence: 26 July 1847


_#_Constitution: 6 January 1986


_#_Legal system: dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American
common law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten
tribal practices for indigenous sector


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1847)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - interim President Dr.
Amos SAWYER (since 15 November 1990); interim Vice President Ronald DIGGS
(since 15 November 1990); note - this is an interim government appointed
by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) that will be
replaced after elections are held under a West African-brokered
peace plan; rival rebel factions led by Prince Y. JOHNSON and Charles
TAYLOR are challenging the Sawyer government's legitimacy while
observing a tenuous cease fire; the former president, Gen. Dr. Samuel
Kanyon DOE, was ousted and killed on 9 September 1990 in a coup led by
Prince Y. JOHNSON


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), Augustus CAINE, chairman;
Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel KOROMAH, chairman;
Unity Party (UP), Carlos SMITH, chairman;
United People's Party (UPP), Gabriel Baccus MATTHEWS, chairman


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA);
results - Gen. Dr. Samuel Kanyon DOE (NDPL) 50.9%, Jackson DOE (LAP)
26.4%, other 22.7%; note - President Doe was killed by rebel forces
on 9 September 1990;

Senate - last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (26 total) NDPL 21, LAP 3, UP 1, LUP 1;

House of Representatives - last held on 15 October 1985 (next
to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (64 total) NDPL 51, LAP 8, UP 3, LUP 2


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eugenia A.
WORDSWORTH-STEVENSON; Chancery at 5201 16th Street NW, Washington DC
20011; telephone (202) 723-0437 through 0440; there is a Liberian
Consulate General in New York;

US - Ambassador Peter J. de VOS; Embassy at 111 United Nations
Drive, Monrovia (mailing address is P. O. Box 98, Monrovia, or APO New
York 09155); telephone [231] 222991 through 222994


_#_Flag: 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue
square in the upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US
flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Civil war during 1990 destroyed much of Liberia's
economy, especially the infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Expatriate
businessmen fled the country, taking capital and expertise with them.
Many will not return. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources,
forests, and a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia had been a
producer and exporter of basic products, while local manufacturing,
mainly foreign owned, had been small in scope. Political instability
threatens prospects for economic reconstruction and repatriation of
some 750,000 Liberian refugees who fled to neighboring countries.


_#_GDP: $988 million, per capita $400; real growth rate 1.5% (1988)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 43% urban (1988)


_#_Budget: revenues $242.1 million; expenditures $435.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $29.5 million (1989)


_#_Exports: $505 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - iron ore 61%, rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee;

partners - US, EC, Netherlands


_#_Imports: $394 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities - rice, mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery,
transportation equipment, other foodstuffs;

partners - US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS


_#_External debt: $1.6 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% in manufacturing (1987);
accounts for 22% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 730 million kWh produced,
290 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: rubber processing, food processing, construction
materials, furniture, palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); principal products - rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice,
cassava, palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, sheep, and goats; not
self-sufficient in food, imports 25% of rice consumption


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $665
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $853 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $77 million


_#_Currency: Liberian dollar (plural - dollars);
1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1 - 1.00 (fixed rate
since 1940); unofficial parallel exchange rate of L$2.5 = US$1, January
1989


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km
1.067-meter narrow gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and
operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with
Liberian Government


_#_Highways: 10,087 km total; 603 km bituminous treated, 2,848 km
all weather, 4,313 km dry weather; there are also 2,323 km of private,
laterite-surfaced roads open to public use, owned by rubber and timber
companies


_#_Ports: Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)


_#_Merchant marine: 1,563 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
53,053,254 DWT/94,597,871 DWT; includes 18 passenger, 1 short-sea
passenger, 156 cargo, 47 refrigerated cargo, 15 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
67 vehicle carrier, 74 container, 5 barge carrier, 450 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 104 chemical, 60 combination ore/oil, 44
liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 485 bulk, 1 multifunction large-load
carrier, 30 combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry; all
ships are foreign owned; the top four owning flags are US 19%, Japan 17%,
Hong Kong 12%, and Norway 10%; China owns at least 28 ships, Bulgaria
owns 3, and Poland owns 1


_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 75 total, 58 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: telephone and telegraph service via radio relay
network; main center is Monrovia; 8,500 telephones; stations - 3 AM, 4 FM,
5 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Armed Forces of Liberia (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
Coast Guard, National Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 648,636; 346,349 fit for
military service; no conscription


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 2.4% of GDP (1987)
_%_
[email protected]_Libya
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,759,540 km2; land area: 1,759,540 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska


_#_Land boundaries: 4,383 km total; Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km,
Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km


_#_Coastline: 1,770 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Gulf of Sidra closing line: 32o 30%19 N


_#_Disputes: claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in
northern Chad; maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; Libya claims about
19,400 km2 in northern Niger; Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in
southeastern Algeria


_#_Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior


_#_Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus,
depressions


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, gypsum


_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
8%; forest and woodland 0%; other 91%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting
one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural
surface-water resources


_#_Note: the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water
development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large
aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,350,742 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 62 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Libyan(s); adjective - Libyan


_#_Ethnic divisions: Berber and Arab 97%; some Greeks, Maltese,
Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians


_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 97%


_#_Language: Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major
cities


_#_Literacy: 64% (male 75%, female 50%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,000,000, includes about 280,000 resident
foreigners; industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture 18%


_#_Organized labor: National Trade Unions' Federation, 275,000
members; General Union for Oil and Petrochemicals; Pan-Africa Federation
of Petroleum Energy and Allied Workers


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya


_#_Type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses); in theory, governed by
the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship


_#_Capital: Tripoli


_#_Administrative divisions: 46 municipalities (baladiyat,
singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al Abyar, Al
Aziziyah, Al Bayda, Al Jufrah, Al Jumayl, Al Khums, Al
Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Qarabulli, Al Qubbah, Al Ujaylat, Ash
Shati, Awbari, Az Zahra, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi,
Bani Walid, Bin Jawwad, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan,
Ghat, Jadu, Jalu, Janzur, Masallatah, Misratah,
Mizdah, Murzuq, Nalut, Qaminis, Qasr Bin Ghashir, Sabha,
Sabratah, Shahhat, Surman, Surt, Tajura,
Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Tukrah, Yafran, Zlitan,
Zuwarah; note - the number of municipalities may have been reduced to
13 named Al Jabal al-Akhdar, Al Jabal al-Gharbi, Al Jabal al-Khums, Al
Batnam, Al Kufrah, Al Marqab, Al Marzuq, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi,
Khalij Surt, Sabha, Tripoli, Wadi al-Hayat


_#_Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)


_#_Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977


_#_Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law;
separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)


_#_Executive branch: revolutionary leader, chairman of the General
People's Committee, General People's Committee (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar
al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969);

Head of Government - Chairman of the General People's Committee
(Premier) Abu Zayd Umar DURDA (since 7 October 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders: none


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of
revolutionary committees


_#_Political parties: none


_#_Communists: no organized party, negligible membership


_#_Other political or pressure groups: various Arab nationalist
movements and the Arab Socialist Resurrection (Ba'th) party with
almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as
well as some Islamic elements


_#_Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: none


_#_Flag: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the
state religion)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon
revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all export
earnings and about one-third of GNP. Since 1980, however, the sharp
drop in oil prices and the resulting decline in export revenues have
adversely affected economic development. In 1988 per capita GNP was the
highest in Africa at $5,410, but it had been $2,000 higher in 1982.
Severe cutbacks in imports over the past five years have led to shortages
of basic goods and foodstuffs, although the reopening of the
Libyan-Tunisian border in April 1988 and the Libyan-Egyptian border in
December 1989 have somewhat eased shortages. Austerity budgets and a lack
of trained technicians have undermined the government's ability to
implement a number of planned infrastructure development projects.
Windfall profits from the hike in world oil prices in late 1990 improved
the foreign payments position and may permit Tripoli to ease austerity
measures. The nonoil industrial and construction sectors, which account
for about 22% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural
products to include petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although
agriculture accounts for less than 5% of GNP, it employs 18% of the labor
force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm output,
requiring Libya to import about 75% of its food requirements.


_#_GNP: $24 billion, per capita $5,860; real growth rate 3% (1989
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1988 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1988 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $8.1 billion; expenditures $9.8 billion, including
capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - petroleum, peanuts, hides;

partners - Italy, USSR, FRG, Spain, France, Belgium/Luxembourg,
Turkey


_#_Imports: $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured
goods;

partners - Italy, USSR, FRG, UK, Japan


_#_External debt: $3.5 billion, excluding military debt (December
1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 43% of GDP
(including oil)


_#_Electricity: 4,705,000 kW capacity; 13,600 million kWh produced,
3,220 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts,
cement


_#_Agriculture: 5% of GNP; cash crops - wheat, barley, olives, dates,
citrus fruits, peanuts; 75% of food is imported


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $242 million; no longer a recipient


_#_Currency: Libyan dinar (plural - dinars);
1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams


_#_Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.2669 (January 1991),
0.2699 (1990), 0.2922 (1989), 0.2853 (1988), 0.2706 (1987), 0.3139
(1986), 0.2961 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 32,500 km total; 24,000 km bituminous and bituminous
treated, 8,500 km gravel, crushed stone and earth


_#_Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; natural gas 1,947 km; refined
products 443 km (includes 256 km liquid petroleum gas)


_#_Ports: Tobruk, Tripoli, Banghazi, Misratah, Marsa el Brega


_#_Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 807,539
GRT/1,452,847 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 4
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker


_#_Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 131 total, 123 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways;
7 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 44 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: modern telecommunications system using radio
relay, coaxial cable, tropospheric scatter, and domestic satellite
stations; 370,000 telephones; stations - 18 AM, 3 FM, 13 TV; satellite
earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and
14 domestic; submarine cables to France and Italy; radio relay to
Tunisia; tropospheric scatter to Greece; planned ARABSAT and Intersputnik
satellite stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Armed Peoples of the Libyan Arab Jamahariya (includes
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command), National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,023,335; 603,886 fit for
military service; 52,059 reach military age (17) annually;
conscription now being implemented


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 11.1% of GNP (1987)
_%_
[email protected]_Liechtenstein
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 160 km2; land area: 160 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: 78 km total; Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km


_#_Coastline: none - landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked


_#_Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or
rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers


_#_Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western
third


_#_Natural resources: hydroelectric potential


_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
38%; forest and woodland 19%; other 18%


_#_Environment: variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation


_#_Note: landlocked


_*_People
_#_Population: 28,476 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Liechtensteiner(s); adjective - Liechtenstein


_#_Ethnic divisions: Alemannic 95%, Italian and other 5%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 87.3%, Protestant 8.3%, unknown 1.6%,
other 2.8% (1988)


_#_Language: German (official), Alemannic dialect


_#_Literacy: 100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1981)


_#_Labor force: 12,258; 5,078 foreign workers (mostly from
Switzerland and Austria); industry, trade, and building 54.4%; services
41.6%; agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 4.0%


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Principality of Liechtenstein


_#_Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy


_#_Capital: Vaduz


_#_Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden,
singular - gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell,
Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz


_#_Independence: 23 January 1719, Imperial Principality of
Liechtenstein established


_#_Constitution: 5 October 1921


_#_Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Saint Joseph's Day, 19 March


_#_Executive branch: reigning prince, hereditary prince, head
of government, deputy head of government


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Diet (Landtag)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal
cases and Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989;
assumed executive powers 26 August 1984);
Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968);

Head of Government - Hans BRUNHART (since 26 April 1978);
Deputy Head of Government Dr. Herbert WILLE (since 2 February 1986)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto HASLER;
Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Emanuel VOGT;
Free Electoral List (FW)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Diet - last held on 5 March 1989 (next to be held by March 1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (25 total) VU 13, FBP 12


_#_Communists: none


_#_Member of: CE, CSCE, EBRD, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WIPO


_#_Diplomatic representation: in routine diplomatic matters,
Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy;

US - the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein,
but the US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular
accreditation at Vaduz


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a
gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale
light industry and tourism. Industry accounts for 54% of total
employment, the service sector 42% (mostly based on tourism), and
agriculture and forestry 4%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is
estimated at $10 million annually. Low business taxes (the maximum tax
rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000
holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in
Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes,
provide 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to that of
Switzerland in a customs union, and incomes and living standards parallel
those of the more prosperous Swiss groups.


_#_GDP: $630 million, per capita $22,300; real growth rate NA% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 0.1% (December 1986)


_#_Budget: revenues $240 million; expenditures $197 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988)


_#_Exports: $1.28 billion (1988);

commodities - small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps,
hardware, pottery;

partners - EC 40%, EFTA 22% (Switzerland 18%) (1988)


_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities - machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor
vehicles;

partners - NA


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced,
5,340 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics,



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 43 of 89)