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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism


_#_Agriculture: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural - francs, franken,
or franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi


_#_Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per
US$1 - 1.2724 (January 1991), 1.3892 (1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988),
1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986), 2.4571 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned,
operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways


_#_Highways: 130.66 km main roads, 192.27 km byroads


_#_Civil air: no transport aircraft


_#_Airports: none


_#_Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones;
stations - no AM, no FM, no TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Police Department

_#_Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland
_%_
[email protected]_Luxembourg
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,586 km2; land area: 2,586 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island


_#_Land boundaries: 359 km total; Belgium 148 km, France 73 km,
Germany 138 km


_#_Coastline: none - landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked


_#_Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers


_#_Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys;
uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle
floodplain in the southeast


_#_Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)


_#_Land use: arable land 24%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
20%; forest and woodland 21%; other 34%


_#_Environment: deforestation


_#_Note: landlocked


_*_People
_#_Population: 388,017 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Luxembourger(s); adjective - Luxembourg


_#_Ethnic divisions: Celtic base, with French and German blend; also
guest and worker residents from Portugal, Italy, and European countries


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3%


_#_Language: Luxembourgish, German, French; many also speak English


_#_Literacy: 100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)


_#_Labor force: 169,600; one-third of labor force is foreign workers,
mostly from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and FRG; services 50%,
industry 23.2%, government 14.4%, construction 9%, agriculture 3.4%
(1987)


_#_Organized labor: 100,000 (est.) members of four confederated
trade unions


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg


_#_Type: constitutional monarchy


_#_Capital: Luxembourg


_#_Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher,
Luxembourg


_#_Independence: 1839


_#_Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions


_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day (public celebration of the Grand
Duke's birthday), 23 June (1921)


_#_Executive branch: grand duke, prime minister, vice prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des
Deputes); note - the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory
body whose views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies


_#_Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de
Justice)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964);
Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July
1984); Vice Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Christian Social Party (CSV), Jacques SANTER;
Socialist Workers Party (LSAP), Jacques POOS;
Liberal (DP), Colette FLESCH;
Communist (KPL), Andre HOFFMANN;
Green Alternative (GAP), Jean HUSS


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

Chamber of Deputies - last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held
by June 1994);
results - CSV 31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%,
KPL 5.1%, other 4.1%;
seats - (60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4, PAC 4, KPL 1


_#_Communists: 500 party members (1982)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: group of steel industries
representing iron and steel industry, Centrale Paysanne representing
agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions; Federation
of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation


_#_Member of: ACCT, Benelux, CCC, CE, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB,
EMS, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OECD, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Andre PHILIPPE; Chancery at
2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-4171; there are Luxembourg Consulates General in New York and San
Francisco;

US - Ambassador Edward M. ROWELL; Embassy at 22 Boulevard
Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City (mailing address is APO New York
09132); telephone [352] 460123


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light
blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands which uses a darker blue and
is shorter; design was based on the flag of France


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The stable economy features moderate growth, low
inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small but
highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until
recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified,
particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade, growth
in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in
steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing proportion
of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic union with
Belgium on trade and most financial matters and is also closely connected
economically to the Netherlands.


_#_GDP: $6.9 billion, per capita $18,000; real growth rate 2.5%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 1.3% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988)


_#_Exports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products,
glass, aluminum, other industrial products;

partners - EC 75%, US 5%


_#_Imports: $6.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities - minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods;

partners - Belgium 37%, FRG 31%, France 12%, US 2%


_#_External debt: $131.6 million (1989 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1% (1990 est.); accounts for
25% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 1,500,000 kW capacity; 1,163 million kWh produced,
3,170 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals,
metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum


_#_Agriculture: accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry);
principal products - barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes;
cattle raising widespread


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: Luxembourg franc (plural - francs);
1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1 - 31.102 (January
1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672
(1986), 59.378 (1985); note - the Luxembourg franc is at par with the
Belgian franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 270 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; 162 km double track; 162 km electrified


_#_Highways: 5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km
earth; about 80 km limited access divided highway


_#_Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River


_#_Pipelines: refined products, 48 km


_#_Ports: Mertert (river port)


_#_Merchant marine: 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,731 GRT/2,460 DWT


_#_Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways less than 1,220 m


_#_Telecommunications: adequate and efficient system, mainly buried
cables; 230,000 telephones; stations - 2 AM, 4 FM, 6 TV; 2 communication
satellite earth stations operating in EUTELSAT and domestic systems


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, National Gendarmerie


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 100,476; 83,724 fit for
military service; 2,297 reach military age (19) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $90 million, 1.2% of GDP (1990)
_%_
[email protected]_Macau
(overseas territory of Portugal)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 16 km2; land area: 16 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundary: 0.34 km with China


_#_Coastline: 40 km


_#_Maritime claims: not known


_#_Disputes: scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of
China in 1999


_#_Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers


_#_Terrain: generally flat


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect
the two islands to the peninsula on mainland


_#_Note: 27 km west southwest of Hong Kong on the southeast coast of
China


_*_People
_#_Population: 446,262 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Macanese (sing. and pl.); adjective - Macau


_#_Ethnic divisions: Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%


_#_Religion: Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none
45.8%, other 1.2% (1981)


_#_Language: Portuguese (official); Cantonese is the language of
commerce


_#_Literacy: 90% (male 93%, female 86%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)


_#_Labor force: 180,000 (1986)


_#_Organized labor: none


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: overseas territory of Portugal; scheduled to revert to China
in 1999


_#_Capital: Macau


_#_Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos,
singular - concelho); Ilhas, Macau


_#_Independence: none (territory of Portugal); Portugal signed an
agreement with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20
December 1999; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect
Macau's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years
after transition


_#_Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau


_#_Legal system: Portuguese civil law system


_#_National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June


_#_Executive branch: president of Portugal, governor,
Consultative Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: Legislative Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES
(since 9 March 1986);

Head of Government - Governor Gen. Vasco Joachim Rocha VIEIRA
(since 20 March 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Association to Defend the Interests of Macau;
Macau Democratic Center;
Group to Study the Development of Macau;
Macau Independent Group


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Legislative Assembly - last held on 9 November 1988 (next to be
held November 1991);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (17 total; 6 elected by universal suffrage, 6 by indirect
suffrage) number of seats by party NA


_#_Other political or pressure groups: wealthy Macanese and Chinese
representing local interests, wealthy pro-Communist merchants
representing China's interests; in January 1967 the Macau Government
acceded to Chinese demands that gave China veto power over administration


_#_Member of: GATT, WTO (associate)


_#_Diplomatic representation: as Chinese territory under Portuguese
administration, Macanese interests in the US are represented by Portugal;

US - the US has no offices in Macau and US interests are monitored
by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong


_#_Flag: the flag of Portugal is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including
gambling), and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify
have spawned other small industries - toys, artificial flowers, and
electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and
the clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings.
Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy
imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials and
capital goods.


_#_GDP: $2.9 billion, per capita $6,560; real growth rate 6%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $305 million; expenditures $298 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)


_#_Exports: $1.7 billion (1989 est.);

commodities - textiles, clothing, toys;

partners - US 33%, Hong Kong 15%, FRG 12%, France 10% (1987)


_#_Imports: $1.6 billion (1989 est.);

commodities - raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods;

partners - Hong Kong 39%, China 21%, Japan 10% (1987)


_#_External debt: $91 million (1985)


_#_Industrial production: NA


_#_Electricity: 203,000 kW capacity; 495 million kWh produced,
1,120 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture,
tourism


_#_Agriculture: rice, vegetables; food shortages - rice, vegetables,
meat; depends mostly on imports for food requirements


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: pataca (plural - patacas); 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos


_#_Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1 - 8.03 (1989), 8.044 (1988),
7.993 (1987), 8.029 (1986), 8.045 (1985); note - linked to the Hong Kong
dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 42 km paved


_#_Ports: Macau


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: none useable, 1 under construction; 1 seaplane station


_#_Telecommunications: fairly modern communication facilities
maintained for domestic and international services; 52,000 telephones;
stations - 4 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 75,000 radio receivers (est.); international
high-frequency radio communication facility; access to international
communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 167,289; 93,142 fit for
military service


_#_Note: defense is responsibility of Portugal
_%_
[email protected]_Madagascar
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 587,040 km2; land area: 581,540 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 4,828 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)


_#_Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south


_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center


_#_Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt,
quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
58%; forest and woodland 26%; other 11%; includes irrigated 2%


_#_Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification


_#_Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location
along Mozambique Channel


_*_People
_#_Population: 12,185,318 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 95 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 54 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Malagasy (sing. and pl.); adjective - Malagasy


_#_Ethnic divisions: basic split between highlanders of predominantly
Malayo-Indonesian origin (Merina 1,643,000 and related Betsileo 760,000)
on the one hand and coastal tribes, collectively termed the Cotiers,
with mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry (Betsimisaraka
941,000, Tsimihety 442,000, Antaisaka 415,000, Sakalava 375,000), on the
other; there are also 11,000 European French, 5,000 Indians of French
nationality, and 5,000 Creoles


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian about 41%, Muslim 7%


_#_Language: French and Malagasy (official)


_#_Literacy: 80% (male 88%, female 73%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 4,900,000; 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in
subsistence agriculture; 175,000 wage earners - agriculture 26%, domestic
service 17%, industry 15%, commerce 14%, construction 11%, services 9%,
transportation 6%, other 2%; 51% of population of working age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 4% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Democratic Republic of Madagascar


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Antananarivo


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (plural - NA,
singular - faritanin); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa,
Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara


_#_Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France; formerly Malagasy
Republic)


_#_Constitution: 21 December 1975


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional
Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)


_#_Executive branch: president, Supreme Council of the Revolution,
prime minister, Council of Ministers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Popular National Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale Populaire)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High
Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Adm. Didier RATSIRAKA (since 15 June
1975);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Guy RASANAMAZY (since
8 August 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: a presidential decree issued early
last year, legalized the existence of political parties outside of the
Ruling Front; some thirty political parties now exist in Madagascar, the
most important of which are the
Advance Guard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), Didier RATSIRAKA;
Congress Party for Malagasy Independence (AKFM), RAKOTOVAO-ANDRIATIANA;
Congress Party for Malagasy Independence-Revival (AKFM-R), Pastor Richard
ANDRIAMANJATO;
Movement for National Unity (VONJY), Dr. Marojama RAZANABAHINY;
Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA), Norbert ANDRIAMORASATA;
Militants for the Establishment of a Proletarian Regime (MFM), Manandafy
RAKOTONIRINA;
National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (MONIMA), Monja
JAONA;
Socialist Organization Monima (VSM, an offshoot of MONIMA), Tsihozony
MAHARANGA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held on 12 March 1989 (next to be held March 1996);
results - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 62%, Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA (MFM/MFT)
20%, Dr. Jerome Marojama RAZANABAHINY (VONJY) 15%, Monja JAONA
(MONIMA) 3%;

Popular National Assembly - last held on 28 May 1989 (next to
be held May 1994);
results - AREMA 88.2%, MFM 5.1%, AKFM 3.7%, VONJY 2.2%, other 0.8%;
seats - (137 total) AREMA 120, MFM 7, AKFM 5, VONJY 4, MONIMA 1


_#_Communists: Communist party of virtually no importance; small and
vocal group of Communists has gained strong position in leadership of
AKFM, the rank and file of which is non-Communist


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn
RAJAONARIVELO; Chancery at 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC
20008; telephone (202) 265-5525 or 5526; there is a Malagasy Consulate
General in New York;

US - Ambassador Howard K. WALKER; Embassy at 14 and 16 Rue
Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo (mailing address is B. P. 620,
Antananarivo); telephone 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a
vertical white band of the same width on hoist side


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world.
During the period 1980-85 it had a population growth of 3% a year and
a - 0.4% GDP growth rate. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is
the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 40% of GDP, employing
about 80% of the labor force, and contributing to more than 70% of total
export earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of
agricultural products and textile manufacturing; in 1990 it accounted for
only 16% of GDP and employed 3% of the labor force. In 1986 the
government introduced a five-year development plan that stresses
self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased production for
exports, and reduced energy imports.


_#_GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 3.8% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $390 million; expenditures $525 million, including
capital expenditures of $240 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $290 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - coffee 45%, vanilla 15%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum
products;

partners - France, Japan, Italy, FRG, US


_#_Imports: $436 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%,
petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%;

partners - France, FRG, UK, other EC, US


_#_External debt: $3.6 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.2% (1990 est.); accounts
for 16% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 119,000 kW capacity; 430 million kWh produced,
40 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap
factories, breweries, tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer
goods industries (textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly
plant, paper, petroleum


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, vanilla,
sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops - rice, cassava, beans, bananas,
peanuts; cattle raising widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild
varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $136
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $491 million


_#_Currency: Malagasy franc (plural - francs);
1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 1,454.6 (December
1990), 1,494.1 (1990), 1,603.4 (1989), 1,407.1 (1988), 1,069.2 (1987),
676.3 (1986), 662.5 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 40,000 km total; 4,694 km paved, 811 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil, 34,495 km improved and unimproved
earth (est.)


_#_Inland waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and
small portions of Canal des Pangalanes


_#_Ports: Toamasina, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 44 of 89)