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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Merchant marine: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 59,416
GRT/82,869 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas

_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 148 total, 115 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 42 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: above average system includes open-wire lines,
coaxial cables, radio relay, and troposcatter links; submarine cable to
Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT; over 38,200 telephones; stations - 14 AM, 1 FM, 7 (30
repeaters) TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces,
Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces - includes Navy and Air Force),
Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,637,866; 1,570,393 fit for
military service; 119,882 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $37 million, 2.2% of GDP (1989 est.)
[email protected]_Malawi
_#_Total area: 118,480 km2; land area: 94,080 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

_#_Land boundaries: 2,881 km total; Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania
475 km, Zambia 837 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Disputes: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa
(Lake Malawi)

_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season
(May to November)

_#_Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded
hills, some mountains

_#_Natural resources: limestone; unexploited deposits of uranium,
coal, and bauxite

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 20%; forest and woodland 50%; other 5%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: deforestation

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: 9,438,462 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991);
note - 900,000 Mozambican refugees in Malawi (1990 est.)

_#_Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 17 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 136 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 51 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Malawian(s); adjective - Malawian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga,
Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

_#_Religion: Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%;
traditional indigenous beliefs are also practiced

_#_Language: English and Chichewa (official); other languages
important regionally

_#_Literacy: 22% (male 34%, female 12%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1966)

_#_Labor force: 428,000 wage earners; agriculture 43%, manufacturing
16%, personal services 15%, commerce 9%, construction 7%, miscellaneous
services 4%, other permanently employed 6% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: small minority of wage earners are unionized

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Malawi

_#_Type: one-party state

_#_Capital: Lilongwe

_#_Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa,
Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe,
Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ncheu,
Nkhata Bay, Nkhota Kota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

_#_Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK; formerly Nyasaland)

_#_Constitution: 6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1964)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Dr. Hastings
Kamuzu BANDA (since 6 July 1966; sworn in as President for Life 6 July

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - Malawi Congress Party
(MCP), Maxwell PASHANE, administrative secretary; John TEMBO, treasurer
general; top party position of secretary general vacant since 1983

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


President - President BANDA sworn in as President for Life on
6 July 1971;

National Assembly - last held 27-28 May 1987 (next to be held
by May 1992);
results - MCP is the only party;
seats - (133 total, 112 elected) MCP 133

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
(correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA; Chancery at
2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)

US - Ambassador George A. TRAIL, III; Embassy in new capital city
development area, address NA (mailing address is P. O. Box 30016,
Lilongwe); telephone [265] 730-166

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green
with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to
the flag of Afghanistan which is longer and has the national coat of arms
superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands

_#_Overview: A landlocked country, Malawi ranks among the world's
least developed with a per capita GDP of $175. The economy is
predominately agricultural and operates under a relatively free
enterprise environment, with about 90% of the population living in
rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP and 90% of export
revenues. After two years of weak performance, economic growth improved
significantly in 1988-90 as a result of good weather and a broadly based
economic adjustment effort by the government. The economy depends on
substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank,
and individual donor nations. The closure of traditional trade routes
through Mozambique continues to be a constraint on the economy.

_#_GDP: $1.6 billion, per capita $175; growth rate 4.8% (1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.7% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $398 million; expenditures $510 million, including
capital expenditures of $154 million (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $390 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts;

partners - US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, FRG

_#_Imports: $560 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - food, petroleum, semimanufactures, consumer goods,
transportation equipment;

partners - South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe

_#_External debt: $1.4 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1989 est.); accounts
for about 18% of GDP (1988)

_#_Electricity: 181,000 kW capacity; 535 million kWh produced,
60 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar),
sawmilling, cement, consumer goods

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops - tobacco,
sugarcane, cotton, tea, and corn; subsistence crops - potatoes, cassava,
sorghum, pulses; livestock - cattle and goats

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $215
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.0 billion

_#_Currency: Malawian kwacha (plural - kwacha);
1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

_#_Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1 - 2.6300 (January
1991), 2.7289 (1990), 2.7595 (1989), 2.5613 (1988), 2.2087 (1987), 1.8611
(1986), 1.7191 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 789 km 1.067-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 13,135 km total; 2,364 km paved; 251 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil; 10,520 km earth and improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

_#_Ports: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, and Nkotakota - all on Lake
Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 48 total, 46 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay
links, and radio communication stations; 36,800 telephones; stations - 8
AM, 4 FM, no TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

_#_Note: a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique
on the Beira or Nacala railroads, but now most go through South Africa
because of insurgent activity and damage to rail lines

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (includes Air Wing and Naval Detachment),
Police (includes paramilitary Mobile Force Unit), paramilitary
Malawi Young Pioneers

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,960,082; 995,864 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $22 million, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.)
[email protected]_Malaysia
_#_Total area: 329,750 km2; land area: 328,550 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

_#_Land boundaries: 2,669 km total; Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782,
Thailand 506 km

_#_Coastline: 4,675 km total (2,068 km Peninsular Malaysia,
2,607 km East Malaysia)

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation,
specified boundary in the South China Sea;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands
with China, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; state of Sabah claimed by
the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that
divides Brunei into two parts

_#_Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and
northeast (October to February) monsoons

_#_Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

_#_Natural resources: tin, crude oil, timber, copper, iron ore,
natural gas, bauxite

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and pastures
NEGL%; forest and woodland 63%; other 24%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to flooding; air and water pollution

_#_Note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern
South China Sea

_#_Population: 17,981,698 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 29 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Malaysian(s); adjective - Malaysian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%,
Indian 9%

_#_Religion: Peninsular Malaysia - Malays nearly all Muslim, Chinese
predominantly Buddhists, Indians predominantly Hindu; Sabah - Muslim 38%,
Christian 17%, other 45%; Sarawak - tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and
Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%

_#_Language: Peninsular Malaysia - Malay (official); English, Chinese
dialects, Tamil; Sabah - English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects,
Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate among Chinese; Sarawak - English,
Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages

_#_Literacy: 78% (male 86%, female 70%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 6,800,000; agriculture 30.8%, manufacturing 17%,
government 13.6%, construction 5.8%, finance 4.3%, business services,
transport and communications 3.4%, mining 0.6%, other 24.5% (1989 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 660,000, 10% of total labor force (1988)

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; constitutional
monarchy nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral
Parliament; Peninsular Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all
but Penang and Melaka, where governors are appointed by Malaysian
Government; powers of state governments are limited by federal
Constitution; Sabah - self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of
Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and
other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak - self-governing
state within Malaysia, holds 27 seats in House of Representatives, with
foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated
to federal government

_#_Capital: Kuala Lumpur

_#_Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri,
singular - negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah
persekutuan, singular - wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan,
Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang,
Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

_#_Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963 when
Federation of Malaya became Federation of Malaysia

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the
federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

_#_Executive branch: paramount ruler, deputy paramount ruler, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlimen) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Dewan Negara) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dewan Rakyat)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - Paramount Ruler AZLAN Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Sultan
Yusof Izzudin (since 26 April 1989); Deputy Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni
Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1989);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since
16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister Abdul GHAFAR Baba (since 7 May 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Peninsular Malaysia -
National Front, a confederation of 13 political parties dominated by
United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru), MAHATHIR bin
Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING Liong Sik;
Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, Datuk LIM Keng Yaik;
Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), Datuk S. Samy VELLU;

Sabah - Berjaya Party, Datuk Haji Mohammed NOOR Mansor;
Bersatu Sabah (PBS), Joseph Pairin KITINGAN;
United Sabah National Organizaton (USNO), Tun Datu Haji MUSTAPHA;

Sarawak - coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party
Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Amar Haji Abdul TAIB
Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar Stephen YONG Kuet Tze;
Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk James WONG Kim Min;
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo MOGGIE;
major opposition parties are
Democratic Action Party (DAP), LIM Kit Siang
and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), Fadzil NOOR

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


House of Representatives - last held 21 October 1990 (next to be
held by August 1995);
results - National Front 52%, other 48%;
seats - (180 total) National Front 127, DAP 20, PAS 7, independents 4,
other 22; note - within the National Front, UMNO got 71 seats and MCA 18

_#_Communists: Peninsular Malaysia - about 1,000 armed insurgents on
Thailand side of international boundary and about 200 full time inside
Malaysia surrendered on 2 December 1989; about 50 Communist insurgents in
Sarawak surrendered on 17 October 1990

_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdul MAJID Mohamed; Chancery
at 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
328-2700; there are Malaysian Consulates General in Los Angeles and
New York;

US - Ambassador Paul M. CLEVELAND; Embassy at 376 Jalan Tun Razak,
50400 Kuala Lumpur (mailing address is P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala
Lumpur); telephone [60] (3) 248-9011

_#_Flag: fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating
with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the
crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was
based on the flag of the US

_#_Overview: In 1988-90 booming exports helped Malaysia continue to
recover from the severe 1985-86 recession. Real output grew by 8.8% in
1989 and 10% in 1990, helped by vigorous growth in manufacturing
output, further increases in foreign direct investment, particularly
from Japanese and Taiwanese firms facing higher costs at home, and
increased oil production in 1990. Malaysia has become the world's
third-largest producer of semiconductor devices (after the US and Japan)
and the world's largest exporter of semiconductor devices. Inflation
remained low as unemployment stood at 6% of the labor force and as
the government followed prudent fiscal/monetary policies. The country is
not self-sufficient in food, and some of the rural population subsists at
the poverty level. Malaysia's high export dependence leaves it
vulnerable to a recession in the OECD countries or a fall in world
commodity prices.

_#_GDP: $43.1 billion, per capita $2,460; real growth rate 10%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 6% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $12.6 billion; expenditures $11.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $3.2 billion (1991 est.)

_#_Exports: $28.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - natural rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum,
electronics, light manufactures;

partners - Singapore, US, Japan, EC

_#_Imports: $26.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - food, crude oil, consumer goods, intermediate goods,
capital equipment, chemicals;

partners - Japan, US, Singapore, FRG, UK

_#_External debt: $20.0 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 15.8% (1990 est.); accounts
for 27% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 5,600,000 kW capacity; 16,500 million kWh produced,
940 kWh per capita (1990)


Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and
manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and
smelting, logging and processing timber;

Sabah - logging, petroleum production;

Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining,


Peninsular Malaysia - natural rubber, palm oil, rice;

Sabah - mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut,

Sarawak - rubber, timber, pepper; there is a deficit
of rice in all areas; fish catch of 608,000 metric tons in 1987

_#_Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin
going to the US, Western Europe, and the Third World

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million

_#_Currency: ringgit (plural - ringgits); 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

_#_Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.7151 (January 1991),
1.7048 (1990), 2.7088 (1989), 2.6188 (1988), 2.5196 (1987), 2.5814
(1986), 2.4830 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


Peninsular Malaysia - 1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double
track, government owned;

Sabah - 136 km 1.000-meter gauge


Peninsular Malaysia - 23,600 km (19,352 km hard surfaced, mostly
bituminous-surface treatment, and 4,248 km unpaved);

Sabah - 3,782 km;

Sarawak - 1,644 km

_#_Inland waterways:

Peninsular Malaysia - 3,209 km;

Sabah - 1,569 km;

Sarawak - 2,518 km

_#_Ports: Tanjong Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang,
Penang, Port Kelang, Sandakan, Tawau

_#_Merchant marine: 157 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,530,756
GRT/2,246,358 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 65 cargo, 22
container, 2 vehicle carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 livestock
carrier, 31 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical
tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 1 passenger-cargo, 23 bulk

_#_Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,307 km; natural gas, 379 km

_#_Airports: 125 total, 119 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good intercity service provided to peninsular
Malaysia mainly by microwave relay, adequate intercity radio relay
network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service good;
good coverage by radio and television broadcasts; 994,860 telephones
(1984); stations - 28 AM, 3 FM, 33 TV; submarine cables extend to India
and Sarawak; SEACOM submarine cable links to Hong Kong and Singapore;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT, and 2 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal
Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police,
Sarawak Border Scouts

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,620,418; 2,815,910 fit for
military service; 180,991 reach military age (21) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.7 billion, 3.9% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_Maldives
_#_Total area: 300 km2; land area: 300 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 644 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 35-310 nm (defined by geographic
coordinates; segment of zone coincides with maritime boundary with

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to
March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

_#_Terrain: flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
3%; forest and woodland 3%; other 84%

_#_Environment: 1,200 coral islands grouped into 19 atolls

_#_Note: archipelago of strategic location astride and along
major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

_#_Population: 226,200 (July 1991), growth rate 3.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 72 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 65 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Maldivian(s); adjective - Maldivian

_#_Ethnic divisions: admixtures of Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, and

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim

_#_Language: Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic);
English spoken by most government officials

_#_Literacy: 92% (male 92%, female 92%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985)

_#_Labor force: 66,000 (est.); 25% engaged in fishing industry

_#_Organized labor: none

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Maldives

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Male

_#_Administrative divisions: 19 district (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu,
Faafu, Gaafu Aliff, Gaafu Daalu, Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu,
Laviyani, Meemu, Naviyani, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu

_#_Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 4 June 1964

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English
common law primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Citizens' Council (Majlis)

_#_Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Maumoon Abdul
GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978)

_#_Political parties and leaders: no organized political parties;

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 45 of 89)