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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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country governed by the Didi clan for the past eight centuries

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


President - last held 23 September 1988 (next to be held September
results - President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected;

Citizens' Council - last held on 7 December 1989 (next to be held
7 December 1994);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (48 total, 40 elected)

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Member of: AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Maldives does not maintain an embassy
in the US, but does have a UN mission in New York;

US - the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and
makes periodic visits there; US Consular Agency, Midhath Hilmy,
Male; telephone 2581

_#_Flag: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a
vertical white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist
side of the flag

_#_Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping.
Agriculture is limited to the production of a few subsistence crops that
provide only 10% of food requirements. Fishing is the largest industry,
employing 25% of the work force and accounting for over 60% of exports;
it is also an important source of government revenue. During the 1980s
tourism has become one of the most important and highest growth sectors
of the economy. In 1988 industry accounted for about 5% of GDP. Real
GDP is officially estimated to have increased by about 10% annually
during the period 1974-87, and GDP estimates for 1988 show a further
growth of 9% on the strength of a record fish catch and an improved
tourist season.

_#_GDP: $136 million, per capita $670; real growth rate 9.2% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NEGL%

_#_Budget: revenues $51 million; expenditures $50 million, including
capital expenditures of $25 million (1988 est.)

_#_Exports: $39.4 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - fish 57%, clothing 39%;

partners - Thailand, Western Europe, Sri Lanka

_#_Imports: $105.7 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities - intermediate and capital goods 47%, consumer goods
42%, petroleum products 11%;

partners - Japan, Western Europe, Thailand

_#_External debt: $70 million (December 1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 5.0% (1988); accounts
for 5% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 11 million kWh produced,
50 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat
building, some coconut processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope),

_#_Agriculture: accounts for almost 30% of GDP (including fishing);
fishing more important than farming; limited production of coconuts,
corn, sweet potatoes; most staple foods must be imported; fish catch
of 63,000 tons (1988 est.)

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $105 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million

_#_Currency: rufiyaa (plural - rufiyaa); 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laaris

_#_Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1 - 9.937 (January 1991),
9.509 (1990), 9.0408 (1989), 8.7846 (1988), 9.2230 (1987), 7.1507 (1986),
7.0981 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city

_#_Ports: Male, Gan

_#_Merchant marine: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,131
GRT/85,770 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: minimal domestic and international facilities;
2,804 telephones; stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: National Security Service (paramilitary police force)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 50,788; 28,378 fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.8 million, NA% of GDP (1984 est.)
[email protected]_Mali
_#_Total area: 1,240,000 km2; land area: 1,220,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 7,243 km total; Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000
km, Guinea 858 km, Ivory Coast 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km,
Senegal 419 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and
Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October
1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both
sides agreed to accept; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

_#_Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy,
humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand;
savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

_#_Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone,
uranium; bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known
but not exploited

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 25%; forest and woodland 7%; other 66%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry
seasons; desertification

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: 8,338,542 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 114 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 47 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Malian(s); adjective - Malian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Mande (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole) 50%, Peul 17%,
Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 5%, other 10%

_#_Religion: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

_#_Language: French (official); Bambara spoken by about 80% of the
population; numerous African languages

_#_Literacy: 32% (male 41%, female 24%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,666,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 80%, services 19%,
industry and commerce 1% (1981); 50% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: National Union of Malian Workers (UNTM) is
umbrella organization for over 13 national unions

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Mali

_#_Type: republic; the single-party constitutional government
was overthrown on 26 March 1991; the new ruling National
Reconciliation Council has promised a multiparty democracy

_#_Capital: Bamako

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 regions (regions,
singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso,
Tombouctou; note - there may be a new capital district of Bamako

_#_Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France; formerly French

_#_Constitution: 2 June 1974, effective 19 June 1979; amended
September 1981 and March 1985; suspended following the coup of
26 March 1991

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of
State; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic,
22 September (1960)

_#_Executive branch: National Conciliation Council led by the
military, following the coup of 26 March 1991

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemble

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State - following the military coup of 26 March 1991
President Gen. Moussa TRAORE was deposed and the National
Reconciliation Council, led by Lt. Col. Amadou Toumani TOURE and Lt. Col.
Kafougouna KONE, was installed;

Head of Government - Interim Premier Soumana SACKO (since 2
April 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: formerly the only party, the
Democratic Union of Malian People (UDPM), was disbanded after the coup of
26 March 1991, and the new regime legalized the formation of political
parties on 5 April 1991; new political parties are - Union of Democratic
Forces (UFD), Demba DIALLO;
Union for Democracy and Development (UDD), Moussa Bala COULIBALY;
Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally (US-RDA), Mamadou Madeira KEITA;
African Party for Solidarity and Justice (ADEMA), Alpha Oumar KONARE;
Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP), Idrissa TRAORE;
Democratic Party for Justice (PDJ), Abdul BA;
Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), Almany SYLLA;
Party for the Unity of Malian People (PUPM), Nock AGATTIA;
Hisboulah al Islamiya, Hamidou DRAMERA;
Union of Progressive Forces (UFP), Yacouba SIDIBE;
National Congress of Democratic Initiative (CNID), Mountaga TALL;
Assembly for Justice and Progress, Kady DRAME;
other parties forming

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


President - last held on 9 June 1985 (next to be held June 1991);
results - General Moussa TRAORE was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly - last held on 26 June 1988 (next to be held June
1991); results - UDPM is the only party; seats - (82 total) UDPM 82;
note - following the military coup of 26 March 1991 President TRAORE
was deposed and the UDPM was disbanded; the new ruling National
Reconciliation Council, formed of 17 soldiers, has promised to
institute a multiparty democracy and is expected to hold elections
by December 1991

_#_Communists: a few Communists and some sympathizers (no legal
Communist party)

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohamed Alhousseyni TOURE;
Chancery at 2130 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
332-2249 or 939-8950;

US - Ambassador Herbert D. GELBER; Embassy at Rue Rochester NY and
Rue Mohamed V., Bamako (mailing address is B. P. 34, Bamako); telephone
[223] 223712

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and
red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

_#_Overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with
about 70% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is
largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10%
of the population live as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is
engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated
on processing farm commodities.

_#_GDP: $2.0 billion, per capita $250; real growth rate 9.9% (1989

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% (1987)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $329 million; expenditures $519 million, including
capital expenditures of $178 (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $285 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - livestock, peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins;

partners - mostly franc zone and Western Europe

_#_Imports: $513 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machinery,
sugar, cereals;

partners - mostly franc zone and Western Europe

_#_External debt: $2.2 billion (1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 19.9% (1989 est.); accounts
for 7% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 253,000 kW capacity; 730 million kWh produced,
90 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: small local consumer goods and processing,
construction, phosphate, gold, fishing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on
small subsistence farms; cotton and livestock products account for over
70% of exports; other crops - millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts;
livestock - cattle, sheep, and goats

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $349
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.65 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $190 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1 - 256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 642 km 1.000-meter gauge; linked to Senegal's rail
system through Kayes

_#_Highways: about 15,700 km total; 1,670 km bituminous, 3,670 km
gravel and improved earth, 10,360 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 37 total, 29 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: domestic system poor but improving; provides
only minimal service with radio relay, wire, and radio communications
stations; expansion of radio relay in progress; 11,000 telephones;
stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air Force; paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,631,445; 940,954 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $45 million, 2.4% of GDP (1988)
[email protected]_Malta
_#_Total area: 320 km2; land area: 320 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington,

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 140 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry

_#_Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal

_#_Natural resources: limestone, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 38%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 59%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: numerous bays provide good harbors; fresh water very
scarce - increasing reliance on desalination

_#_Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean, 93 km south
of Sicily, 290 km north of Libya

_#_Population: 356,427 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Maltese (sing. and pl.); adjective - Maltese

_#_Ethnic divisions: mixture of Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish,
Italian, English

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 98%

_#_Language: Maltese and English (official)

_#_Literacy: 84% (male 86%, female 82%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985)

_#_Labor force: 126,135; government (excluding job corps) 37%,
services 26%, manufacturing 22%, training programs 9%, construction 4%,
agriculture 2% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: about 40% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Malta

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Valletta

_#_Administrative divisions: none (administration directly from

_#_Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 26 April 1974, effective 2 June 1974

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Freedom Day, 31 March

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Constitutional Court and Court of Appeal


Chief of State - President Vincent (Censu) TABONE (since 4 April

Head of Government - Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH
ADAMI (since 12 May 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Guido DE MARCO
(since 14 May 1987)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Nationalist Party, Edward FENECH ADAMI;
Malta Labor Party, Karmenu MIFSUD BONNICI

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Representatives - last held on 9 May 1987 (next to be
held by May 1992);
results - NP 51.1%, MLP 48.9%;
seats - (usually 65 total, but additional seats are given to the party
with the largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current
total 69) MLP 34, NP 31 before popular vote adjustment; MLP 34, NP 35
after adjustment

_#_Communists: fewer than 100 (est.)

_#_Member of: C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Salvatore J. STELLINI;
Chancery at 2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 462-3611 or 3612; there is a Maltese Consulate General in New York;

US - Ambassador Sally J. NOVETZKE; Embassy at 2nd Floor, Development
House, Saint Anne Street, Floriana, Valletta (mailing address is P. O.
Box 535, Valletta); telephone [356] 240424, 240425, 243216, 243217,
243653, 223654

_#_Flag: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in
the upper hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross,
edged in red

_#_Overview: Significant resources are limestone, a favorable
geographic location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only
about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no
domestic energy sources. Consequently, the economy is highly dependent on
foreign trade and services. Manufacturing and tourism are the largest
contributors to the economy. Manufacturing accounts for about 27% of GDP,
with the electronics and textile industries major contributors. In 1989
inflation was held to a low 0.9%. Per capita GDP at $5,500 places Malta
in the middle-income range of the world's nations.

_#_GDP: $1.9 billion, per capita $5,500 (1988); real growth rate 6.4%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 3.7% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $1,020 million; expenditures $1,230 million,
including capital expenditures of $380 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $866 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - clothing, textiles, footwear, ships;

partners - Italy 30%, FRG 22%, UK 11%

_#_Imports: $1,328 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - food, petroleum, machinery and semimanufactured goods;

partners - Italy 30%, UK 16%, FRG 13%, US 4%

_#_External debt: $90 million, medium and long-term (December 1987)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 19.2% (1989); accounts
for 27% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 328,000 kW capacity; 1,110 million kWh produced,
2,990 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: tourism, electronics, ship repair yard, construction,
food manufacturing, textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GDP; overall, 20% self-sufficient;
main products - potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes,
citrus, cut flowers, green peppers, hogs, poultry, eggs; generally
adequate supplies of vegetables, poultry, milk, pork products; seasonal
or periodic shortages in grain, animal fodder, fruits, other basic

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $333 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $48 million

_#_Currency: Maltese lira (plural - liri); 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1 - 0.3004 (January 1991),
0.3172 (1990), 0.3483 (1989), 0.3306 (1988), 0.3451 (1987), 0.3924
(1986), 0.4676 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Highways: 1,291 km total; 1,179 km paved (asphalt), 77 km crushed
stone or gravel, 35 km improved and unimproved earth

_#_Ports: Valletta, Marsaxlokk

_#_Merchant marine: 415 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,005,791
GRT/8,644,369 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 8 short-sea passenger, 160
cargo, 5 container, 2 passenger-cargo, 13 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3
vehicle carrier, 1 barge carrier, 6 refrigerated cargo, 9 chemical
tanker, 8 combination ore/oil, 2 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas,
79 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 104 bulk, 11 combination
bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry; China owns 1 ship, USSR owns
7, Cuba owns 7, and Vietnam owns 1

_#_Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern automatic system centered in Valletta;
163,800 telephones; stations - 9 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; 1 submarine cable;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Armed Forces, Maltese Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 94,081; 75,222 fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $21.9 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989 est.)
[email protected]_Man, Isle of
(British crown dependency)
_#_Total area: 588 km2; land area: 588 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 113 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half
the time

_#_Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley

_#_Natural resources: lead, iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; extensive arable land
and forests

_#_Environment: strong westerly winds prevail

_#_Note: located in Irish Sea equidistant from England, Scotland,
and Ireland

_#_Population: 64,075 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Manxman, Manxwoman, adjective - Manx

_#_Ethnic divisions: native Manx of Norse-Celtic descent; British

_#_Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist,
Presbyterian, Society of Friends

_#_Language: English, Manx Gaelic

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education
age 5 to 16

_#_Labor force: 25,864 (1981)

_#_Organized labor: 22 labor unions patterned along British lines

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: British crown dependency

_#_Capital: Douglas

_#_Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Independence: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act

_#_Legal system: English law and local statute

_#_National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, prime
minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Tynwald consists of an upper
house or Legislative Council and a lower house or House of Keys

_#_Judicial branch: High Court of Justice


Chief of State - Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor Air Marshal Sir Laurence JONES
(since NA 1990);

Head of Government - President of the Legislative Council Sir
Charles KERRUISH (since NA 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: there is no party system and
members sit as independents

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 46 of 89)