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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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House of Keys - last held in 1986 (next to be held 1991);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (24 total) independents 24

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: none

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Flag: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in
the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee;
in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a
two-sided emblem is used

_#_Overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key
sectors of the economy. The government's policy of offering incentives to
high-technology companies and financial institutions to locate on the
island has paid off in expanding employment opportunities in high-income
industries. As a result, agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of
the economy, have declined in their shares of GNP. Banking now
contributes over 20% to GNP and manufacturing about 15%. Trade is mostly
with the UK.

_#_GNP: $490 million, per capita $7,573; real growth rate NA% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $130.4 million; expenditures $114.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $18.1 million (FY85 est.)

_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities - tweeds, herring, processed shellfish meat;

partners - UK

_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities - timber, fertilizers, fish;

partners - UK

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 61,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced,
2,930 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: an important offshore financial center; financial
services, light manufacturing, tourism

_#_Agriculture: cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Currency: Manx pound (plural - pounds); 1 Manx pound (5M) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: Manx pounds (5M) per US$1 - 0.5171 (January 1991),
0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 36 km electric track, 24 km steam track

_#_Highways: 640 km motorable roads

_#_Ports: Douglas, Ramsey, Peel

_#_Merchant marine: 73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,634,471
GRT/2,906,039 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 6 container, 6 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 31 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical
tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 3 liquefied gas, 13 bulk; note - a captive
register of the United Kingdom, although not all ships on the register
are British-owned

_#_Airports: 2 total; 1 usable with permanent-surface runways
1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 24,435 telephones; stations - 1 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
[email protected]_Marshall Islands
_#_Total area: 181.3 km2; land area: 181.3 km2; includes the atolls
of Bikini, Eniwetak, and Kwajalein

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 370.4 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claims US territory of Wake Island

_#_Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border
typhoon belt

_#_Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

_#_Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 60%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 40%

_#_Environment: occasionally subject to typhoons; two archipelagic
island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands

_#_Note: located 3,825 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea;
Bikini and Eniwetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the
famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

_#_Population: 48,091 (July 1991), growth rate 3.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 53 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 64 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Marshallese; adjective - Marshallese

_#_Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Micronesian

_#_Religion: predominantly Christian, mostly Protestant

_#_Language: English universally spoken and is the official language;
two major Marshallese dialects from Malayo-Polynesian family; Japanese

_#_Literacy: 93% (male 100%, female 88%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 4,800 (1986)

_#_Organized labor: none

_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Marshall Islands

_#_Type: constitutional government in free association with the US;
the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986

_#_Capital: Majuro

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN
trusteeship; formerly the Marshall Islands District of the Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands)

_#_Constitution: 1 May 1979

_#_Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

_#_National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall
Islands, 1 May (1979)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Nitijela

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Amata KABUA
(since 1979)

_#_Political parties and leaders: no formal parties; President KABUA
is chief political (and traditional) leader

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November
1991); results - President Amata KABUA was reelected;

Parliament - last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November
1991); results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (33 total)

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: ESCAP (associate), ICAO, SPC, SPF, UN

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Wilfred I. KENDALL;
Chancery at 2433 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 234-5414;

US - Ambassador William BODDE, Jr.; Embassy at NA address
(mailing address is P. O. Box 680, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall
Islands 96960-4380); telephone 692-4011

_#_Flag: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side
corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large
rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

_#_Overview: Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy.
Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and the most
important commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and
breadfruit. A few cattle ranches supply the domestic meat market.
Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and
copra. The tourist industry is the primary source of foreign exchange and
employs about 10% of the labor force. The islands have few natural
resources, and imports far exceed exports. In 1987 the US Government
provided grants of $40 million out of the Marshallese budget of
$55 million.

_#_GDP: $63 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate NA%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (1981)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $55 million; expenditures NA, including capital
expenditures of NA (1987 est.)

_#_Exports: $2.5 million (f.o.b., 1985);

commodities - copra, copra oil, agricultural products, handicrafts;

partners - NA

_#_Imports: $29.2 million (c.i.f., 1985);

commodities - foodstuffs, beverages, building materials;

partners - NA

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 42,000 kW capacity; 80 million kWh produced, 1,840 kWh
per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and
pearl; offshore banking (embryonic)

_#_Agriculture: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, copra;
pigs, chickens

_#_Economic aid: under the terms of the Compact of Free Association,
the US is to provide approximately $40 million in aid annually

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_#_Highways: macadam and concrete roads on major islands (Majuro,
Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and

_#_Ports: Majuro

_#_Merchant marine: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,654,871
GRT/3,236,549 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 3 container, 7 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 11 bulk carrier; note - a flag of convenience

_#_Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: telephone network - 570 lines (Majuro) and 186
(Ebeye); telex services; islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used
mostly for government purposes); stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave;
2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; US Government satellite
communications system on Kwajalein

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
[email protected]_Martinique
(overseas department of France)
_#_Total area: 1,100 km2; land area: 1,060 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than six times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 290 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to

_#_Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

_#_Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures
30%; forest and woodland 26%; other 26%; includes irrigated 5%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic
activity that result in an average of one major natural disaster every
five years

_#_Note: located 625 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

_#_Population: 345,180 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Martiniquais (sing. and pl.);
adjective - Martiniquais

_#_Ethnic divisions: African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture
90%, Caucasian 5%, East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African

_#_Language: French, Creole patois

_#_Literacy: 93% (male 92%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1982)

_#_Labor force: 100,000; service industry 31.7%, construction and
public works 29.4%, agriculture 13.1%, industry 7.3%, fisheries 2.2%,
other 16.3%

_#_Organized labor: 11% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Department of Martinique

_#_Type: overseas department of France

_#_Capital: Fort-de-France

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Independence: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: French legal system

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: government commissioner

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral
Regional Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President Francois MITTERRAND (since
21 May 1981);

Head of Government - Government Commissioner Jean Claude ROURE
(since 5 May 1989); President of the General Council Emile MAURICE
(since NA 1988)

_#_Political parties:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Stephen BAGO;
Union of the Left composed of the Progressive Party of Martinique (PPM),
Socialist Federation of Martinique, Michael YOYO;
the Communist Party of Martinique (PCM), Armand NICOLAS;
Union for French Democracy (UDF), Jean MARAN

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


General Council - last held on NA October 1988
(next to be held by March 1991); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (44 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Assembly - last held on 16 March 1986 (next to be held by
March 1992); results - UDF/RPR coalition 49.8%, PPM/FSM/PCM
coalition 41.3%, other 8.9%;
seats - (41 total) PPM/FSM/PCM coalition 21, UDF/RPR coalition 20;

French Senate - last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1;

French National Assembly - last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next
to be held June 1993); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (4 total) PPM 1, FSM 1, RPR 1, UDF 1

_#_Communists: 1,000 (est.)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Proletarian Action Group (GAP);
Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution Group (GRS), Martinique
Independence Movement (MIM), Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance (ARC),
Central Union for Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc Pulvar; Frantz Fanon
Circle; League of Workers and Peasants

_#_Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France,
Martiniquais interests are represented in the US by France;

US - Consul General Raymond G. ROBINSON; Consulate General at 14 Rue
Blenac, Fort-de-France (mailing address is B. P. 561, Fort-de-France
97206); telephone [590] 63-13-03

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_#_Overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and
light industry. Agriculture accounts for about 12% of GDP and the small
industrial sector for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with most of
the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are
increasing, going mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and
grain requirements must be imported, contributing to a chronic trade
deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from France. Tourism
has become more important than agricultural exports as a source of
foreign exchange. The majority of the work force is employed in the
service sector and in administration. In 1986 per capita GDP was
relatively high at $6,000. During 1986 the unemployment rate was 30% and
was particularly severe among younger workers.

_#_GDP: $2.0 billion, per capita $6,000; real growth rate NA% (1986)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (1986)

_#_Budget: revenues $268 million; expenditures $268 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $196 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - refined petroleum products, bananas, rum, pineapples;

partners - France 65%, Guadeloupe 24%, FRG (1987)

_#_Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities - petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction
materials, vehicles, clothing and other consumer goods;

partners - France 65%, UK, Italy, FRG, Japan, US (1987)

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 113,000 kW capacity; 564 million kWh produced,
1,660 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

_#_Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for about 12%
of GDP; principal crops - pineapples, avocados, bananas, flowers,
vegetables, and sugarcane for rum; dependent on imported food,
particularly meat and vegetables

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $9.9 billion

_#_Currency: French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 1,680 km total; 1,300 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth

_#_Ports: Fort-de-France

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways less than 2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: domestic facilities are adequate; 68,900
telephones; interisland radio relay links to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and
Saint Lucia; stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 95,235; NA fit for military

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
[email protected]_Mauritania
_#_Total area: 1,030,700 km2; land area: 1,030,400 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than three times the size of
New Mexico

_#_Land boundaries: 5,074 km total; Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km,
Senegal 813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 km

_#_Coastline: 754 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: boundary with Senegal

_#_Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

_#_Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central

_#_Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 38%; forest and woodland 5%; other 56%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily
in March and April; desertification; only perennial river is the Senegal

_#_Population: 1,995,755 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 94 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 50 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Mauritanian(s); adjective - Mauritanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%

_#_Religion: Muslim, nearly 100%

_#_Language: Hasaniya Arabic (national); French (official);
Toucouleur, Fula, Sarakole, Wolof

_#_Literacy: 34% (male 47%, female 21%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980);
agriculture 47%, services 29%, industry and commerce 14%, government 10%;
53% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 30,000 members claimed by single union,
Mauritanian Workers' Union

_#_Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Mauritania

_#_Type: republic; military first seized power in bloodless coup
10 July 1978; a palace coup that took place on 12 December 1984 brought
President Taya to power

_#_Capital: Nouakchott

_#_Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions,
singular - region); Adrar, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, El Acaba,
Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant,
Tiris Zemmour, Trarza; note - there may be a new capital district of

_#_Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 20 May 1961, abrogated after coup of 10 July 1978;
provisional constitution published 17 December 1980 but abandoned in
1981; new constitutional charter published 27 February 1985

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

_#_Executive branch: president, Military Committee for National
Salvation (CMSN), Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale), dissolved after 10 July 1978 coup; legislative power
resides with the CMSN

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Col. Maaouya Ould
SidAhmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984)

_#_Political parties and leaders: suspended

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: last presidential election August 1976; National
Assembly dissolved 10 July 1978; no national elections are scheduled

_#_Communists: no Communist party, but there is a scattering of Maoist

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdellah OULD DADDAH;
Chancery at 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)

US - Ambassador William H. TWADDELL; Embassy at address NA,
Nouakchott (mailing address is B. P. 222, Nouakchott); telephone [222]
(2) 252-660 or 252-663

_#_Flag: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow,
horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the
crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

_#_Overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture
and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many
subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in
the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore that
account for almost 50% of total exports. The decline in world demand for
this ore, however, has led to cutbacks in production. The nation's
coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, but
overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The
country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent
years, the droughts, the conflict with Senegal, rising energy costs,
and economic mismanagement have resulted in a substantial buildup of
foreign debt. The government now has begun the second stage of an
economic reform program in consultation with the World Bank, the IMF,
and major donor countries.

_#_GDP: $942 million, per capita $500; real growth rate 3.5% (1989

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.2% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 21% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $280 million; expenditures $346 million, including
capital expenditures of $61 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $519 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - iron ore, processed fish, small amounts of gum arabic
and gypsum, unrecorded but numerically significant cattle exports to

partners - EC 57%, Japan 39%, Ivory Coast 2%

_#_Imports: $567 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products,
capital goods;

partners - EC 79%, Africa 5%, US 4%, Japan 2%

_#_External debt: $2.3 billion (December 1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 10% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 189,000 kW capacity; 136 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: fishing, fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 29% of GDP (including fishing); largely
subsistence farming and nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in
Senegal river valley; crops - dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish
products number-one export; large food deficit in years of drought

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $168
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $277 million

_#_Currency: ouguiya (plural - ouguiya); 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

_#_Exchange rates: ouguiya (UM) per US$1 - 77.450 (January 1991),
80.609 (1990), 83.051 (1989), 75.261 (1988), 73.878 (1987), 74.375
(1986), 77.085 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 670 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track, owned

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 47 of 89)