Copyright
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

. (page 48 of 89)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 48 of 89)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


and operated by government mining company


_#_Highways: 7,525 km total; 1,685 km paved; 1,040 km gravel, crushed
stone, or otherwise improved; 4,800 km unimproved roads, trails, tracks


_#_Inland waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River


_#_Ports: Nouadhibou, Nouakchott


_#_Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,290 GRT/1,840 DWT


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 30 total, 29 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor
radio relay links, and radio communications stations; 5,200 telephones;
stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 2 ARABSAT, with a third planned


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National
Guard, National Police, Presidential Guard, Nomad Security Guard


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 423,501; 206,733 fit for
military service; conscription law not implemented


_#_Defense expenditures: $37 million, 4.2% of GDP (1987)
_%_
[email protected]_Mauritius
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,860 km2; land area: 1,850 km2; includes Agalega
Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), and Rodrigues


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 10.5 times the size of
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 177 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claims Chagos Archipelago, which includes the island of
Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims
French-administered Tromelin Island


_#_Climate: tropical modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry
winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)


_#_Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains
encircling central plateau


_#_Natural resources: arable land, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 54%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 31%; other 7%; includes irrigated 9%


_#_Environment: subject to cyclones (November to April); almost
completely surrounded by reefs


_#_Note: located 900 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,081,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 20 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 74 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Mauritian(s); adjective - Mauritian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian
3%, Franco-Mauritian 2%


_#_Religion: Hindu 52%, Christian (Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant
2.3%) 28.3%, Muslim 16.6%, other 3.1%


_#_Language: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka,
Bojpoori


_#_Literacy: 61% (male 72%, female 50%) age 13 and over can
read and write (1962)


_#_Labor force: 335,000; government services 29%, agriculture and
fishing 27%, manufacturing 22%, other 22%; 43% of population of working
age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: 35% of labor force in more than 270 unions


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Port Louis


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 districts and 3 dependencies*;
Agalega Islands*, Black River, Cargados Carajos*, Flacq, Grand Port,
Moka, Pamplemousses, Plaines Wilhems, Port Louis, Riviere du Rempart,
Rodrigues*, Savanne


_#_Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: 12 March 1968


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of
English common law in certain areas


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Veerasamy RINGADOO (since 17 January
1986);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12
June 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Prem NABABSING (since 26 September
1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

government coalition - Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A.
JUGNAUTH; Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM), Paul BERENGER;
Organization of the People of Rodrigues (OPR), Louis Serge CLAIR;
Democratic Labor Movement (MTD), Anil BAICHOO;

opposition - Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), Navin RAMGOOLMAN;
Socialist Workers Front, Sylvio MICHEL;
Mauritian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), G. DUVAL


_#_Suffrage universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

Legislative Assembly - last held on 15 September 1991 (next to be
held by 15 September 1996);
results - MSM/MMM 53%, MLP/PMSD 38%;
seats - (70 total, 62 elected) MSM/MMM alliance 59 (MSM 29, MMM 26,
OPR 2, MTD 2); opposition 3


_#_Communists: may be 2,000 sympathizers; several Communist
organizations; Mauritius Lenin Youth Organization, Mauritius Women's
Committee, Mauritius Communist Party, Mauritius People's Progressive
Party, Mauritius Young Communist League, Mauritius Liberation Front,
Chinese Middle School Friendly Association, Mauritius/USSR Friendship
Society


_#_Other political or pressure groups: various labor unions


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Chitmansing JESSERAMSING;
Chancery at Suite 134, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 244-1491 or 1492;

US - Ambassador Penne Percy KORTH; Embassy at 4th Floor, Rogers
House, John Kennedy Street, Port Louis; telephone [230] 208-9763 through
208-9767


_#_Flag: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow,
and green


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly
textiles), and tourism. Sugarcane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated
land area and accounts for 32% of export earnings. The government's
development strategy is centered on industrialization (with a view to
exports), agricultural diversification, and tourism. Economic performance
in 1989 was impressive, with 5.0% real growth and low unemployment.


_#_GDP: $2.1 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate 5.5% (FY89)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.7% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 2.7% (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $477 million; expenditures $540 million, including
capital expenditures of $112 million (FY89)


_#_Exports: $993 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - textiles 44%, sugar 40%, light manufactures 10%;

partners - EC and US have preferential treatment, EC 77%, US 15%


_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - manufactured goods 50%, capital equipment 17%,
foodstuffs 13%, petroleum products 8%, chemicals 7%;

partners - EC, US, South Africa, Japan


_#_External debt: $670 million (December 1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (FY87); accounts
for 25% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 233,000 kW capacity; 420 million kWh produced,
375 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles,
wearing apparel, chemicals, metal products, transport equipment,
nonelectrical machinery, tourism


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; about 90% of cultivated
land in sugarcane; other products - tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses,
cattle, goats, fish; net food importer, especially rice and fish


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $76
million; Western (non-US) countries (1970-88), $628 million; Communist
countries (1970-89), $54 million


_#_Currency: Mauritian rupee (plural - rupees);
1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1 - 14.295 (January
1991), 14.839 (1990), 15.250 (1989), 13.438 (1988), 12.878 (1987), 13.466
(1986), 15.442 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,800 km total; 1,640 km paved, 160 km earth


_#_Ports: Port Louis


_#_Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 94,619
GRT/140,345 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 2 cargo, 1 container,
1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 liquefied gas, 2 bulk


_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 5 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: small system with good service; new microwave
link to Reunion; high-frequency radio links to several countries; 48,000
telephones; stations - 2 AM, no FM, 4 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: paramilitary Special Mobile Force, Special Support Units,
National Police Force, National Coast Guard


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 302,588; 155,176 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $4 million, 0.2% of GDP (1988)
_%_
[email protected]_Mayotte
(territorial collectivity of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 375 km2; land area: 375 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington,
DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 185.2 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claimed by Comoros


_#_Climate: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during
northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to
November)


_#_Terrain: generally undulating with ancient volcanic peaks, deep
ravines


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%


_#_Environment: subject to cyclones during rainy season


_#_Note: part of Comoro Archipelago; located in the Mozambique Channel
about halfway between Africa and Madagascar


_*_People
_#_Population: 75,027 (July 1991), growth rate 3.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 59 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Mahorais (sing., pl.); adjective - Mahoran


_#_Religion: Muslim 99%; remainder Christian, mostly Roman Catholic


_#_Language: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte


_#_Type: territorial collectivity of France


_#_Capital: Dzaoudzi


_#_Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)


_#_Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)


_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)


_#_Legal system: French law


_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)


_#_Executive branch: government commissioner


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council (Conseil
General)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
1981);

Head of Government - Prefect, Representative of the French
Government Daniel LIMODIN (since NA 1990);
President of the General Council Youssouf BAMANA (since NA 1976)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM), Younoussa BAMANA;
Party for the Mahoran Democratic Rally (PRDM), Daroueche MAOULIDA;
Mahoran Rally for the Republic (RMPR), Mansour KAMARDINE;
Union of the Center (UDC)


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

General Council - last held NA June 1988 (next to be held June
1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (17 total) MPM 9, RPR 6, other 2;

French Senate - last held on 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (1 total) MPM 1;

French National Assembly - last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to
be held June 1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (1 total) UDC 1


_#_Communists: probably none


_#_Member of: FZ


_#_Diplomatic representation: as a territorial collectivity of France,
Mahoran interests are represented in the US by France


_#_Flag: the flag of France is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural
sector, including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not
self-sufficient and must import a large portion of its food requirements,
mainly from France. The economy and future development of the island is
heavily dependent on French financial assistance.


_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues NA; expenditures $37.3 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1985)


_#_Exports: $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1984);

commodities - ylang-ylang, vanilla;

partners - France 79%, Comoros 10%, Reunion 9%


_#_Imports: $21.8 million (f.o.b., 1984);

commodities - building materials, transportation equipment, rice,
clothing, flour;

partners - France 57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Pakistan 8%


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: NA kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, NA kWh
per capita


_#_Industries: newly created lobster and shrimp industry


_#_Agriculture: most important sector; provides all export earnings;
crops - vanilla, ylang-ylang, coffee, copra; imports major share of food
needs


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $323.8 million


_#_Currency: French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes


_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 42 km total; 18 km bituminous


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Ports: Dzaoudzi


_#_Telecommunications: small system administered by French Department
of Posts and Telecommunications; includes radio relay and high-frequency
radio communications for links with Comoros and international
communications; 450 telephones; stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
[email protected]_Mexico
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,972,550 km2; land area: 1,923,040 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 4,538 km total; Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km,
US 3,326 km


_#_Coastline: 9,330 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: natural prolongation of continental margin or
200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claims Clipperton Island (French possession)


_#_Climate: varies from tropical to desert


_#_Terrain: high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus,
and desert


_#_Natural resources: crude oil, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc,
natural gas, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
39%; forest and woodland 24%; other 24%; includes irrigated 3%


_#_Environment: subject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast and
destructive earthquakes in the center and south; natural water resources
scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and
extreme southeast; deforestation; erosion widespread; desertification;
serious air pollution in Mexico City and urban centers along US-Mexico
border


_#_Note: strategic location on southern border of US


_*_People
_#_Population: 90,007,304 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 29 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Mexican(s); adjective - Mexican


_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo (Indian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or
predominantly Amerindian 30%, white or predominantly white 9%, other 1%


_#_Religion: nominally Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3%


_#_Language: Spanish


_#_Literacy: 87% (male 90%, female 85%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985 est.)


_#_Labor force: 26,100,000 (1988); services 31.4%, agriculture,
forestry, hunting, and fishing 26%, commerce 13.9%, manufacturing 12.8%,
construction 9.5%, transportation 4.8%, mining and quarrying 1.3%,
electricity 0.3% (1986)


_#_Organized labor: 35% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: United Mexican States


_#_Type: federal republic operating under a centralized government


_#_Capital: Mexico


_#_Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular - estado) and
1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California,
Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima,
Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco,
Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla,
Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco,
Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas


_#_Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 5 February 1917


_#_Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)


_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la
Union) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Camara de Senadores)
and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Suprema Corte de
Justicia)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Carlos SALINAS de
Gortari (since 1 December 1988)


_#_Political parties and leaders: (recognized parties)
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Luis Donaldo COLOSIO Murrieta;
National Action Party (PAN), Luis ALVAREZ;
Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Indalecio SAYAGO Herrera;
Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano;
Cardenist Front for the National Reconstruction Party (PFCRN), Rafael
AGUILAR Talamantes;
Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution (PARM), Carlos Enrique CANTU
Rosas


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory (but not enforced) at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September
1994); results - Carlos SALINAS de Gortari (PRI) 50.74%,
Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (FDN) 31.06%,
Manuel CLOUTHIER (PAN) 16.81%; other 1.39%; note - several of the smaller
parties ran a common candidate under a coalition called the National
Democratic Front (FDN);

Senate - last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held mid-year
1991); results - PRI 94%, FDN (now PRD) 6%;
seats - (64 total) number of seats by party NA;

Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held
mid-year 1991);
results - PRI 53%, PAN 20%, PFCRN 10%, PPS 6%, PARM 7%, PMS (now part of
PRD) 4%;
seats - (500 total) number of seats by party NA


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church,
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM), Confederation of Industrial
Chambers (CONCAMIN), Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce
(CONCANACO), National Peasant Confederation (CNC), UNE (no expansion),
Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT), Mexican Democratic Party (PDM),
Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC), Regional
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM), Confederation of Employers of
the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX), National Chamber of Transformation
Industries (CANACINTRA), Business Coordination Council (CCE)


_#_Member of: AG (observer), CCC, CDB, CG, EBRD, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-6,
G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gustavo PETRICIOLI Iturbide;
Chancery at 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone
(202) 728-1600; there are Mexican Consulates General in Chicago, Dallas,
Denver, El Paso, Houston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San
Francisco, San Antonio, San Diego, and Consulates in Albuquerque,
Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California),
Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass
(Texas), Fresno (California), Kansas City (Missouri), Laredo, McAllen
(Texas), Miami, Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard (California), Philadelphia,
Phoenix, Presidio (Texas), Sacramento, St. Louis, St. Paul (Minneapolis),
Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Seattle;

US - Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE, Jr.; Embassy at Paseo de la
Reforma 305, 06500 Mexico, D.F. (mailing address is P. O. Box 3087,
Laredo, TX 78044-3087); telephone [52] (5) 211-0042; there are US
Consulates General in Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Tijuana,
and Consulates in Hermosillo, Matamoros, Mazatlan, Merida, and Nuevo
Laredo


_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake is its
beak) is centered in the white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Mexico's economy is a mixture of state-owned industrial
plants (notably oil), private manufacturing and services, and both
large-scale and traditional agriculture. In the 1980s Mexico experienced
severe economic difficulties: the nation accumulated large external debts
as world petroleum prices fell; rapid population growth outstripped the
domestic food supply; and inflation, unemployment, and pressures to
emigrate became more acute. Growth in national output, however,
appears to be recovering, rising from 1.4% in 1988 to 3.9% in 1990.
The US is Mexico's major trading partner, accounting for two-thirds of
its exports and imports. After petroleum, border assembly plants and
tourism are the largest earners of foreign exchange. The government, in
consultation with international economic agencies, is implementing
programs to stabilize the economy and foster growth. In 1991 the
government also plans to begin negotiations with the US and Canada on a
free trade agreement.


_#_GDP: $236 billion, per capita $2,680; real growth rate 3.9%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 15-18% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $44.3 billion; expenditures $55.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $7.8 billion (1989)


_#_Exports: $26.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - crude oil, oil products, coffee, shrimp, engines,
cotton;

partners - US 66%, EC 16%, Japan 11%


_#_Imports: $29.8 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - grain, metal manufactures, agricultural machinery,
electrical equipment;

partners - US 62%, EC 18%, Japan 10%


_#_External debt: $96.0 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.3% (1989); accounts for
27% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 27,600,000 kW capacity; 108,976 million kWh produced,
1,240 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel,
petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, transportation equipment, tourism



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 48 of 89)