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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Agriculture: accounts for 9% of GDP and over 25% of work force;
large number of small farms at subsistence level; major food crops - corn,
wheat, rice, beans; cash crops - cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; fish
catch of 1.4 million metric tons among top 20 nations (1987)

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis
continues in spite of government eradication efforts; major link in
chain of countries used to smuggle cocaine from South American
dealers to US markets

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.1
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $7.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $110 million

_#_Currency: Mexican peso (plural - pesos);
1 Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per
US$1 - 2,940.9 (January 1991), 2,812.6 (1990), 2,461.3 (1989),
2,273.1 (1988), 1,378.2 (1987), 611.8 (1986), 256.9 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 20,680 km total; 19,950 km 1.435-meter standard gauge;
730 km 0.914-meter narrow gauge

_#_Highways: 210,000 km total; 65,000 km paved, 30,000 km semipaved or
cobblestone, 60,000 km rural roads (improved earth) or roads under
construction, 55,000 km unimproved earth roads

_#_Inland waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 28,200 km; refined products, 10,150 km;
natural gas, 13,254 km; petrochemical, 1,400 km

_#_Ports: Acapulco, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, Manzanillo,
Mazatlan, Progreso, Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Veracruz

_#_Merchant marine: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 999,423
GRT/1,509,939 DWT; includes 4 short-sea passenger, 9 cargo, 2
refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 31 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 3 bulk, 3
combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 174 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1,815 total, 1,537 usable; 195 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 33 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
276 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: highly developed system with extensive radio
relay links; connection into Central American Microwave System; 6.41
million telephones; stations - 679 AM, no FM, 238 TV, 22 shortwave; 120
domestic satellite terminals; earth stations - 4 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: National Defense (includes Army and Air Force), Navy
(includes Marines)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 22,340,628; 16,360,596 fit for
military service; 1,107,163 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1 billion, 0.6% of GDP (1988)
[email protected]_Micronesia, Federated States of
_#_Total area: 702 km2; land area: 702 km2; includes Pohnpei, Truk,
Yap, and Kosrae

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than four times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 6,112 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the
eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with
occasional severe

_#_Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to
low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

_#_Natural resources: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons from June to December; four major
island groups totaling 607 islands

_#_Note: located 5,150 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and

_#_Population: 107,662 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 73 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Micronesian(s); adjective - Micronesian;
Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese

_#_Ethnic divisions: nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups

_#_Religion: predominantly Christian, divided between Roman Catholic
and Protestant; other churches include Assembly of God, Jehovah's
Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist, Latter Day Saints, and the Baha'i

_#_Language: English is the official and common language; most
indigenous languages fall within the Austronesian language family, the
exceptions are the Polynesian languages; major indigenous languages are
Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, and Kosrean

_#_Literacy: 90% (male 90%, female 85%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: NA; two-thirds are government employees; 45,000 people
are between the ages of 15 and 65

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: Federated States of Micronesia (no short-form name)

_#_Type: constitutional government in free association with the US;
the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986

_#_Capital: Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei); note - a new capital is
being built about 10 km southwest in the Palikir valley

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk, Yap

_#_Independence: 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN
Trusteeship; formerly the Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap districts of the
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)

_#_Constitution: 10 May 1979

_#_Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

_#_National holiday: Proclamation of the Federated States of
Micronesia, 10 May (1979)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Congress

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Bailey OLTER
(since 11 May 1991); Vice President Jacob NENA (since 11 May 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: no formal parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 5 March 1991 (next to be held March 1994);
results - Vice President Bailey OLTER elected president;

Congress - last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be
held March 1993);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (14 total)

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: ESCAP (associate), ICAO, SPC, SPF, UN

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jesse B. MAREHALAU;
Embassy at 706 G Street SE, Washington DC 20003; telephone (202)

US - Ambassador Aurelia BRAZEAL; Embassy at address NA, Kolonia
(mailing address is P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of
Micronesia 96941); telephone 691-320-2187

_#_Flag: light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the
stars are arranged in a diamond pattern

_#_Overview: Financial assistance from the US is the primary source
of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1 billion in the islands in the
1990s; also in December 1990 the US authorized the use of disaster
relief funds for Micronesia because of damage from Typhoon Russ.
In addition Micronesia earns about $4 million a year in fees from foreign
commercial fishing concerns. Economic activity consists primarily of
subsistence farming and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits
worth exploiting, except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a
tourist industry exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of
adequate facilities hinder development.

_#_GNP: $150 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate NA%
(1989 est.); note - GNP numbers reflect US spending

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 80% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $110.8 million; expenditures NA, including
capital expenditures of NA (1987 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.6 million (f.o.b., 1983);

commodities - copra;

partners - NA

_#_Imports: $48.9 million (c.i.f., 1983);

commodities - NA;

partners - NA

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 18,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced,
380 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearl

_#_Agriculture: mainly a subsistence economy; copra, black pepper;
tropical fruits and vegetables, coconuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, pigs,

_#_Economic aid: under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the
US will provide $1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_#_Highways: 39 km of paved macadam and concrete roads on major
islands, otherwise 187 km stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads

_#_Ports: Colonia (Yap), Truk (Kosrae), Okat (Kosrae)

_#_Airports: 11 total, 10 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 6 with runways 1,220-2,439

_#_Telecommunications: 16,000 radio receivers, 1,125 TV sets (est.
1987); telephone network - 960 telephone lines at both Kolonia and Truk;
islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government
purposes); stations - 5 AM, 1 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 4 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
[email protected]_Midway Islands
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 5.2 km2; land area: 5.2 km2; includes Eastern Island
and Sand Island

_#_Comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 15 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

_#_Terrain: low, nearly level

_#_Natural resources: fish and wildlife

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: coral atoll

_#_Note: located 2,350 km west-northwest of Honolulu at the western
end of Hawaiian Islands group, about one-third of the way between
Honolulu and Tokyo; closed to the public

_#_Population: 453 US military personnel (1991)

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US
Navy, under command of the Barbers Point Naval Air Station in Hawaii and
managed cooperatively by the US Navy and the Fish and Wildlife Service of
the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

_#_Flag: the US flag is used

_#_Overview: The economy is based on providing support services for US
naval operations located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods
must be imported.

_#_Electricity: supplied by US Military

_#_Highways: 32 km total

_#_Pipelines: 7.8 km

_#_Ports: Sand Island

_#_Airports: 3 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
[email protected]_Monaco
_#_Total area: 1.9 km2; land area: 1.9 km2

_#_Comparative area: about three times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundary: 4.4 km with France

_#_Coastline: 4.1 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

_#_Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: almost entirely urban

_#_Note: second-smallest independent state in world (after
Vatican City)

_#_Population: 29,712 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 7 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s); adjective - Monacan
or Monegasque

_#_Ethnic divisions: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%

_#_Language: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: 4,000 members in 35 unions

_#_Long-form name: Principality of Monaco

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Monaco

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers,
singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

_#_Independence: 1419, rule by the House of Grimaldi

_#_Constitution: 17 December 1962

_#_Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ

_#_National holiday: National Day, 19 November

_#_Executive branch: prince, minister of state, Council of Government

_#_Legislative branch: National Council (Conseil National)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Supreme)


Chief of State - Prince RAINIER III (since November 1949); Heir
Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958);

Head of Government Minister of State Jean AUSSEIL (since 10
September 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National and Democratic Union (UND),
Democratic Union Movement (MUD),
Monaco Action,
Monegasque Socialist Party (PSM)

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 25


National Council - last held on 24 January 1988 (next to be held 24
January 1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (18 total) UND 18

_#_Member of: ACCT, CSCE, ICAO, IMF (observer), IMO, INTELSAT,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Monaco maintains honorary consulates
general in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, and San
Francisco, and honorary consulates in Dallas, Honolulu, Palm Beach,
Philadelphia, and Washington;

US - no mission in Monaco, but the US Consul General in Marseille,
France, is accredited to Monaco; Consul General R. Susan WOOD; Consulate
General at 12 Boulevard Paul Peytral, 13286 Marseille Cedex (mailing
address APO NY 09777); telephone [33] (91) 549-200

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to
the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is
white (top) and red

_#_Overview: Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a
popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate.
The Principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and
small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries. The state has no
income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for
individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that
have set up businesses and offices. About 50% of Monaco's annual revenue
comes from value-added taxes on hotels, banks, and the industrial sector;
about 25% of revenue comes from tourism. Living standards are high, that
is, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan

_#_GDP: $324 million, per capita $11,000; real growth rate NA%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: full employment (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $386 million; expenditures $426, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

_#_Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects
and rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system
through customs union with France

_#_Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects
and rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system
through customs union with France

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 10,000 kW standby capacity (1988); power supplied by

_#_Industries: tourism, pharmaceuticals, precision instruments,
glassmaking, printing, finance

_#_Agriculture: NA

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Currency: French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 1.6 km 1.435-meter gauge

_#_Highways: none; city streets

_#_Ports: Monaco

_#_Merchant marine: 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,268 GRT/4,959 DWT

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 usable airfield with permanent-surface runways

_#_Telecommunications: served by the French communications system;
automatic telephone system; 38,200 telephones; stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, 5
TV; no communication satellite stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
[email protected]_Mongolia
_#_Total area: 1,565,000 km2; land area: 1,565,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

_#_Land boundaries: 8,114 km total; China 4,673 km, USSR 3,441 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature

_#_Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and
southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

_#_Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten,
phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
79%; forest and woodland 10%; other 10%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: harsh and rugged

_#_Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Soviet Union

_#_Population: 2,247,068 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Mongolian(s); adjective - Mongolian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Mongol 90%, Kazakh 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%,
other 2%

_#_Religion: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim (about 4%),
limited religious activity because of Communist regime

_#_Language: Khalkha Mongol used by over 90% of population; minor
languages include Turkic, Russian, and Chinese

_#_Literacy: 90% (male NA%, female NA%) (1989 est.)

_#_Labor force: NA, but primarily herding/agricultural; over half the
adult population is in the labor force, including a large percentage
of women; shortage of skilled labor

_#_Organized labor: 425,000 members of the Central Council of
Mongolian Trade Unions (CCMTU) controlled by the government (1984)

_#_Long-form name: Mongolian People's Republic; abbreviated MPR

_#_Type: in transition from Communist state to republic

_#_Capital: Ulaanbaatar

_#_Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag)
and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor,
Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi,
Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol,
Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov,
Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

_#_Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China; formerly Outer Mongolia)

_#_Constitution: 6 July 1960

_#_Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of
law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: People's Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

_#_Executive branch: chairman and deputy chairman of the Presidium of
the People's Great Hural, premier, deputy premiers, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: People's Great Hural, People's Small Hural

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3
September 1990); Vice President Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (since
7 September 1990);

Head of Government - Premier Dashiyn BYAMBASUREN (since 11
September 1990);

_#_Political parties and leaders:

ruling party - Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP),
Budragchagiin DASH-YONDON, general secretary;

opposition - Social Democratic Party (SDP), Batbayar;
Mongolian Democratic Association, Sanjasuren DZORIG, chief coordinator;
Mongolian Party of National Progress, Ganbold;

other - Mongolian Democratic Party (MDP), Batuul;
Free Labor Party, Maam;
note - opposition parties were legalized in May 1990

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 3 September 1990 (next to be held July 1994);
results - Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT elected by the People's Great Hural;

People's Great Hural - last held on 29 July 1990 (next to be held
July 1994);
results - MPRP 84.6, MDP 3.8%, PNP 1.4%, SDP 1%, independents 9.2%;
seats - (430 total) MPRP 343;

People's Small Hural - last held on 29 July 1990 (next to be
held July 1994);
results - MPRP 62.3%, MDP 24.5%, SDP 7.5%, PNP 5.7%;
seats - (50 total) MPRP 33

_#_Communists: MPRP membership 90,000 (1990 est.)


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gendengiyn NYAMDOO;
Chancery, Tel. (202) 983-1962;

US - Ambassador Joseph E. LAKE; Deputy Chief of Mission
Michael J. SENKO; Embassy at Ulaanbaatar, c/o American Embassy
Beijing; Tel. 29095 and 29639

_#_Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and
red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is a five-pointed star
above the national emblem (soyombo - a columnar arrangement of
abstract and geometric representations for fire, sun, moon, earth, water,
and the yin-yang symbol)

_#_Overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on
agriculture and the breeding of livestock - Mongolia has the highest
number of livestock per person in the world. In recent years extensive
mineral resources have been developed with Soviet support. The mining and
processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold
account for a large part of industrial production. In early 1991 the
Mongolian leadership was struggling with severe economic dislocations,
mainly attributable to chaotic economic conditions in the USSR, by
far Mongolia's leading trade and development partner. For example,
the government doubled most prices in January 1991, and industrial
production dropped 10% in the first quarter of 1991. Moscow almost
certainly will be cutting aid in 1991.

_#_GDP: $2.2 billion, per capita $1,000 (1990 est.); real
growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 10% (February 1991)

_#_Budget: deficit of $240 million (1991 est.)

_#_Exports: $784 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - livestock, animal products, wool, hides, fluorspar,
nonferrous metals, minerals;

partners - nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80%
with USSR)

_#_Imports: $1.14 billion (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - machinery and equipment, fuels, food products,
industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea;

partners - nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80% with

_#_External debt: $16.8 billion (yearend 1990); 98.6% with USSR

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 657,000 kW capacity; 2,950 million kWh produced,

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 49 of 89)