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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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Movement (ACLM), a small leftist nationalist group led by Leonard (Tim)
HECTOR; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed by Noel THOMAS

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edmund Hawkins LAKE;
Chancery at Suite 2H, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122, 5225; there is an Antiguan
Consulate in Miami;

US - the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and
Barbuda, and in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires
Bryant SALTER; Embassy at Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's
(mailing address is FPO Miami 34054); telephone (809) 462-3505 or 3506

_#_Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge
of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top),
light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

_#_Overview: The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism
the most important determinant of economic performance. During the period
1983-89, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of about 7%.
Tourism's contribution to GDP, as measured by value added tax in hotels
and restaurants, rose from about 14% in 1983 to 16% in 1989, and
stimulated growth in other sectors - particularly in construction,
communications, and public utilities. Antigua and Barbuda is one of the
few areas in the Caribbean experiencing a labor shortage in some sectors
of the economy.

_#_GDP: $350 million, per capita $5,470 (1989); real growth rate 3.0%
(1991 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $92.8 million; expenditures $101 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $33.2 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and
live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%;

partners - OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago
2%, US 0.3%

_#_Imports: $358.2 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - food and live animals, machinery and transport
equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil;

partners - US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

_#_External debt: $250 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts
for 9% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 52,000 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 1,490 kWh
per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton,
fruits, vegetables, and livestock sector; other crops - bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, $10 million (1985-88); Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $45

_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter
gauge used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane

_#_Highways: 240 km

_#_Ports: Saint John's

_#_Merchant marine: 86 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 319,477
GRT/497,194 DWT; includes 61 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 6 container,
4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction large load carrier, 3
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker; note - a
flag of convenience registry

_#_Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways less than 1,220 m

_#_Telecommunications: good automatic telephone system; 6,700
telephones; tropospheric scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe;
stations - 4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua
and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.4 million, less than 1% of GDP (FY91)
[email protected]_Arctic Ocean
_#_Total area: 14,056,000 km2; includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea,
Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay,
Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and other tributary water bodies

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US;
smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean,
and Indian Ocean)

_#_Coastline: 45,389 km

_#_Climate: persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature
ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable
weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous
daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

_#_Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar
icepack which averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure
ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the
Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New
Siberian Islands (USSR) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and
Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but
more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted
by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and
Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the Fram Basin

_#_Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals,

_#_Environment: endangered marine species include walruses and whales;
ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
icebergs calved from western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada;
maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the
frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually
icelocked from October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow
to recover from disruptions or damage

_#_Note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern
access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to
superstructure icing from October to May; strategic location between
North America and the USSR; shortest marine link between the extremes of
eastern and western USSR; floating research stations operated by the US
and USSR

_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of
natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, fishing, and

_#_Ports: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (USSR), Prudhoe Bay (US)

_#_Telecommunications: no submarine cables

_#_Note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the
Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Asia) are
important waterways
[email protected]_Argentina
_#_Total area: 2,766,890 km2; land area: 2,736,690 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 9,665 km total; Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km,
Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

_#_Coastline: 4,989 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond
12 nm)

_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute;
short section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims
British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims
British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
territorial claim in Antarctica

_#_Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in

_#_Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to
rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

_#_Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc,
tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, crude oil, uranium

_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and
pastures 52%; forest and woodland 22%; other 13%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to
earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and
northeast; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air and water
pollution in Buenos Aires

_#_Note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil);
strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and
South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

_#_Population: 32,663,983 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 31 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Argentine(s); adjective - Argentine

_#_Ethnic divisions: white 85%; mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite
groups 15%

_#_Religion: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

_#_Language: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

_#_Literacy: 95% (male 96%, female 95%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 10,900,000; agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services
57% (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 3,000,000; 28% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Argentine Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Buenos Aires (tentative plans to move to Viedma by
1990 indefinitely postponed)

_#_Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias,
singular - provincia), 1 national territory* (territorio nacional), and 1
district** (distrito); Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba,
Corrientes, Distrito Federal**, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa,
La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San
Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego,
Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur*, Tucuman; note - the national
territory is in the process of becoming a province; the US does not
recognize claims to Antarctica

_#_Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 1 May 1853

_#_Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Carlos Saul
MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President Eduardo DUHALDE (since 8 July

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Justicialist Party (JP), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political
Radical Civic Union (UCR), Raul ALFONSIN, moderately left of center;
Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), Alvaro ALSOGARAY, conservative
Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar ALENDE, leftist party;
several provincial parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held May 1995);
results - Carlos Saul MENEM was elected;

Chamber of Deputies - last held 14 May 1989 (next to be
held October 1991); results - JP 47%, UCR 30%, UCD 7%, other 16%;
seats - (254 total); JP 122, UCR 93, UCD 11, other 28

_#_Communists: some 70,000 members in various party organizations,
including a small nucleus of activists

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor
movement, General Confederation of Labor (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor
organization), Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association),
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association), business
organizations, students, the Roman Catholic Church, the Armed Forces

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ortiz de ROZAS;
Chancery at 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
(202) 939-6400 through 6403; there are Argentine Consulates General in
Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles;

US - Ambassador Terence A. TODMAN; Embassy at 4300 Colombia,
1425 Buenos Aires (mailing address is APO Miami 34034);
telephone [54] (1) 774-7611 or 8811, 9911

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and
light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
human face known as the Sun of May

_#_Overview: Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly
literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of
mismanagement and statist policies, the economy has encountered
major problems in recent years, leading to escalating inflation and
a recession in 1988-90. A widening public-sector deficit and a
multidigit inflation rate have dominated the economy over the past
three years; retail prices rose nearly 5,000% in 1989 and another
1,345% in 1990. Since 1978, Argentina's external debt has nearly doubled
to $60 billion, creating severe debt-servicing difficulties and hurting
the country's creditworthiness with international lenders.

_#_GNP: $82.7 billion, per capita $2,560; real growth rate - 3.5%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,350% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 8.6% (May 1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $12.2 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.8 billion (1989)

_#_Exports: $12.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool;

partners - US 12%, USSR, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Netherlands

_#_Imports: $4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and
lubricants, agricultural products;

partners - US 22%, Brazil, FRG, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands

_#_External debt: $60 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1991 est.); accounts for
30% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 16,749,000 kW capacity; 45,580 million kWh produced,
1,410 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP (including fishing); produces
abundant food for both domestic consumption and exports; among world's
top five exporters of grain and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn,
sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets; 1987 fish catch estimated at 500,000 tons

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.0 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million

_#_Currency: austral (plural - australes); 1 austral (2) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: australes (2) per US$1 - 9,900 (April 1991),
4,707 (1990), 423 (1989), 8.7526 (1988), 2.1443 (1987), 0.9430 (1986),
0.6018 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 34,172 km total (includes 169 km electrified); includes
a mixture of 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge,
1.000-meter gauge, and 0.750-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 208,350 km total; 47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel,
101,000 km improved earth, 20,300 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 11,000 km navigable

_#_Pipelines: 4,090 km crude oil; 2,900 km refined products; 9,918 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario,
Santa Fe

_#_Merchant marine: 129 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,663,884
GRT/2,689,645 DWT; includes 42 cargo, 7 refrigerated cargo, 6 container,
1 railcar carrier, 47 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
4 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 18 bulk; additionally, 2 naval
tankers and 1 military transport are sometimes used commercially

_#_Civil air: 54 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1,763 total, 1,575 usable; 135 with permanent-surface
runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 336
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: extensive modern system; 2,650,000 telephones
(12,000 public telephones); radio relay widely used; stations - 171 AM,
no FM, 231 TV, 13 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations;
domestic satellite network has 40 stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine
Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard
only), National Aeronautical Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 7,992,140; 6,478,730 fit for
military service; 285,047 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $700 million, 1% of GNP (1990)
[email protected]_Aruba
(part of the Dutch realm)
_#_Total area: 193 km2; land area: 193 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 68.5 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

_#_Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

_#_Note: 28 km north of Venezuela

_#_Population: 64,052 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Aruban(s); adjective - Aruban

_#_Ethnic divisions: mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, also small Hindu,
Muslim, Confucian, and Jewish minority

_#_Language: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese,
Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA, but most employment is in the tourist industry

_#_Organized labor: Aruban Workers' Federation (FTA)

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: part of the Dutch realm - full autonomy in internal affairs
obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles

_#_Capital: Oranjestad

_#_Administrative divisions: none (self-governing part of the

_#_Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm); note - in 1990 Aruba
requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the
agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996

_#_Constitution: 1 January 1986

_#_Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

_#_National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

_#_Executive branch: Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, Council
of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral legislature (Staten)

_#_Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice


Chief of State - Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April
1980), represented by Governor General Felipe B. TROMP (since 1 January

Head of Government - Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since NA February

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER;
Aruban People's Party (AVP), Henny EMAN;
National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY;
New Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN;
Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Leo CHANCE;
Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI;
Democratic Action '86 (AD'86), Arturo ODUBER;
governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Legislature - last held 6 January 1989 (next to be held by January
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (21 total) MEP 10, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPN 1, PPA 1

_#_Member of: ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate),
WCL, WTO (associate)

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing part of the

_#_Flag: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the
lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper
hoist-side corner

_#_Overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, although
offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also important.
Hotel capacity expanded rapidly between 1985 and 1989 and nearly
doubled in 1990 alone. Unemployment has steadily declined from about
20% in 1986 to about 2% in 1990. The reopening of the local oil
refinery, once a major source of employment and foreign exchange
earnings, promises to give the economy an additional boost.

_#_GDP: $730 million, per capita $11,600; real growth rate 8.8%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $145 million; expenditures $185 million, including
capital expenditures of $42 million (1988)

_#_Exports: $131.6 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - mostly petroleum products;

partners - US 64%, EC

_#_Imports: $496 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - food, consumer goods, manufactures;

partners - US 8%, EC

_#_External debt: $81 million (1987)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA

_#_Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 945 million kWh produced, 15,000
kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

_#_Agriculture: poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural
activity to the cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-1988), $200 million

_#_Currency: Aruban florin (plural - florins);
1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate
since 1986)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Ports: Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

_#_Airfield: government-owned airport east of Oranjestad

_#_Telecommunications: generally adequate; extensive interisland radio
relay links; 72,168 telephones; stations - 4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 sea cable
to Sint Maarten

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands
[email protected]_Ashmore and Cartier Islands
(territory of Australia)
_#_Total area: 5 km2; land area: 5 km2; includes Ashmore Reef (West,
Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier Island

_#_Comparative area: about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 74.1 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploration;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: low with sand and coral

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other - grass and sand 100%

_#_Environment: surrounded by shoals and reefs; Ashmore Reef National

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 5 of 89)