United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

. (page 51 of 89)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 51 of 89)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

stone, stabilized soil; 21,076 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

_#_Pipelines: 306 km crude oil (not operating); 289 km refined

_#_Ports: Maputo, Beira, Nacala

_#_Merchant marine: 5 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,806
GRT/12,873 DWT

_#_Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 197 total, 145 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines,
and radio relay; 57,400 telephones; stations - 15 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV;
earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Mozambique Armed Forces (including Army, Naval
Command, Air Defense Forces, Border Guards), Militia

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 3,407,234; 1,957,123 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 8.4% of GDP (1987)
[email protected]_Namibia
_#_Total area: 824,290 km2; land area: 823,290 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Alaska

_#_Land boundaries: 3,935 km total; Angola 1,376 km, Botswana
1,360 km, South Africa 966 km, Zambia 233 km

_#_Coastline: 1,489 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite;
quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement;
claim by Namibia to Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands administered
by South Africa

_#_Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

_#_Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari
Desert in east

_#_Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin,
zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of oil,
natural gas, coal, and iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 64%; forest and woodland 22%; other 13%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: inhospitable with very limited natural water
resources; desertification

_#_Note: Walvis Bay area is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia

_#_Population: 1,520,504 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 69 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 63 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Namibian(s); adjective - Namibian

_#_Ethnic divisions: black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4%; about 50%
of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% from the Kavangos

_#_Religion: predominantly Christian

_#_Language: English is official language; Afrikaans is common
language of most of population and about 60% of white population, German
32%, English 7%; several indigenous languages

_#_Literacy: 38% (male 45%, female 31%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1960)

_#_Labor force: 500,000; agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 19%,
services 8%, government 7%, mining 6% (1981 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 20 trade unions representing about 90,000

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Namibia

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Windhoek

_#_Administrative divisions: the former administrative structure of
26 districts has been abolished and 14 temporary regions are still in
the process of being determined; note - the 26 districts were Bethanien,
Boesmanland, Caprivi Oos, Damaraland, Gobabis, Grootfontein, Hereroland
Oos, Hereroland Wes, Kaokoland, Karasburg, Karibib, Kavango,
Keetmanshoop, Luderitz, Maltahohe, Mariental, Namaland, Okahandja,
Omaruru, Otjiwarongo, Outjo, Owambo, Rehoboth, Swakopmund, Tsumeb,

_#_Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

_#_Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990

_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March 1990

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral; House of Review (upper house,
to be established with elections in 1992 by planned new regional
authorities); National Assembly (lower house elected by universal

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Sam NUJOMA
(since 21 March 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: South-West Africa People's
Organization (SWAPO), Sam NUJOMA;
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), Dirk MUDGE;
United Democratic Front (UDF), Justus GAROEB;
Action Christian National (ACN), Kosie PRETORIUS;
National Patriotic Front (NPF), Moses KATJIUONGUA;
Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN), Hans DIERGAARDT;
Namibia National Front (NNF), Vekuii RUKORO

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 16 February 1990 (next to be
held March 1995); Sam NUJOMA was elected president by the Constituent
Assembly (now the National Assembly);

National Assembly - last held on 7-11 November 1989
(next to be held by November 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (72 total) SWAPO 41, DTA 21, UDF 4, ACN 3, NNF 1, FCN 1, NPF 1

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Other political or pressure groups: NA

_#_Member of: C, ECA (associate), FAO, FLS, IAEA, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tuliameni KALOMOH;
Chancery at 1413 K Street NW, 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20005
(mailing address is PO Box 34738, Washington DC 20043);
telephone (202) 289-3871;

US - Ambassador Genta Hawkins HOLMES; Embassy at Ausplan Building,
14 Lossen St., Windhoek (mailing address is P. O. Box 9890, Windhoek
9000, Namibia); telephone [264] (61) 221-601, 222-675, 222-680

_#_Flag: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the
upper left section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower
right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe which is
contrasted by two narrow white edge borders

_#_Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry
to extract and process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost
30% of GDP. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in
Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial
diamond deposits are among the richest in the world, making Namibia a
primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large
quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten, and it has
substantial resources of coal. More than half the population depends
on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood.

_#_GNP: $1.8 billion, per capita $1,240; real growth rate - 2.0%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.1% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: over 30% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $794.1 million; expenditures $999.6 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $1,021 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - uranium, diamonds, zinc, copper, cattle, processed
fish, karakul skins;

partners - Switzerland, South Africa, FRG, Japan

_#_Imports: $894 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and

partners - South Africa, FRG, US, Switzerland

_#_External debt: about $27 million at independence; under a 1971
International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling, Namibia may not be
liable for debt incurred during its colonial period

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 486,000 kW capacity; 1,280 million kWh produced,
930 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining
(copper, lead, zinc, diamond, uranium)

_#_Agriculture: mostly subsistence farming; livestock raising major
source of cash income; crops - millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish catch
potential of over 1 million metric tons not being fulfilled, 1987 catch
reaching only 520,000 metric tons; not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $47.2 million

_#_Currency: South African rand (plural - rand);
1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: South African rand (R) per US$1 - 2.625 (January
1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685
(1986), 2.1911 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 2,341 km 1.067-meter gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 54,500 km; 4,079 km paved, 2,540 km gravel, 47,881 km
earth roads and tracks

_#_Ports: Luderitz; primary maritime outlet is Walvis Bay (South

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 143 total, 123 usable; 21 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 67 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good urban, fair rural services; radio relay
connects major towns, wires extend to other population centers; 62,800
telephones; stations - 2 AM, 40 FM, 3 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: National Defense Force (Army), Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 309,978; 183,730 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 4.9% of GNP (1986)
[email protected]_Nauru
_#_Total area: 21 km2; land area: 21 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 30 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

_#_Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs
with phosphate plateau in center

_#_Natural resources: phosphates

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: only 53 km south of Equator

_#_Note: Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in
the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
Makatea in French Polynesia

_#_Population: 9,333 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 41 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 69 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Nauruan(s); adjective - Nauruan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Nauruan 58%, other Pacific Islander 26%, Chinese
8%, European 8%

_#_Religion: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman

_#_Language: Nauruan, a distinct Pacific Island language (official);
English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and
commercial purposes

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Nauru

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: no capital city as such; government offices in Yaren

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan,
Anibare, Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe,

_#_Independence: 31 January 1968 (from UN trusteeship under Australia,
New Zealand, and UK); formerly Pleasant Island

_#_Constitution: 29 January 1968

_#_Legal system: own Acts of Parliament and British common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

_#_Executive branch: president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Bernard DOWIYOGO
(since 12 December 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20


President - last held 9 December 1989 (next to be held December
results - Bernard DOWIYOGO elected by Parliament;

Parliament - last held on 9 December 1989 (next to be held
December 1992);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (18 total) independents 18

_#_Member of: C (special), ESCAP, ICAO, INTERPOL, ITU, SPC, SPF, UPU

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Theodore
Conrad MOSES resident in Melbourne (Australia); there is a Nauruan
Consulate in Agana (Guam);

US - the US Ambassador to Australia is accredited to Nauru

_#_Flag: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the
center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist
side; the star indicates the country's location in relation to the
Equator (the yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original
tribes of Nauru

_#_Overview: Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves
of which are expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have
given Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third
World - $10,000 annually. Few other resources exist so
most necessities must be imported, including fresh water from
Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income
from phosphates constitute serious long-term problems. Substantial
investment in trust funds, out of phosphate income, will help cushion the

_#_GNP: over $90 million, per capita $10,000; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 0%

_#_Budget: revenues $69.7 million; expenditures $51.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY86 est.)

_#_Exports: $93 million (f.o.b., 1984);

commodities - phosphates;

partners - Australia, NZ

_#_Imports: $73 million (c.i.f., 1984);

commodities - food, fuel, manufactures, building materials,

partners - Australia, UK, NZ, Japan

_#_External debt: $33.3 million

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 14,000 kW capacity; 50 million kWh produced,
5,430 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconuts

_#_Agriculture: negligible; almost completely dependent on imports for
food and water

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries (1970-1988), $2 million

_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural - dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Railroads: 3.9 km; used to haul phosphates from the center of the
island to processing facilities on the southwest coast

_#_Highways: about 27 km total; 21 km paved, 6 km improved earth

_#_Ports: Nauru

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 31,261
GRT/39,838 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 2 bulk

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft, one on order

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate intraisland and international radio
communications provided via Australian facilities; 1,600 telephones;
4,000 radios; stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no regular armed forces; Directorate of the Nauru
Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service

_#_Defense expenditures: no formal defense structure
[email protected]_Navassa Island
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 5.2 km2; land area: 5.2 km2

_#_Comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 8 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Haiti

_#_Climate: marine, tropical

_#_Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating;
ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)

_#_Natural resources: guano

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
10%; forest and woodland 0%; other 90%

_#_Environment: mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support
goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

_#_Note: strategic location between Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica in the
Caribbean Sea; 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo, Cuba

_#_Population: uninhabited; transient Haitian fishermen and others
camp on the island

_#_Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US
Coast Guard

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
[email protected]_Nepal
_#_Total area: 140,800 km2; land area: 136,800 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Arkansas

_#_Land boundaries: 2,926 km total; China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to
subtropical summers and mild winter in south

_#_Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central
hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

_#_Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential,
scenic beauty; small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land 17%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 13%; forest and woodland 33%; other 37%; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks;
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

_#_Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India

_#_Population: 19,611,900 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 39 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 98 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 50 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Nepalese (sing. and pl.); adjective - Nepalese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars,
Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas, as well as many smaller groups

_#_Religion: only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp
distinction between many Hindu (about 90% of population) and Buddhist
groups (about 5% of population); Muslims 3%, other 2% (1981)

_#_Language: Nepali (official); 20 languages divided into numerous

_#_Literacy: 26% (male 38%, female 13%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,100,000; agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry 2%;
severe lack of skilled labor

_#_Organized labor: Teachers' Union and many other nonofficially
recognized unions

_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Nepal

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Kathmandu

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural);
Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur,
Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi,
Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

_#_Independence: 1768, unified by Prithyi Narayan Shah

_#_Constitution: 9 November 1990

_#_Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of
an upper house or National Council and a lower house or House of

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)


Chief of State - King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January
1972, crowned King 24 February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA
Bir Bikram Shah Dev, son of the King (born 21 June 1971);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since
29 May 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

ruling party - Nepali Congress Party (NCP), Girija Prasad KOIRALA,
Ganesh Man SINGH, Krishna Prasad BHATTARAI;

center - the NDP has two factions: National Democratic
Party/Chand (NDP/Chand), Lokinra Bahadur CHAND, and
National Democratic Party/Thapa (NDP/Thapa), Surya Bahadur THAPA;
Terai Rights Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party, G. N. Naryan SINGH;

Communist - Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist and
Leninist (CPN/UML), Man Mohan ADIKHARY;
United People's Front (UPF), N. K. PRASAI;
Rohit Party, N. M. BIJUKCHHE;
Democratic Party, leader NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Representatives - last held on 12 May 1991 (next to be
held May 1996);
results - NCP 38%, CPN/UML 28%, NDP/Chand 6%, UPF 5%, NDP/Thapa
5%, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 4%, Rohit 2%, CPN (Democratic) 1%,
independent 4%, other 7%;
seats - (205 total) NCP 110, CPN/UML 69, UPF 9, Terai Rights
Sadbhavana Party 6, NDP/Chand 3, Rohit 2, CPN (Democratic) 2,
NDP/Thapa 1, independent 3;

note - the new Constitution of 9 November 1990 gives Nepal a multiparty
democracy system for the first time in 32 years

_#_Communists: Communist Party of Nepal (CPN)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: numerous small, left-leaning
student groups in the capital; several small, radical Nepalese
antimonarchist groups

_#_Member of: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohan Man SAINJU; Chancery at
2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 667-4550; there
is a Nepalese Consulate General in New York;

US - Ambassador Julia Chang BLOCH; Embassy at Pani Pokhari,
Kathmandu; telephone [977] (1) 411179 or 412718, 411601, 411613, 413890

_#_Flag: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two
overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white
stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

_#_Overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries
in the world with a per capita income of less than $200. Real growth
averaged 4% in the 1980s until FY89, when it plunged to 1.5% because of
a trade/transit dispute with India. Though the impasse is over,
political turmoil and inflated energy costs will probably constrain
growth to under 4%. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy,
providing a livelihood for over 90% of the population and
accounting for 60% of GDP. Industrial activity is limited, mainly
involving the processing of agricultural produce (jute, sugarcane,
tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles and carpets has expanded
recently and accounted for 87% of foreign exchange earnings in FY89.
Apart from agricultural land and forests, the only other exploitable
natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural
production in the late 1980s grew by about 5%, compared
with a population growth of 2.6%. Forty percent or more of the
population is undernourished partly because of poor distribution.
Economic prospects for the 1990s are poor, with economic growth
probably outpacing population growth only slightly.

_#_GDP: $3.0 billion, per capita $160; real growth rate 2.1% (FY90)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.0% (FY90 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5%; underemployment estimated at 25-40% (1987)

_#_Budget: revenues $316.5 million; expenditures $618.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $398 (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $125 million (f.o.b., FY90), but does not include
unrecorded border trade with India;

commodities - clothing, carpets, leather goods, grain;

partners - India 38%, US 23%, UK 6%, other Europe 9% (FY88)

_#_Imports: $454.3illion (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities - petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%;

partners - India 36%, Japan 13%, Europe 4%, US 1% (FY88)

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 51 of 89)