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Territorial Assembly - last held 11 June 1989 (next to be held NA
1993);
results - percent of vote by party - RPCR 44.5%, FLNKS 28.5%, FN 7%, CD
5%, UO 4%, other 11%;
seats - (54 total) RPCR 27, FLNKS 19, FN 3, other 5; note - election
boycotted by FULK;

French Senate - last held 24 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (1 total) RPCR 1;

French National Assembly - last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results - percent of vote by party - RPR 83.5%, FN 13.5%, other 3%;
seats - (2 total) RPCR 2


_#_Communists: number unknown; Palita extreme left party; some
politically active Communists deported during 1950s; small number of
North Vietnamese


_#_Member of: FZ, SPC, WFTU, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France,
New Caledonian interests are represented in the US by France


_#_Flag: the flag of France is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: New Caledonia has more than 25% of the world's known
nickel resources. In recent years the economy has suffered because of
depressed international demand for nickel, the principal source of export
earnings. Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for
cultivation, and food accounts for about 25% of imports.


_#_GNP: $973 million, per capita $5,790; real growth rate 2.4%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 16.0% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $224.0 million; expenditures $211.0 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1985)


_#_Exports: $344 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - nickel metal 87%, nickel ore;

partners - France 52.3%, Japan 15.8%, US 6.4%


_#_Imports: $389 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - foods, fuels, minerals, machines, electrical
equipment;

partners - France 44.0%, US 10%, Australia 9%


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 2,200 million kWh produced,
12,790 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: nickel mining


_#_Agriculture: large areas devoted to cattle grazing; coffee, corn,
wheat, vegetables; 60% self-sufficient in beef


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit cannabis cultivation is becoming a principal
source of income for some families


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $3.9 billion


_#_Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural - francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF)
per US$1 - 93.28 (January 1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30
(1988), 109.27 (1987), 125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note - linked at the
rate of 18.18 to the French franc


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 6,340 km total; only about 10% paved (1987)


_#_Ports: Noumea, Nepoui, Poro, Thio


_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 29 total, 27 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 32,578 telephones (1987); stations - 5 AM, 3 FM,
7 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Gendarmerie, Police Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 46,388; NA fit for military
service


_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
[email protected]_New Zealand
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 268,680 km2; land area: 268,670 km2; includes
Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island,
Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands


_#_Comparative area: about the size of Colorado


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 15,134 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)


_#_Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts


_#_Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains


_#_Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber,
hydropower, gold, limestone


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
53%; forest and woodland 38%; other 7%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,308,973 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - New Zealander(s); adjective - New Zealand


_#_Ethnic divisions: European 88%, Maori 8.9%, Pacific Islander
2.9%, other 0.2%


_#_Religion: Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%,
Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none
9% (1986)


_#_Language: English (official), Maori


_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970)


_#_Labor force: 1,591,900; services 67.4%, manufacturing 19.8%,
primary production 9.3% (1987)


_#_Organized labor: 681,000 members; 43% of labor force (1986)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none; abbreviated NZ


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Wellington


_#_Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and
3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce,
Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke,
Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden
Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay,
Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt,
Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie,
Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton,
Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea,
Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan,
Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda,
Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki,
Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent,
Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate,
Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South,
Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui,
Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville


_#_Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau


_#_Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various
documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments;
Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has
not been enacted


_#_Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation
and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations


_#_National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty), 6 February (1840)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (commonly
called Parliament)


_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II ( since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Dame Catherine TIZARD (since 12
December 1990);

Head of Government - Prime Minister James BOLGER (since
29 October 1990); Deputy Prime Minister Donald McKINNON (since 2
November 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Party (NP; government), James BOLGER;
New Zealand Labor Party (NZLP; opposition), Michael MOORE;
New Labor Party (NLP), Jim ANDERTON;
Democratic Party, Neil MORRISON;
Green Party, no official leader;
Socialist Unity Party (SUP; pro-Soviet), Kenneth DOUGLAS


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

House of Representatives - last held on 27 October 1990 (next to be
held October 1993);
results - NP 49%, LP 35%, Green Party 7%, New Labor 5%;
seats - (97 total) NP 67, LP 29, NLP 1


_#_Communists: SUP about 140, other groups, about 200


_#_Member of: ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on
11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, OECD, PCA,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Denis Bazely
Gordon McLEAN; Chancery at 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 328-4800; there are New Zealand Consulates General in Los
Angeles and New York;

US - Ambassador Della M. NEWMAN; Embassy at 29 Fitzherbert Terrace,
Thorndon, Wellington (mailing address is P. O. Box 1190, Wellington, or
FPO San Francisco 96690-0001); telephone [64] (4) 722-068; there is a US
Consulate General in Auckland


_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer
half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an
agrarian economy dependent on a guaranteed British market to an open
free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The government
has hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes, reduce
inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The
results have been mixed: inflation is down from double-digit levels
but growth has been sluggish and unemployment, always a highly sensitive
issue, has been at a record high 7.4%. In 1988 GDP fell by 1%, in
1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%, and was flat in 1990.


_#_GDP: $40.2 billion, per capita $12,200; real growth rate 0.7%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (FY90)


_#_Unemployment rate: 7.4% (March 1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $17.6 billion; expenditures $18.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)


_#_Exports: $8.8 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities - wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese,
manufactures, chemicals, forestry products;

partners - EC 18.3%, Japan 17.9%, Australia 17.5%, US 13.5%,
China 3.6%, South Korea 3.1%


_#_Imports: $8.1 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities - petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial
equipment;

partners - Australia 19.7%, Japan 16.9%, EC 16.9%, US 15.3%,
Taiwan 3.0%


_#_External debt: $17.4 billion (1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.9% (1990); accounts for
about 20% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 7,800,000 kW capacity; 28,000 million kWh produced,
8,500 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles,
machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism,
mining


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GNP and 10% of the
work force; livestock predominates - wool, meat, dairy products all export
earners; crops - wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, and
vegetables; surplus producer of farm products; fish catch reached a
record 503,000 metric tons in 1988


_#_Economic aid: donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526
million


_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.6798 (January
1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088
(1986), 2.0064 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,716 km total; all 1.067-meter gauge; 274 km double
track; 113 km electrified; over 99% government owned


_#_Highways: 92,648 km total; 49,547 km paved, 43,101 km gravel or
crushed stone


_#_Inland waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation


_#_Pipelines: 1,000 km natural gas; 160 km refined products; 150 km
condensate


_#_Ports: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Wellington, Tauranga


_#_Merchant marine: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 204,269
GRT/281,375 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
1 railcar carrier, 4 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk


_#_Civil air: about 40 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 157 total, 157 usable; 33 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 46 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: excellent international and domestic systems;
2,110,000 telephones; stations 64 AM, 2 FM, 14 TV; submarine cables
extend to Australia and Fiji; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New
Zealand Air Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 874,443; 740,831 fit for
military service; 28,814 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $832 million, 1-2% of GDP (FY90)
_%_
[email protected]_Nicaragua
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 129,494 km2; land area: 120,254 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New York State


_#_Land boundaries: 1,231 km total; Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km


_#_Coastline: 910 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 25 nm security zone (status of claim uncertain);

Continental shelf: not specified;

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Disputes: territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago
de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; unresolved maritime
boundary in Golfo de Fonseca


_#_Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands


_#_Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central
interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes


_#_Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc,
timber, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
43%; forest and woodland 35%; other 12%; including irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes, volcanoes,
landslides, and occasional severe hurricanes; deforestation; soil
erosion; water pollution


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,751,884 (July 1991), growth rate 2.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 65 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Nicaraguan(s); adjective - Nicaraguan


_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Indian 5%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%


_#_Language: Spanish (official); English- and Indian-speaking
minorities on Atlantic coast


_#_Literacy: 57% (male 57%, female 57%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1971)


_#_Labor force: 1,086,000; service 43%, agriculture 44%, industry 13%
(1986)


_#_Organized labor: 35% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Nicaragua


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Managua


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 administrative regions encompassing 16
departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Boaco, Carazo,
Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz,
Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas,
Zelaya; note - Zelaya may have been replaced by 2 autonomous regions
(regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonomista) named
North Atlantic Coast and South Atlantic Coast


_#_Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: January 1987


_#_Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review
administrative acts


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) and municipal courts


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Violeta
Barrios de CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990);
Vice President Virgilio GODOY (since 25 April 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

ruling coalition - National Opposition Union (UNO) is a
14-party alliance - National Conservative Party (PNC), Silviano MATAMOROS;
Conservative Popular Alliance Party (PAPC), Myriam ARGUELLO;
National Conservative Action Party (PANC), Hernaldo ZUNIGA;
National Democratic Confidence Party (PDCN), Augustin JARQUIN;
Independent Liberal Party (PLI), Wilfredo NAVARRO;
Neo-Liberal Party (PALI), Andres ZUNIGA;
Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Jose Ernesto SOMARRIBA;
National Action Party (PAN), Eduardo RIVAS;
Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN), Gustavo TABLADA;
Communist Party of Nicaragua (PCdeN), Eli ALTIMIRANO;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Luis HUMBERTO;
Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto URROZ;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Guillermo POTOY;
Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC), Alejandro PEREZ;

opposition parties - Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN),
Daniel ORTEGA;
Central American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca ROJAS;
Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCDN), Jose BRENES;
Liberal Party of National Unity (PLUIN), Eduardo CORONADO;
Movement of Revolutionary Unity (MUR), Francisco SAMPER;
Social Christian Party (PSC), Erick RAMIREZ;
Revolutionary Workers' Party (PRT), Bonifacio MIRANDA;
Social Conservative Party (PSOC), Fernando AGUERRO;
Popular Action Movement - Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro TELLEZ;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Mauricio DIAZ


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 16


_#_Elections:

President - last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held February
1996);
results - Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra
(FSLN) 40.8%, other 4.5%;

National Assembly - last held on 25 February 1990
(next to be held February 1996);
results - UNO 53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%;
seats - (92 total) UNO 51, FSLN 39, PSC 1, MUR 1


_#_Communists: 15,000-20,000


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Permanent Congress of Workers
(CPT), Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS), Autonomous Nicaraguan
Workers' Central (CTN-A), Independent General Confederation of Workers
(CTG-I), Communist Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS), Nicaraguan
Workers' Central (CST); Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is
an umbrella group of 11 different business groups, including the Chamber
of Commerce, the Chamber of Industry, and the Nicaraguan Development
Institute (INDE)


_#_Member of: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ernesto PALAZIO;
Chancery at 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
(202) 387-4371 or 4372;

US - Ambassador Harry W. SHLAUDEMAN; Embassy at Kilometer 4.5
Carretera Sur., Managua (mailing address is APO Miami 34021); telephone
[505] (2) 666010 or 666013, 666015 through 18, 666026, 666027, 666032
through 34


_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue
with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of
arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE
NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar
to the flag of El Salvador which features a round emblem encircled by the
words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in
the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue
stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Government control of the economy historically has been
extensive, although the Chamorro government has pledged to reduce it.
The financial system is directly controlled by the state, which also
regulates wholesale purchasing, production, sales, foreign trade, and
distribution of most goods. Over 50% of the agricultural and industrial
firms are state owned. Sandinista economic policies and the war
have produced a severe economic crisis. The foundation of the economy
continues to be the export of agricultural commodities, largely coffee
and cotton. Farm production fell by roughly 7% in 1989, the fifth
successive year of decline. The agricultural sector employs 44%
of the work force and accounts for 23% of GDP and 86% of export earnings.
Industry, which employs 13% of the work force and contributes about
25% to GDP, showed a drop of 7% in 1989 and remains below
pre-1979 levels. External debt is one of the highest in the world on a
per capita basis. In 1990 the annual inflation rate was 11,800%, sharply
up from 1,800% in 1989.


_#_GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $470; real growth rate - 1.0% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11,800% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 35% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $244 million; expenditures $550 million, including
capital expenditures of $73 million (1988)


_#_Exports: $298 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - coffee, cotton, sugar, bananas, seafood, meat,
chemicals;

partners - OECD 75%, USSR and Eastern Europe 15%, other 10%


_#_Imports: $710 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - petroleum, food, chemicals, machinery, clothing;

partners - Latin America 30%, US 25%, EC 20%, USSR and
Eastern Europe 10%, other 15% (1990 est.)


_#_External debt: $9 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 7% (1989); accounts
for about 25% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 415,000 kW capacity; 1,342 million kWh produced,
360 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles,
clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP and 44% of work force; cash
crops - coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton; food crops - rice, corn,
cassava, citrus fruit, beans; variety of animal products - beef, veal,
pork, poultry, dairy; normally self-sufficient in food


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1,186 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.5 billion


_#_Currency: cordoba (plural - cordobas); 1 cordoba (C$) = 100
centavos


_#_Exchange rates: cordobas (C$) per US$1 - 13,300,000 (January
1991), 15,655 (1989), 270 (1988), 102.60 (1987), 97.48 (1986), 38.90
(1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 373 km 1.067-meter gauge, government owned; majority of
system not operating; 3 km 1.435-meter gauge line at Puerto Cabezas (does
not connect with mainline)


_#_Highways: 25,930 km total; 4,000 km paved, 2,170 km
gravel or crushed stone, 5,425 km earth or graded earth, 14,335 km
unimproved; Pan-American highway 368.5 km


_#_Inland waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km


_#_Ports: Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama


_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,161
GRT/2,500 DWT


_#_Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 251 total, 162 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: low-capacity radio relay and wire system being
expanded; connection into Central American Microwave System; 60,000
telephones; stations - 45 AM, no FM, 7 TV, 3 shortwave; earth
stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 845,961; 521,425 fit for
military service; 44,222 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $70 million, 3.8% of GDP (1991)
_%_
[email protected]_Niger
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,267,000 km2; land area: 1,266,700 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas


_#_Land boundaries: 5,697 km total; Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km,
Burkina 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 53 of 89)