United States. Central Intelligence Agency.

The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

. (page 56 of 89)
Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 56 of 89)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

al-Janubiah - Dhalqut, Mirbat, Rokhyut, Sadah, Salalah, Shalim,
Taqa, Thamrait;

al-Sharqiya - al Kamil and al-Wafi, al-Mudhaiby, al-Qabil,
Bidiya, Dimaa and Tayin, Ibra, Jaalan Bani Bu Ali,
Jaalan Bani Bu Hassan, Masirah, Sur, Wadi Bani Khalid;

Musandam - Daba al-Biya, Bukha, Khasab, Madha;

Muscat - Muscat*, Quriyat

_#_Independence: 1650, expulsion of the Portuguese

_#_Constitution: none

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate
appeal to the sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_Executive branch: sultan, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: State Consultative Assembly (advisory
function only)

_#_Judicial branch: none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent
civil court system

_#_National holiday: National Day, 18 November


Chief of State and Head of Government - Sultan and Prime Minister
QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970)

_#_Political parties: none

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: none

_#_Other political or pressure groups: outlawed Popular Front for the
Liberation of Oman (PFLO), based in Yemen

_#_Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Awadh Bader AL-SHANFARI;
Chancery at 2342 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 387-1980 through 1982;

US - Ambassador Richard W. BOEHM; Embassy at address NA, Muscat
(mailing address is P. O. Box 50200 Madinat Qaboos, Muscat); telephone

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red,
and green (double width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist
side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath
superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at
the top of the vertical band

_#_Overview: Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of
the oil industry. Petroleum accounts for nearly all export earnings,
about 80% of government revenues, and roughly 40% of GDP. Oman has
proved oil reserves of 4 billion barrels, equivalent to about 20 years'
supply at the current rate of extraction. Although agriculture employs a
majority of the population, urban centers depend on imported food.

_#_GDP: $9.2 billion, per capita $5,870 (1990); real growth rate
- 3.0% (1987 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $3.5 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $675 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - petroleum, reexports, processed copper, dates, nuts,

partners - Japan, South Korea, Taiwan

_#_Imports: $2.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured
goods, food, livestock, lubricants;

partners - UK, UAE, Japan, US

_#_External debt: $3.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1989), including
petroleum sector

_#_Electricity: 1,136,000 kW capacity; 3,650 million kWh produced,
2,500 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas
production, construction, cement, copper

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 60% of the labor force
(including fishing); less than 2% of land cultivated; largely subsistence
farming (dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables, camels, cattle); not
self-sufficient in food; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $137
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $122 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $797 million

_#_Currency: Omani rial (plural - rials); 1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000

_#_Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1 - 0.3845 (fixed rate
since 1986)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 22,800 km total; 3,800 km bituminous surface, 19,000 km
motorable track

_#_Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

_#_Ports: Mina Qabus, Mina Raysut

_#_Merchant marine: 1 passenger ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,442 GRT/1,320 DWT

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 122 total, 114 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 64 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire, radio relay, and
radio communications stations; 50,000 telephones; stations - 3 AM, 3 FM,
11 TV; satellite earth stations - 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT,
and 8 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 348,849; 197,870 fit for
military service; 20,715 reach military age (14) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.0 billion, 12% of GDP (1991)
[email protected]_Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the
_#_Total area: 458 km2; land area: 458 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,519 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid

_#_Terrain: islands vary geologically from the high mountainous main
island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large
barrier reefs

_#_Natural resources: forests, minerals (especially gold), marine
products; deep-seabed minerals

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons from June to December; archipelago
of six island groups totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain

_#_Note: important location 850 km southeast of the Philippines;
includes World War II battleground of Peleliu and world-famous rock

_#_Population: 14,411 (July 1991), growth rate 0.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 12 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Palauan(s); adjective - Palauan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan,
and Melanesian races

_#_Religion: predominantly Christian, mainly Roman Catholic

_#_Language: Palauan is the official language, though English is
commonplace; inhabitants of the isolated southwestern islands speak a
dialect of Trukese

_#_Literacy: 92% (male 93%, female 91%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
(no short-form name); may change to Republic of Palau after independence;
note - Belau, the native form of Palau, is sometimes used

_#_Type: UN trusteeship administered by the US; constitutional
government signed a Compact of Free Association with the US on
10 January 1986, after approval in a series of UN-observed plebiscites;
until the UN trusteeship is terminated with entry into force of the
Compact, Palau remains under US administration as the Palau District of
the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

_#_Capital: Koror; a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast
in eastern Babelthuap

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: still part of the US-administered UN trusteeship
(the last polity remaining under the trusteeship; the Republic of the
Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, and Commonwealth of the
Northern Marianas have left); administered by the Office of Territorial
and International Affairs, US Department of Interior

_#_Constitution: 11 January 1981

_#_Legal system: based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

_#_National holiday: Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)

_#_Executive branch: US president, US vice president, national
president, national vice president

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Olbiil Era Kelulau or
OEK) consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President George BUSH (since 20 January
1989); represented by the Assistant Secretary for Territorial Affairs,
US Department of the Interior, Stella GUERRA (since NA July 1989);

Head of Government - President Ngiratkel ETPISON (since 2 November

_#_Political parties: no formal parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held on 2 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992); Ngiratkel ETPISON 26.3%, Roman TMETUCHL 25.9%,
Thomas REMENGESAU 19.5%, other 28.3%;

Senate - last held 2 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (18 total);

House of Delegates - last held 2 November 1988 (next to be held
November 1992);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (16 total)

_#_Member of: ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF (observer)

_#_Diplomatic representation: none;

US - US Liaison Officer Lloyd MOSS; US Liaison Office at Top
Side, Neeriyas, Koror (mailing address: P. O. Box 6028, Koror, Republic
of Palau 96940); telephone 160-680-920 or 990

_#_Flag: light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon)
shifted slightly to the hoist side

_#_Overview: The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture
and fishing. Tourism provides some foreign exchange, although the remote
location of Palau and a shortage of suitable facilities has hindered
development. The government is the major employer of the work force,
relying heavily on financial assistance from the US.

_#_GDP: $31.6 million, per capita $2,260; real growth rate NA% (1986)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1986)

_#_Budget: revenues $6.0 million; expenditures NA, including capital
expenditures of NA (1986)

_#_Exports: $0.5 million (f.o.b., 1986);

commodities - NA;

partners - US, Japan

_#_Imports: $27.2 million (c.i.f., 1986);

commodities - NA;

partners - US

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 16,000 kW capacity; 22 million kWh produced,
1,540 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, craft items (shell, wood, pearl), some
commercial fishing and agriculture

_#_Agriculture: subsistence-level production of coconut, copra,
cassava, sweet potatoes

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $2
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $62.6 million

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_#_Highways: 25.7 km paved macadam and concrete roads, otherwise
stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads (1986)

_#_Ports: Koror

_#_Airports: 2 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US and that will not
change when the UN trusteeship terminates
[email protected]_Pacific Ocean
_#_Total area: 165,384,000 km2; includes Arafura Sea, Banda Sea,
Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea,
Gulf of Alaska, Makassar Strait, Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Sea of Japan,
Sea of Okhotsk, South China Sea, Tasman Sea, and other tributary water

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 18 times the size of the US;
the largest ocean (followed by the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and
Arctic Ocean); covers about one-third of the global surface; larger than
the total land area of the world

_#_Coastline: 135,663 km

_#_Climate: the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs
during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean
over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds
blow from the Asian land mass back to the ocean

_#_Terrain: surface in the northern Pacific dominated by a clockwise,
warm water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) and in the southern
Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool water gyre; sea ice occurs in the
Bering Sea and
Sea of Okhotsk during winter and reaches maximum northern extent from
Antarctica in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is
dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is
dissected by deep trenches; the world's greatest depth is 10,924 meters
in the Marianas Trench

_#_Natural resources: oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand
and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, fish

_#_Environment: endangered marine species include the dugong, sea
lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in Philippine
Sea and South China Sea; dotted with low coral islands and rugged
volcanic islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean; subject to tropical
cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east Asia from May to December (most
frequent from July to October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form
south of Mexico and strike Central America and Mexico from June to
October (most common in August and September); southern shipping lanes
subject to icebergs from Antarctica; occasional El Nino phenomenon
occurs off the coast of Peru when the trade winds slacken and the warm
Equatorial Countercurrent moves south, which kills the plankton that is
the primary food source for anchovies; consequently, the anchovies move
to better feeding grounds, causing resident marine birds to starve by the
thousands because of their lost food source

_#_Note: the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama
Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the
Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean;
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north from October to
May and in extreme south from May to October; persistent fog in the
northern Pacific from June to December is a hazard to shipping;
surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and earthquake activity
sometimes referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire

_#_Overview: The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world
economy and particularly to those nations its waters directly touch.
It provides cheap sea transportation between East and West, extensive
fishing grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and sand and
gravel for the construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%) of the
world's total fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the only
ocean where the fish catch has increased every year since 1978.
Exploitation of offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an
ever-increasing role in the energy supplies of Australia, New Zealand,
China, US, and Peru. The high cost of recovering offshore oil and gas,
combined with the wide swings in world prices for oil since 1985, has
slowed but not stopped new drillings.

_#_Industries: fishing, oil and gas production

_#_Ports: Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Los Angeles (US),
Manila (Philippines), Pusan (South Korea), San Francisco (US), Seattle
(US), Shanghai (China), Singapore, Sydney (Australia), Vladivostok
(USSR), Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)

_#_Telecommunications: several submarine cables with network focused
on Guam and Hawaii
[email protected]_Pakistan
_#_Total area: 803,940 km2; land area: 778,720 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

_#_Land boundaries: 6,774 km total; Afghanistan 2,430 km, China
523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

_#_Coastline: 1,046 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: boundary with India; Pashtun question with Afghanistan;
Baloch question with Afghanistan and Iran; water sharing problems with
upstream riparian India over the Indus

_#_Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in

_#_Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and
northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

_#_Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited
crude oil, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

_#_Land use: arable land 26%; permanent crops NEGL%;
meadows and pastures 6%; forest and woodland 4%; other 64%; includes
irrigated 19%

_#_Environment: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially
in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and
August); deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water logging

_#_Note: controls Khyber Pass and Malakand Pass, traditional
invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

_#_Population: 117,490,278 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 109 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 57 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Pakistani(s); adjective - Pakistani

_#_Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch,
Muhajir (immigrants from India and their descendents)

_#_Religion: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shia 20%), Christian, Hindu, and
other 3%

_#_Language: Urdu and English (both official); total spoken
languages - Punjabi 64%, Sindhi 12%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu 7%, Balochi and other
9%; English is lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government
ministries, but official policies are promoting its gradual replacement
by Urdu

_#_Literacy: 35% (male 47%, female 21%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 28,900,000; agriculture 54%, mining and manufacturing
13%, services 33%; extensive export of labor (1987 est.)

_#_Organized labor: about 10% of industrial work force

_#_Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

_#_Type: parliamentary with strong executive, federal republic

_#_Capital: Islamabad

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1
capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal
Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier,
Punjab, Sindh; note - the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed
Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

_#_Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK; formerly West Pakistan)

_#_Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977,
restored with amendments, 30 December 1985

_#_Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to
accommodate Pakistan's stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Pakistan Day (proclamation of the republic),
23 March (1956)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Mijlis-e-Shoora)
consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or National

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shariat) Court


Chief of State - President GHULAM ISHAQ Khan (since 13 December

Head of Government - Prime Minister Mian Nawaz SHARIF (since 6
November 1990);

_#_Political parties and leaders: Islamic Democratic
Alliance (Islami Jamuri Ittehad or IJI) - the Pakistan Muslim League
(PML) led by Mohammed Khan JUNEJO is the main party in the IJI;
Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; note - in September 1990
the PPP announced the formation of the People's Democratic Alliance
(PDA), an electoral alliance including the following four
parties - PPP, Solidarity Movement (Tehrik Istiqlal), Movement for the
Implementation of Shia Jurisprudence (Tehrik-i-Nifaz Fiqh Jafariya
or TNFJ), and the PML (Malik faction);
Muhajir Qaumi Movement (MQM), Altaf HUSSAIN;
Awami National Party (ANP), Khan Abdul Wali KHAN;
Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (JUI), Fazlur RAHMAN;
Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Mohammad Akbar Khan BUGTI;
Pakistan National Party (PNP), Mir Ghaus Bakhsh BIZENJO;
Pakistan Khawa Milli Party (PKMP), leader NA;
Assembly of Pakistani Clergy (Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Pakistan or JUP),
Maulana Shah Ahmed NOORANI;
Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi Hussain AHMED

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


President - last held on 12 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1993); results - Ghulam Ishaq KHAN was elected by Parliament
and the four provincial assemblies;

Senate - last held March 1991 (next to be held March 1994);
results - elected by provincial assemblies;
seats - (87 total) IJI 57, Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8,
PPP 5, ANP 5, JWP 4, MQM 3, PNP 2, PKMP 1, JUI 1, independent 1;

National Assembly - last held on 24 October 1990 (next to be held
by October 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (217 total) IJI 107, PDA 45, MQM 15, ANP 6, JUI 6, JWP 2, PNP 2,
PKMP 1, independent 14, religious minorities 10, Tribal Area
Representatives (nonparty) 8, vacant 1

_#_Communists: the Communist party is officially banned but is
allowed to operate openly

_#_Other political or pressure groups: military remains dominant
political force; ulema (clergy), industrialists, and small merchants also

_#_Member of: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Najmuddin SHAIKH; Chancery
at 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
939-6200; there is a Pakistani Consulate General in New York;

US - Ambassador Robert B. OAKLEY; Embassy at Diplomatic Enclave,
Ramna 5, Islamabad (mailing address is P. O. Box 1048,
Islamabad or APO New York 09614); telephone [92] (51) 826161
through 79; there are US Consulates General in Karachi and Lahore, and a
Consulate in Peshawar

_#_Flag: green with a vertical white band on the hoist side; a large
white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent,
star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

_#_Overview: Pakistan is a poor Third World country faced with the
usual problems of rapidly increasing population, sizable government
deficits, and heavy dependence on foreign aid. In addition, the economy
must support a large military establishment and provide for the needs of
4 million Afghan refugees. A real economic growth rate averaging 5-6% in
recent years has enabled the country to cope with these problems. Almost
all agriculture and small-scale industry is in private hands, and the
government seeks to privatize a portion of the large-scale industrial
enterprises now publicly owned. In December 1988, Pakistan signed a
three-year economic reform agreement with the IMF, which provides for a
reduction in the government deficit and a liberalization of trade in
return for further IMF financial support. Late in 1990, the IMF
suspended assistance to Pakistan because the government failed to
follow through on deficit reforms. Pakistan almost certainly will make
little headway on raising living standards for its rapidly expanding
population; at the current rate of growth, population would double in
29 years.

_#_GNP: $43.3 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 5.0%
(FY90 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.7% (FY90)

_#_Unemployment rate: 10% (FY91 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $5.6 billion; expenditures $10.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.7 billion (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $4.8 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities - rice, cotton, textiles, clothing;

partners - EC 31%, Japan 11.6%, US 11.5% (FY89)

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 56 of 89)