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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Imports: $6.5 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities - petroleum, petroleum products, machinery,
transportation equipment, vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals;

partners - EC 26%, US 16%, Japan 14% (FY89)


_#_External debt: $20.1 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.5% (FY91 est.); accounts for
almost 20% of GNP


_#_Electricity: 7,575,000 kW capacity; 29,300 million kWh produced,
270 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, petroleum
products, construction materials, clothing, paper products, international
finance, shrimp


_#_Agriculture: 25% of GDP, over 50% of labor force; world's largest
contiguous irrigation system; major crops - cotton, wheat, rice,
sugarcane, fruits, and vegetables; livestock products - milk, beef,
mutton, eggs; self-sufficient in food grain


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for
the international drug trade; government eradication efforts on poppy
cultivation of limited success


_#_Economic aid: (including Bangladesh before 1972) US commitments,
including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.5 billion authorized (excluding what is now
Bangladesh); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-88), $8.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89),
$2.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.2 billion


_#_Currency: Pakistani rupee (plural - rupees);
1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa


_#_Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1 - 22.072 (January
1991), 21.707 (1990), 20.541 (1989), 18.003 (1988), 17.399 (1987), 16.648
(1986), 15.928 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 8,773 km total; 7,718 km broad gauge, 445 km meter
gauge, and 610 km narrow gauge; 1,037 km broad-gauge double track; 286 km
electrified; all government owned (1985)


_#_Highways: 101,315 km total (1987); 40,155 km paved, 23,000 km
gravel, 29,000 km improved earth, and 9,160 km unimproved earth or sand
tracks (1985)


_#_Pipelines: 250 km crude oil; 4,044 km natural gas; 885 km refined
products (1987)


_#_Ports: Gwadar, Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim


_#_Merchant marine: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 339,855
GRT/500,627 DWT; includes 4 passenger-cargo, 24 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker


_#_Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 115 total, 105 usable; 75 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: good international radiocommunication service
over microwave and INTELSAT satellite; domestic radio communications
poor; broadcast service good; 813,000 telephones (1990); stations - 19 AM,
8 FM, 29 TV; earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces,
National Guard


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 26,840,840; 16,466,334 fit for
military service; 1,322,883 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $2.9 billion, 6% of GNP (FY91)
_%_
[email protected]_Palmyra Atoll
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 11.9 km2; land area: 11.9 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 20 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 14.5 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy


_#_Terrain: low, with maximum elevations of about 2 meters


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 100%; other 0%


_#_Environment: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation,
coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall


_#_Note: located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, almost halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa


_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but
administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs,
US Department of the Interior


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage in West Lagoon


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
[email protected]_Panama
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 78,200 km2; land area: 75,990 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina


_#_Land boundaries: 555 km total; Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km


_#_Coastline: 2,490 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May
to January), short dry season (January to May)


_#_Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected,
upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills


_#_Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp


_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
15%; forest and woodland 54%; other 23%; includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: dense tropical forest in east and northwest


_#_Note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming
land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal
that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific
Ocean


_*_People
_#_Population: 2,476,281 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Panamanian(s); adjective - Panamanian


_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 70%,
West Indian 14%, white 10%, Indian 6%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic over 93%, Protestant 6%


_#_Language: Spanish (official); English as native tongue 14%;
many Panamanians bilingual


_#_Literacy: 88% (male 88%, female 88%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 770,472 (1987); government and community services
27.9%; agriculture, hunting, and fishing 26.2%; commerce, restaurants,
and hotels 16%; manufacturing and mining 10.5%; construction 5.3%;
transportation and communications 5.3%; finance, insurance, and real
estate 4.2%; Canal Zone 2.4%; shortage of skilled labor, but an
oversupply of unskilled labor


_#_Organized labor: 17% of labor force (1986)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Panama


_#_Type: centralized republic


_#_Capital: Panama


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias,
singular - provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro,
Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama,
San Blas*, Veraguas


_#_Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent
from Spain 28 November 1821)


_#_Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983


_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)


_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea
Legislativa)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema
de Justicia) currently being reorganized


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Guillermo ENDARA
(since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May 1989);
First Vice President Ricardo ARIAS Calderon (since 20 December 1989,
elected 7 May 1989);
Second Vice President Guillermo FORD (since 20 December 1989,
elected 7 May 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

government alliance - Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement
(MOLIRENA), Alfredo RAMIREZ;
Authentic Liberal Party (PLA);
Arnulfista Party (PA), Francisco ARTOLA;

opposition parties - Christian Democratic Party (PDC),
Ricardo ARIAS Calderon;
Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD, ex-official government party),
Gerardo GONZALEZ;
Agrarian Labor Party (PALA), Carlos ELETA Almaran;
Liberal Party (PL);
People's Party (PdP, Soviet-oriented Communist party), Ruben DARIO
Sousa Batista;
Democratic Workers Party (PDT, leftist), Eduardo RIOS;
National Action Party (PAN, rightist);
Popular Action Party (PAPO), Carlos Ivan ZUNIGA;
Socialist Workers Party (PST, leftist), Jose CAMBRA;
Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT, leftist), Graciela DIXON


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held on 7 May 1989, annulled but later upheld
(next to be held May 1994);
results - anti-NORIEGA coalition believed to have won about 75% of the
total votes cast;

Legislative Assembly - last held on 27 January 1991 (next to
be held May 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (67 total) progovernment parties - PDC 28, MOLIRENA 16,
PA 6, PLA 5;

opposition parties - PRD 10, PALA 1, PL 1;
note - the PDC went into opposition after President Guillermo ENDARA
ousted the PDC from the coalition government in April 1991


_#_Communists: People's Party (PdP), pro-Soviet mainline Communist
party, did not obtain the necessary 3% of the total vote in the
1984 election to retain its legal status; about 3,000 members


_#_Other political or pressure groups: National Council of Organized
Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private Enterprise (CONEP);
Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE); National Civic
Crusade; National Committee for the Right to Life


_#_Member of: AG (associate), CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jaime FORD;
Chancery at 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 483-1407; the status of the Consulates General and Consulates has
not yet been determined;

US - Ambassador Deane R. HINTON; Embassy at Avenida Balboa and
Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5 (mailing address is Box E,
APO Miami 34002); telephone [507] 27-1777


_#_Flag: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are
white with a blue five-pointed star in the center (hoist side) and plain
red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a
red five-pointed star in the center


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: GDP expanded by an estimated 5% in 1990, after
contracting 1% in 1988 and 14% in 1989. Political stability prompted
greater business confidence and consumer demand, leading to increased
production by the agricultural, commercial, manufacturing, construction,
and utilities sectors. The transportation sector and government services
declined slightly due to slack early-1990 transits through the Panama
Canal, lower oil pipeline flowthrough, and Panama City's budget cuts.
Imports and exports posted gains during the year, and government revenues
were up sharply over 1989's levels.


_#_GDP: $4.8 billion, per capita $1,980; real growth rate 5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $70 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $355 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - bananas 27%, shrimp 21%, clothing 6%, coffee 4%,
sugar 4%;

partners - US 90%, Central America and Caribbean, EC (1989 est.)


_#_Imports: $1,250 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - foodstuffs 13%, capital goods 12%, crude oil 12%,
consumer goods, chemicals;

partners - US 35%, Central America and Caribbean, EC,
Mexico, Venezuela (1989 est.)


_#_External debt: $5 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1990 est.)


_#_Electricity: 1,113,000 kW capacity; 3,264 million kWh produced,
1,350 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum
refining, brewing, cement and other construction material, sugar mills,
paper products


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP (1990 est.), 25% of labor
force (1989); crops - bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock;
fishing; importer of food grain, vegetables, milk products


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $516
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $575 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4 million


_#_Currency: balboa (plural - balboas); 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos


_#_Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1 - 1.000 (fixed rate)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 238 km total; 78 km 1.524-meter gauge, 160 km
0.914-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 8,530 km total; 2,745 km paved, 3,270 km gravel or
crushed stone, 2,515 km improved and unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km
Panama Canal


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 130 km


_#_Ports: Cristobal, Balboa, Puerto de La Bahia de Las Minas


_#_Merchant marine: 2,932 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
41,314,623 GRT/66,226,104 DWT; includes 22 passenger, 22 short-sea
passenger, 5 passenger-cargo, 1,060 cargo, 188 refrigerated cargo,
165 container, 62 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 105 vehicle carrier,
8 livestock carrier, 5 multifunction large-load carrier,
301 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 175 chemical tanker,
27 combination ore/oil, 91 liquefied gas, 8 specialized tanker, 651 bulk,
37 combination bulk; note - all but 5 are foreign owned and operated;
the top 4 foreign owners are Japan 36%, Greece 9%, Hong Kong 9%, and the
US 8%; (China owns at least 127 ships, Vietnam 10, Yugoslavia 10, Cuba 5,
Cyprus 3, and USSR 2)


_#_Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 113 total, 101 usable; 41 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: domestic and international facilities well
developed; connection into Central American Microwave System; 2 Atlantic
Ocean satellite antennas; 220,000 telephones; stations - 91 AM, no FM,
23 TV; 1 coaxial submarine cable


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: note - the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) ceased to exist
as a military institution shortly after the United States invaded Panama
on 20 December 1989; President Endara is attempting to restructure the
forces into a civilian police service under the new name of Panamanian
Public Forces (PPF); a Council of Public Security and National Defense
under Menalco Solis in the office of the president coordinates the
activities of the security forces; the Institutional Protection Service
under Carlos Bares is attached to the presidency


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 644,895; 444,522 fit for
military service; no conscription


_#_Defense expenditures: $75.5 million, 1.5% of GDP (1990)
_%_
[email protected]_Papua New Guinea
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 461,690 km2; land area: 451,710 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than California


_#_Land boundary: 820 km with Indonesia


_#_Coastline: 5,152 km


_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast
monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling
foothills


_#_Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber,
oil potential


_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 71%; other 28%


_#_Environment: one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast;
some active volcanos; frequent earthquakes


_#_Note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,913,186 (July 1991), growth rate 2.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 55 years male, 56 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Papua New Guinean(s); adjective - Papua New
Guinean


_#_Ethnic divisions: predominantly Melanesian and Papuan; some
Negrito, Micronesian, and Polynesian


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%,
Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%,
Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant sects
10%; indigenous beliefs 34%


_#_Language: 715 indigenous languages; English spoken by 1-2%, pidgin
English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region


_#_Literacy: 52% (male 65%, female 38%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,660,000; 732,806 in salaried employment; agriculture
54%, government 25%, industry and commerce 9%, services 8% (1980)


_#_Organized labor: more than 50 trade unions, some with fewer than 20
members


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Independent State of Papua New Guinea


_#_Type: parliamentary democracy


_#_Capital: Port Moresby


_#_Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Central, Chimbu, Eastern
Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne
Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, North Solomons,
Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain


_#_Independence: 16 September 1975 (from UN trusteeship under
Australian administration)


_#_Constitution: 16 September 1975


_#_Legal system: based on English common law


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, National Executive Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (sometimes
referred to as the House of Assembly)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Vincent ERI (since 18 January 1990);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Rabbie NAMALIU (since 4 July
1988); Deputy Prime Minister Ted DIRO (since 29 April 1990);
note - Deputy Prime Minister Ted DIRO has the title only since he has
been suspended pending trial for alleged corruption charges


_#_Political parties:
Papua New Guinea United Party (Pangu Party), Rabbie NAMALIU;
People's Progress Party (PPP), Sir Julius CHAN;
United Party (UP), Paul TORATO;
Papua Party (PP), Galeva KWARARA;
National Party (NP), Paul PORA;
Melanesian Alliance (MA), Fr. John MOMIS


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

National Parliament - last held 13 June-4 July 1987 (next to be held
4 July 1992);
results - PP 14.7%, PDM 10.8%, PPP 6.1%, MA 5.6%, NP 5.1%, PAP 3.2%,
independents 42.9%, other 11.6%;
seats - (109 total) PP 26, PDM 17, NP 12, MA 7, PAP 6, PPP 5, independents
22, other 14


_#_Communists: no significant strength


_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Margaret TAYLOR; Chancery at
Suite 350, 1330 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 659-0856;

US - Ambassador Robert W. FERRAND; Embassy at Armit Street, Port
Moresby (mailing address is P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby); telephone
[675] 211-455 or 594, 654


_#_Flag: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper
triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the
lower triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the
Southern Cross constellation centered


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural
resources, but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and
the high cost of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture provides a
subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mining of numerous
deposits, including copper and gold, accounts for about 60% of
export earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and development aid
under World Bank auspices help sustain the economy.


_#_GDP: $2.7 billion, per capita $725; real growth rate - 3.0% (1989
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1989)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5% (1988)


_#_Budget: revenues $867 million; expenditures $873 million,
including capital expenditures of $119 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - gold, copper ore, coffee, cocoa, copra, palm oil,
timber, lobster;

partners - FRG, Japan, Australia, UK, Spain, US


_#_Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - machinery and transport equipment, fuels, food,
chemicals, consumer goods;

partners - Australia, Singapore, Japan, US, New Zealand, UK


_#_External debt: $2.76 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 25% of
GDP


_#_Electricity: 397,000 kW capacity; 1,510 million kWh produced,
400 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: copra crushing, oil palm processing, plywood
processing, wood chip production, gold, silver, copper, construction,
tourism


_#_Agriculture: one-third of GDP; livelihood for 85% of population;
fertile soils and favorable climate permits cultivating a wide variety of
crops; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels; other
products - tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry, pork;
net importer of food for urban centers


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $40.6
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $6.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $17 million


_#_Currency: kina (plural - kina); 1 kina (K) = 100 toea


_#_Exchange rates: kina (K) per US$1 - 1.0549 (January 1991), 1.0467
(1990), 1.1685 (1989), 1.1538 (1988), 1.1012 (1987), 1.0296 (1986),
1.0000 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 19,200 km total; 640 km paved, 10,960 km gravel, crushed
stone, or stabilized-soil surface, 7,600 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 10,940 km


_#_Ports: Anewa Bay, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul


_#_Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 26,711
GRT/34,682 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 combination
ore/oil, 2 bulk


_#_Civil air: about 15 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 567 total, 479 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
40 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: services are adequate and being improved;
facilities provide radiobroadcast, radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal
radio, aeronautical radio, and international radiocommunication services;
submarine cables extend to Australia and Guam; 51,700 telephones (1985);
stations - 31 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV (1987); 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force (including Army, Navy,
Air Force)


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 983,175; 546,824 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $42 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_Paracel Islands
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: undetermined


_#_Comparative area: undetermined


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 518 km


_#_Maritime claims: undetermined


_#_Disputes: occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam


_#_Climate: tropical


_#_Terrain: undetermined


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: subject to typhoons



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 57 of 89)