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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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_#_Note: located 400 km east of Vietnam in the South China Sea
about one-third of the way between Vietnam and the Philippines


_*_People
_#_Population: no permanent inhabitants


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and
Duncan Island currently under expansion


_#_Airports: 1 on Woody Island


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: occupied by China
_%_
[email protected]_Paraguay
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 406,750 km2; land area: 397,300 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than California


_#_Land boundaries: 3,920 km total; Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia
750 km, Brazil 1,290 km


_#_Coastline: none - landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked


_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Brazil (just west of
Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) has not been determined


_#_Climate: varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west


_#_Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay;
Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near
the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere


_#_Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, limestone, hydropower,
timber


_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 39%; forest and woodland 35%; other 5%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: local flooding in southeast (early September to June);
poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)


_#_Note: landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,798,739 (July 1991), growth rate 2.9% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Paraguayan(s); adjective - Paraguayan


_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo (Spanish and Indian) 95%, white and
Indian 5%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 90%; Mennonite and other Protestant
denominations


_#_Language: Spanish (official) and Guarani


_#_Literacy: 90% (male 92%, female 88%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,300,000; agriculture 44%, industry and commerce
34%, services 18%, government 4% (1986)


_#_Organized labor: about 2% of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Paraguay


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Asuncion


_#_Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos,
singular - departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay,
Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Chaco,
Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu,
Nueva Asuncion, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro


_#_Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution 25 August 1967


_#_Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French
codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice;
does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)


_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet),
Council of State


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso)
consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Senators (Camara de
Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justicia)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Gen. Andres
RODRIGUEZ Pedotti (since 15 May 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Colorado Party, Luis Maria ARGANA, acting president;
Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA), Juan Manuel BENITEZ Florentin;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge Dario CRISTALDO;
Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), Euclides ACEVEDO;
Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Hugo RICHER


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 and up to age 60


_#_Elections:

President - last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held February 1993);
results - Gen. RODRIGUEZ 75.8%, Domingo LAINO 19.4%;

Chamber of Senators - last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held by
May 1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (36 total) Colorado Party 24, PLRA 10, PLR 1, PRF 1;

Chamber of Deputies - last held on 1 May 1989 (next to be held by
May 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (72 total) Colorado Party 48, PLRA 19, PRF 2, PDC 1, PL 1, PLR 1


_#_Communists: Oscar Creydt faction and Miguel Angel SOLER faction
(both illegal); 3,000 to 4,000 (est.) party members and sympathizers in
Paraguay, very few are hard core; party beginning to return from exile is
small and deeply divided


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Confederation of Workers (CUT);
Roman Catholic Church


_#_Member of: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Marcos MARTINEZ MENDIETA;
Chancery at 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 483-6960 through 6962; there are Paraguayan Consulates General in
New Orleans and New York, and a Consulate in Houston;

US - Ambassador Jon GLASSMAN; Embassy at 1776 Avenida Mariscal
Lopez, Asuncion (mailing address is C. P. 402, Asuncion, or APO Miami
34036-0001); telephone [595] (21) 213-715


_#_Flag: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue
with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the
emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left)
bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a
green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within
two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the
treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y
Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL
PARAGUAY, all within two circles)


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is predominantly agricultural. Agriculture,
including forestry, accounts for about 25% of GNP, employs about 45% of
the labor force, and provides the bulk of exports. Paraguay has no known
significant mineral or petroleum resources but does have a large
hydropower potential. Since 1981 economic performance has declined
compared with the boom period of 1976-81, when real GDP grew at an
average annual rate of nearly 11%. During 1982-86 real GDP fell in three
of five years, inflation jumped to an annual rate of 32%, and
foreign debt rose. Factors responsible for the erratic behavior of the
economy were the completion of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam, bad weather
for crops, and weak international commodity prices for agricultural
exports. In 1987 the economy experienced a minor recovery because of
improved weather conditions and stronger international prices for key
agricultural exports. The recovery continued through 1990, on the
strength of bumper crops in 1988-89. The government, however, must
follow through on promises of reforms needed to deal with escalating
inflation, large fiscal deficits, growing debt arrearages, and falling
reserves.


_#_GDP: $4.6 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate 3.5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 44% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 12% (1989 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $487 million (1991)


_#_Exports: $980 million (registered f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - cotton, soybean, timber, vegetable oils, coffee,
tung oil, meat products;

partners - EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%


_#_Imports: $1.4 billion (registered c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - capital goods 35%, consumer goods 20%, fuels and
lubricants 19%, raw materials 16%, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco
10%;

partners - Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%


_#_External debt: $1.7 billion (1989 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.9% (1989 est.); accounts
for 16% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 5,169,000 kW capacity; 15,144 million kWh produced,
3,250 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing,
textiles, other light consumer goods, cement, construction


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and 44% of labor force; cash
crops - cotton, sugarcane; other crops - corn, wheat, tobacco, soybeans,
cassava, fruits, and vegetables; animal products - beef, pork, eggs,
milk; surplus producer of timber; self-sufficient in most foods


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade; important transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed
for the US and Europe


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $172
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.05 billion


_#_Currency: guarani (plural - guaranies);
1 guarani (0) = 100 centimos


_#_Exchange rates: guaranies (0) per US$1 - 1,204.5 (October 1989),
1,056.2 (1989), 550.00 (fixed rate 1986-February 1989), 339.17 (1986),
306.67 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 970 km total; 440 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 60 km
1.000-meter gauge, 470 km various narrow gauge (privately owned)


_#_Highways: 21,960 km total; 1,788 km paved, 474 km gravel, and
19,698 km earth


_#_Inland waterways: 3,100 km


_#_Ports: Asuncion


_#_Merchant marine: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,743
GRT/22,954 DWT; includes 12 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker; note - 1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used commercially


_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 851 total, 738 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 60 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: principal center in Asuncion; fair intercity
microwave net; 78,300 telephones; stations - 40 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 7
shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Naval Air and Marines), Air Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,130,690; 823,136 fit for
military service; 51,415 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $84 million, 1.4% of GDP (1988 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_Peru
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,285,220 km2; land area: 1,280,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Alaska


_#_Land boundaries: 6,940 km total; Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km,
Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km


_#_Coastline: 2,414 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Disputes: two sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute


_#_Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west


_#_Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in
center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)


_#_Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber,
fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash


_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 21%; forest and woodland 55%; other 21%; includes irrigated
1%


_#_Environment: subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild
volcanic activity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification; air pollution in Lima


_#_Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable
lake, with Bolivia


_*_People
_#_Population: 22,361,785 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Peruvian(s); adjective - Peruvian


_#_Ethnic divisions: Indian 45%; mestizo (mixed Indian and European
ancestry) 37%; white 15%; black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%


_#_Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic


_#_Language: Spanish and Quechua (both official), Aymara


_#_Literacy: 85% (male 92%, female 29%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 6,800,000 (1986); government and other services 44%,
agriculture 37%, industry 19% (1988 est.)


_#_Organized labor: about 40% of salaried workers (1983 est.)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Peru


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Lima


_#_Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos,
singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province*
(provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa,
Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica,
Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios,
Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali;
note - the 1979 Constitution and legislation enacted from 1987 to
1990 mandate the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region)
intended to function eventually as autonomous economic and
administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted
from 23 existing departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres
Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from
Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca
(from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad),
Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui
(from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from
Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin),
Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by
the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the
department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central
government, the regions have yet to assume their reponsibilities and at
the moment co-exist with the departmental structure


_#_Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)


_#_Constitution: 28 July 1980 (often referred to as the 1979
Constitution because the Constituent Assembly met in 1979, but the
Constitution actually took effect the following year); reestablished
civilian government with a popularly elected president and bicameral
legislature


_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)


_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an
upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies (Camara de Diputados)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justicia)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Alberto FUJIMORI (since 28 July 1990);
Vice President Maximo SAN ROMAN (since 28 July 1990);
Vice President Carlos GARCIA (since 28 July 1990);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Carlos TORRES Y TORRES Lara
(since 15 February 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Change 90 (Cambio 90), Alberto FUJIMORI;
Democratic Front (FREDEMO), a loosely organized three-party
coalition - Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes;
Popular Action Party (AP), Fernando BELAUNDE Terry;
and Liberty Movement;
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Luis ALVA Castro;
National Front of Workers and Peasants (FRENATRACA), Roger CACERES;
United Left (IU), run by committee;
Socialist Left (IS), Enrique BERNALES


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held April 1995);
results - Alberto FUJIMORI 56.53%, Mario VARGAS Llosa 33.92%, other
9.55%;

Senate - last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be held April 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (60 total) FREDEMO 20, APRA 16, Change 90 14, IU 6, IS 3,
FRENATRACA 1;


Chamber of Deputies - last held 8 April 1990 (next to be held April
1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (180 total) FREDEMO 62, APRA 53, Change 90 32, IU 16, IS 4,
FRENATRACA 3, other 10


_#_Communists: Peruvian Communist Party-Unity (PCP-U), pro-Soviet,
2,000; other minor Communist parties


_#_Other political or pressure groups:

leftist guerrilla groups - Shining Path, leader Abimael GUZMAN;
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Nestor CERPA and Victor POLLAY


_#_Member of: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roberto G. MACLEAN; Chancery
at 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
833-9860 through 9869); Peruvian Consulates General are located in
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey),
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico);

US - Ambassador Anthony C.E. QUAINTON; Embassy at the corner of
Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima (mailing
address is P. O. Box 1995, Lima 100, or APO Miami 34031); telephone
[51] (14) 338-000


_#_Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and
red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine),
and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green
wreath


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Peruvian economy is basically capitalistic, with a
large dose of government welfare programs and government management of
credit. In the 1980s the economy suffered from hyperinflation,
declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut
off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its
huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the
Fujimori government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third
consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but was able to
generate a small recovery in the last quarter. After a burst of
inflation as the program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly
price increases eased to the single-digit level for the first time
since mid-1988. Lima has restarted current payments to multilateral
lenders and, although it faces $14 billion in arrears on its external
debt, is working toward an accommodation with its creditors.


_#_GDP: $19.3 billion, per capita $898; real growth rate - 3.9%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7,650% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 20.0%; underemployment estimated at 60% (1989)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $2.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $3.01 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - fishmeal, cotton, sugar, coffee, copper, iron ore,
refined silver, lead, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts;

partners - EC 22%, US 20%, Japan 11%, Latin America 8%, USSR 4%


_#_Imports: $2.78 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - foodstuffs, machinery, transport equipment, iron and
steel semimanufactures, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;

partners - US 23%, Latin America 16%, EC 12%, Japan 7%,
Switzerland 3%


_#_External debt: $20.0 billion (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 21% (1989); accounts
for almost 25% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 4,867,000 kW capacity; 15,540 million kWh produced,
710 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles,
clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding,
metal fabrication


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP, 37% of labor force;
commercial crops - coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice, wheat,
potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products - poultry, red meats, dairy,
wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of
4.6 million metric tons (1987), world's fifth-largest


_#_Illicit drugs: world's largest coca leaf producer with about
121,000 hectares under cultivation; source of supply for most of the
world's coca paste and cocaine base; about 85% of cultivation is for
illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug
dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.95 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $577 million


_#_Currency: inti (plural - intis); 1 inti (I/) = 1,000 soles


_#_Exchange rates: intis (I/) per US$1 - 530,000 (January 1991),
187,886 (1990), 2,666 (1989), 128.83 (1988), 16.84 (1987), 13.95 (1986),
10.97 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,884 km total; 1,584 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
300 km 0.914-meter gauge


_#_Highways: 56,645 km total; 6,030 km paved, 11,865 km gravel,
14,610 km improved earth, 24,140 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon
system and 208 km Lago Titicaca


_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids,
64 km


_#_Ports: Callao, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Talara


_#_Merchant marine: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 321,541
GRT/516,859 DWT; includes 16 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
8 bulk; note - in addition, 8 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are
sometimes used commercially


_#_Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 222 total, 205 usable; 36 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 24 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 42 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fairly adequate for most requirements;
nationwide radio relay system; 544,000 telephones; stations - 273 AM, no
FM, 140 TV, 144 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations, 12
domestic antennas


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del
Peru), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), Peruvian National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,704,684; 3,859,123 fit for
military service; 241,792 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $430 million, 2.4% of GDP (1991)
_%_
[email protected]_Philippines
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 300,000 km2; land area: 298,170 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 36,289 km


_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from
coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed
polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth


_#_Disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands
with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; claims Malaysian state of
Sabah


_#_Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April);
southwest monsoon (May to October)


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands


_#_Natural resources: timber, crude oil, nickel, cobalt, silver,
gold, salt, copper


_#_Land use: arable land 26%; permanent crops 11%; meadows and
pastures 4%; forest and woodland 40%; other 19%; includes irrigated
5%


_#_Environment: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and
struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides,
active volcanoes, destructive earthquakes, tsunami; deforestation; soil
erosion; water pollution


_*_People
_#_Population: 65,758,788 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1991)





Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 58 of 89)