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_#_Nationality: noun - Filipino(s); adjective - Philippine


_#_Ethnic divisions: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese
1.5%, other 3%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%,
Buddhist and other 3%


_#_Language: Pilipino (based on Tagalog) and English; both official


_#_Literacy: 90% (male 90%, female 90%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 24,120,000; agriculture 46%, industry and commerce
16%, services 18.5%, government 10%, other 9.5% (1989)


_#_Organized labor: 3,945 registered unions; total membership
5.7 million (includes 2.8 million members of the National Congress of
Farmers Organizations)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Philippines


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Manila


_#_Administrative divisions: 73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*;
Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique,
Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan,
Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan,
Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*,
Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz,
Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*,
Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental,
Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao,
Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela,
Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur,
Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*,
Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro
Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental,
Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato,
Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*,
Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan,
Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon,
Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in
Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South
Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del
Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*,
Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*,
Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur


_#_Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)


_#_Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987


_#_Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Kongreso) consists of
an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Corazon C. AQUINO
(since 25 February 1986); Vice President Salvador H. LAUREL (since
25 February 1986)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
PDP-Laban, Aquilino PIMENTEL;
Struggle of Philippine Democrats (LDP), Neptali GONZALES;
Nacionalista Party, Salvador LAUREL, Juan Ponce ENRILE;
Liberal Party, Jovito SALONGA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 15


_#_Elections:

President - last held 7 February 1986 (next election to be
held May 1992); results - Corazon C. AQUINO elected, precipitating the
fall of the MARCOS regime;

Senate - last held 11 May 1987 (next to be held May 1992);
results - pro-Aquino LDP 63%,
liberal LDP and PDP-Laban (Pimentel wing) 25%,
opposition Nationalista Party 4%,
independent 8%;
seats - (24 total) pro-Aquino LDP 15, liberal
LDP-Laban (Pimentel wing) 6, opposition Nationalista Party
1, independent 2;

House of Representatives - last held on 11 May 1987 (next to be
held May 1992);
results - pro-Aquino LDP 73%, liberal LDP and PDP-Laban
(Pimentel wing) 10%, opposition Nationalista Party 17%;
seats - (250 total, 180 elected) number of seats by party NA


_#_Communists: the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) controls
about 18,000-23,000 full-time insurgents and is not recognized as a legal
party; a second Communist party, the pro-Soviet Philippine Communist
Party (PKP), has quasi-legal status


_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Emmanuel PELAEZ; Chancery at
1617 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
483-1414; there are Philippine Consulates General in Agana (Guam),
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and
Seattle;

US - Ambassador Nicholas PLATT; Embassy at 1201 Roxas Boulevard,
Manila (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96528); telephone [63] (32)
211-101 through 3; there is a US Consulate in Cebu


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white
equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the
triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three
individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow
five-pointed star


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy continues to recover from the political
turmoil following the ouster of former President Marcos and several coup
attempts. After two consecutive years of economic contraction (1984 and
1985), the economy has since 1986 had positive growth, although in 1990
the economy slowed considerably from 1989. The agricultural sector
together with forestry and fishing, plays an important role in the
economy, employing about 45% of the work force and providing almost
30% of GDP. The Philippines is the world's largest exporter of coconuts
and coconut products. Manufacturing contributes about 25% of GDP. Major
industries include food processing, chemicals, and textiles.


_#_GNP: $45.2 billion, per capita $700; real growth rate 2.5%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.7% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 9.3% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: $7.2 billion; expenditures $8.12 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.97 billion (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: revenues $8.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - electrical equipment 19%, textiles 16%, minerals
and ores 11%, farm products 10%, coconut 10%, chemicals 5%, fish 5%,
forest products 4%;

partners - US 36%, EC 19%, Japan 18%, ESCAP 9%, ASEAN 7%


_#_Imports: $12.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - raw materials 53%, capital goods 17%, petroleum
products 17%;

partners - US 25%, Japan 17%, ESCAP 13%, EC 11%, ASEAN 10%,
Middle East 10%


_#_External debt: $28.4 billion (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.9% (1990 est.); accounts
for 30-35% of GNP


_#_Electricity: 6,755,000 kW capacity; 28,000 million kWh produced,
420 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products,
food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for about one-third of GNP and 45% of labor
force; major crops - rice, coconut, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple,
mango; animal products - pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products;
fish catch of 2 million metric tons annually


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade; growers are producing more and better quality cannabis
despite government eradication efforts


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.6
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $6.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million;
Communist countries (1975-89), $123 million


_#_Currency: Philippine peso (plural - pesos);
1 Philippine peso (1) = 100 centavos


_#_Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (1) per US$1 - 28.055 (January
1991), 24.311 (1990), 21.737 (1989), 21.095 (1988), 20.568 (1987),
20.386 (1986), 18.607 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 378 km operable on Luzon, 34% government owned (1982)


_#_Highways: 156,000 km total (1984); 29,000 km paved; 77,000 km
gravel, crushed-stone, or stabilized-soil surface; 50,000 km unimproved
earth


_#_Inland waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than
1.5 m) vessels


_#_Pipelines: refined products, 357 km


_#_Ports: Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iloilo, Legaspi,
Manila, Subic Bay


_#_Merchant marine: 569 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,429,829
GRT/15,171,692 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 9 short-sea passenger,
17 passenger-cargo, 163 cargo, 18 refrigerated cargo, 24 vehicle carrier,
8 livestock carrier, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 41
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 7
liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 252 bulk, 7 combination bulk;
note - many Philippine flag ships are foreign owned and are on the
register for the purpose of long-term bare-boat charter back to their
original owners who are principally in Japan and Germany


_#_Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 280 total, 235 usable; 71 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
50 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: good international radio and submarine cable
services; domestic and interisland service adequate; 872,900 telephones;
stations - 267 AM (including 6 US), 55 FM, 33 TV (including 4 US);
submarine cables extended to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and
Japan; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT, and 11 domestic


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Coast Guard), Marine Corps, Air
Force, Constabulary


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 16,254,775; 11,491,155 fit for
military service; 715,462 reach military age (20) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 2% of GNP (1990)
_%_
[email protected]_Pitcairn Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 47 km2; land area: 47 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 51 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm


_#_Climate: tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds;
rainy season (November to March)


_#_Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs


_#_Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish


_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%


_#_Environment: subject to typhoons (especially November to March)


_#_Note: located in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between
Peru and New Zealand


_*_People
_#_Population: 56 (July 1991), growth rate 0.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Pitcairn Islander(s); adjective - Pitcairn
Islander


_#_Ethnic divisions: descendants of Bounty mutineers


_#_Religion: Seventh-Day Adventist 100%


_#_Language: English (official); also a Tahitian/English dialect


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA; no business community in the usual sense; some
public works; subsistence farming and fishing


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: Adamstown


_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Constitution: Local Government Ordinance of 1964


_#_Legal system: local island by-laws


_#_National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, island magistrate


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Island Council


_#_Judicial branch: Island Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Governor and UK High Commissioner to New Zealand
David Joseph MOSS (since NA 1990);

Head of Government - Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island
Council Brian YOUNG (since NA 1985)


_#_Political parties and leaders: NA


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18 with three years residency


_#_Elections:

Island Council - last held NA (next to be held NA);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (11 total, 5 elected) number of seats by party NA


_#_Communists: none


_#_Other political or pressure groups: NA


_#_Member of: SPC


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield
featuring a yellow anchor


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming.
The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and
vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and
beans. Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major sources
of revenue are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of
handicrafts to passing ships.


_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $430,440; expenditures $429,983, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY87 est.)


_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities - fruits, vegetables, curios;

partners - NA


_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities - fuel oil, machinery, building materials,
flour, sugar, other foodstuffs;

partners - NA


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 110 kW capacity; 0.30 million kWh produced,
5,360 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: postage stamp sales, handicrafts


_#_Agriculture: based on subsistence fishing and farming; wide variety
of fruits and vegetables grown; must import grain products


_#_Economic aid: none


_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.6798
(January 1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6866
(1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: none


_#_Highways: 6.4 km dirt roads


_#_Ports: Bounty Bay


_#_Airports: none


_#_Telecommunications: 24 telephones; party line telephone service
on the island; stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; diesel generator provides
electricity


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
[email protected]_Poland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 312,680 km2; land area: 304,510 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Mexico


_#_Land boundaries: 2,980 km total; Czechoslovakia 1,309 km,
Germany 456 km, USSR 1,215 km


_#_Coastline: 491 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters
with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and
thundershowers


_#_Terrain: mostly flat plain, mountains along southern border


_#_Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver,
lead, salt


_#_Land use: arable land 46%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 13%; forest and woodland 28%; other 12%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: plain crossed by a few north-flowing, meandering
streams; severe air and water pollution in south


_#_Note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain
and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain


_*_People
_#_Population: 37,799,638 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 77 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Pole(s); adjective - Polish


_#_Ethnic divisions: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%,
Belorussian (Byelorussian) 0.5% (1990 est.)


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing),
Russian Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%


_#_Language: Polish


_#_Literacy: 98% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1978)


_#_Labor force: 17,104,000; industry and construction 36.1%;
agriculture 27.3%; trade, transport, and communications 14.8%; government
and other 21.8% (1989)


_#_Organized labor: trade union pluralism


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Poland


_#_Type: democratic state


_#_Capital: Warsaw


_#_Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa,
singular - wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko,
Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk,
Gorzow, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin,
Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin,
Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow,
Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz,
Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow,
Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc,
Zielona Gora


_#_Independence: 11 November 1918, independent republic proclaimed


_#_Constitution: the Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952
will probably be replaced by a democratic Constitution in 1992


_#_Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and
Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1794)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie
Narodowe) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house
or Diet (Sejm)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Lech WALESA (since 22 December
1990);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Jan Krzysztof BIELECKI (since
4 January 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
center-right agrarian parties - Polish Peasant Party (PSL), Roman
BARTOSZCZE, chairman;
Polish Peasant Party-Solidarity, Gabriel JANOWSKI, chairman;

other center-right parties - Center Alliance, Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI,
chairman;
Christian National Union, Wieslaw CHRZANOWSKI, chairman;
Christian Democratic Labor Party, Wladyslaw SILA-NOWICKI, chairman;
Democratic Party, Jerzy JOZWIAK, chairman;

center-left parties - Polish Socialist Party, Jan Jozef LIPSKI,
chairman;
Democratic Union, Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI, chairman;
ROAD, Wladyslaw FRASYNIUK and Zbigniew BUJAK, chairmen;

left-wing parties - Polish Socialist Party-Democratic Revolution,
Piotr IKONOWICZ;

other - Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (formerly the
Communist party or Polish United Workers' Party/PZPR), Aleksander
KWASNIEWSKI, chairman;
Union of the Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (breakaway
faction of the PZPR), Tadeusz FISZBACH, chairman


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - first round held 25 November 1990, second round
held 9 December 1990 (next to be held November 1995);
results - second round Lech WALESA 74.7%, Stanislaw TYMINSKI 25.3%;

Senate - last held 4 and 18 June 1989 (next to be held late
1991);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (100 total) Solidarity 99, independent 1;

Diet - last held 4 and 18 June 1989 (next to be held late 1991);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (460 total) Communists 173, Solidarity 161, Polish Peasant
Party 76, Democratic Party 27, Christian National Union 23; note - rules
governing the election limited Solidarity's share of the vote to 35%
of the seats; future elections, which will probably be held before
late 1991, are to be freely contested


_#_Communists: 70,000 members in the Communist successor parties
(1990)


_#_Other political or pressure groups: powerful Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), a nationalist group;
Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade Union Alliance (OPZZ),
populist program; Clubs of Catholic Intellectuals (KIKs); Freedom and
Peace (WiP), a pacifist group; Independent Student Union (NZS)


_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CERN (observer, but scheduled to become
a member l July 1991), CSCE, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDOF, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Kazimierz DZIEWANOWSKI;
Chancery at 2640 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009;
telephone (202) 234-3800 through 3802; there are Polish Consulates
General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York;

US - Ambassador Thomas W. SIMONS, Jr.; Embassy at Aleje
Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw (mailing address is American Embassy Warsaw,
c/o American Consulate General (WAW) or APO New York 09213-5010);
telephone [48] (22) 283041 through 283049; there is a US Consulate
General in Krakow and a Consulate in Poznan


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red - a crowned
eagle is to be added; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which
are red (top) and white


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, except for the agricultural sector, had
followed the Soviet model of state ownership and control of
productive assets. About 75% of agricultural production had come from the
private sector and the rest from state farms. The economy has presented a
picture of moderate but slowing growth against a background of underlying
weaknesses in technology and worker motivation. GNP dropped by 2.0% in
1989 and by a further 8.9% in 1990. The inflation rate, after falling
sharply from the 1982 peak of 100% to 22% in 1986, rose to a galloping
rate of 640% in 1989 and dropped back to 250% in 1990. Shortages of
consumer goods and some food items worsened in 1988-89. Agricultural
products and coal are among the biggest hard currency earners, but
manufactures are increasing in importance. Poland, with its hard currency
debt of $48.5 billion, is severely limited in its ability to import
much-needed hard currency goods. The sweeping political changes of 1989
disrupted normal economic channels and exacerbated shortages. In January
1990, the new Solidarity-led government adopted a cold turkey program for
transforming Poland to a market economy. The government moved to
eliminate subsidies, free prices, make the zloty convertible, and,
in general, halt the hyperinflation. These financial measures were
accompanied by plans to privatize the economy in stages. While inflation
fell to an annual rate of 77.5% by November of 1990, the rise in
unemployment and the drop in living standards have led to growing popular
discontent and to a change of government in January 1991. The new
government is continuing the previous government's economic
program, while trying to speed privatization and to better cushion the
populace from the dislocations associated with reform. Substantial
outside aid will be needed if Poland is to make a successful transition
in the 1990s.


_#_GNP: $158.5 billion, per capita $4,200; real growth rate - 8.9%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 250% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 6.1% (end-December 1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $23.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.8 billion (1989)


_#_Exports: $12.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - machinery and equipment 38%; fuels, minerals, and
metals 21%; manufactured consumer goods 15%; agricultural and forestry



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 59 of 89)