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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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products 4% (1989);

partners - USSR 25%, FRG 14%, UK 6.5%, Czechoslovakia 5.5% (1989)

_#_Imports: $12.8 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - machinery and equipment 37%; fuels, minerals, and
metals 31%; manufactured consumer goods 17%; agricultural and forestry
products 5% (1989);

partners - USSR 18%, FRG 16%, Austria 6%, Czechoslovakia 6% (1989)

_#_External debt: $48.5 billion (January 1991)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 23% (State sector 1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 31,530,000 kW capacity; 136,300 million kWh produced,
3,610 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive
industries, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages,

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 27% of labor force; 75% of
output from private farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains
low by European standards; leading European producer of rye, rapeseed,
and potatoes; wide variety of other crops and livestock; major exporter
of pork products; normally self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: donor - bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries, $2.2 billion (1954-89)

_#_Currency: zloty (plural - zlotych); 1 zloty (Zl) =
100 groszy

_#_Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 11,100.00 (May 1991),
9,500 (1990), 1,439.18 (1989), 430.55 (1988), 265.08 (1987), 175.29
(1986), 147.14 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 27,041 km total; 24,287 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
397 km 1.520-meter broad gauge, 2,357 km narrow gauge; 8,987 km double
track; 11,016 km electrified; government owned (1989)

_#_Highways: 299,887 km total; 130,000 km improved hard surface
(concrete, asphalt, stone block); 24,000 km unimproved hard surface
(crushed stone, gravel); 100,000 km earth; 45,887 km other urban roads

_#_Inland waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1989)

_#_Pipelines: 4,500 km for natural gas; 1,986 km for crude oil;
360 km for refined products (1987)

_#_Ports: Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Swinoujscie; principal
inland ports are Gliwice on Kanal Gliwice, Wroclaw on the Oder, and
Warsaw on the Vistula

_#_Merchant marine: 235 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,957,600
GRT/4,163,820 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 92 cargo, 3
refrigerated cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 container, 3 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 107 bulk; Poland
owns 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) of 6,333 DWT operating under Liberian

_#_Civil air: 48 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 160 total, 160 usable; 85 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runway over 3,659 m; 35 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 65 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: phone density is 10.5 phones per 100 residents
(October 1990); 3.1 million subscribers; exchanges are 86% automatic
(February 1990); stations - 29 AM, 29 FM, 37 (5 Soviet relays) TV;
9.6 million TVs

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: External Front Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense
Forces, Internal Defense Forces (WOW), Territorial Defense Forces (JOT),
Border Guards (WOP), Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense (OC)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 9,571,708; 7,543,565 fit for
military service; 302,000 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 22.3 trillion zlotych, NA% of GDP (1991);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
[email protected]_Portugal
_#_Total area: 92,080 km2; land area: 91,640 km2; includes Azores and
Madeira Islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

_#_Land boundary: 1,214 km with Spain

_#_Coastline: 1,793 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province)
disputed with Indonesia

_#_Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and
drier in south

_#_Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

_#_Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore,
uranium ore, marble

_#_Land use: arable land 32%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland 40%; other 16%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

_#_Note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations
along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

_#_Population: 10,387,617 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Portuguese (sing. and pl.);
adjective - Portuguese

_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland,
Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated
to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%,
other 2%

_#_Language: Portuguese

_#_Literacy: 85% (male 89%, female 82%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,605,700; services 45%, industry 35%, agriculture
20% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: about 55% of the labor force; the
Communist-dominated General Confederation of Portuguese
Workers - Intersindical (CGTP-IN) represents more than half of the
unionized labor force; its main competition, the General Workers Union
(UGT), is organized by the Socialists and Social Democrats and represents
less than half of unionized labor

_#_Long-form name: Portuguese Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Lisbon

_#_Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos,
singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas,
singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga,
Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria,
Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal,
Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

_#_Dependent area: Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative
Region of China in 1999)

_#_Independence: 1140; independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910

_#_Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982 and
1 June 1989

_#_Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews
the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of State, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic
(Assembleia da Republica)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de


Chief of State - President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES
(since 9 March 1986);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6
November 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Anibal CAVACO Silva;
Portuguese Socialist Party (PS), Jorge SAMPAIO;
Party of Democratic Renewal (PRD), Herminio MARTINHO;
Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), Alvaro CUNHAL;
Social Democratic Center (CDS), Andriano MORREIRA (interim);
National Solidarity Party, Manuel SERGIO

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 13 February 1991 (next to be held February
results - Dr. Mario Lopes SOARES 70%, Basilio HORTA 14%, Carlos

Assembly of the Republic - last held 6 October 1991
(next to be held October 1995);
results - Social Democrats 50.4%,
Socialists 29.3%,
United Democratic Coalition (CDU; Communists) 8.8%,
Christian Democrats 4.4%,
National Solidarity Party 1.7%,
Democratic Renewal 0.6%, other 4.8%;
seats - (230 total) Social Democrats 132, Socialists 70, United
Democratic Coalition (CDU; Communists) 17,
Christian Democrats 5,
National Solidarity Party 1; after absentee ballots counted five
seats to be allocated

_#_Communists: Portuguese Communist Party claims membership of 200,753
(December 1983)

LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, OAS (observer),

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Joao Eduardo M. PEREIRA
BASTOS; Chancery at 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 328-8610; there are Portuguese Consulates General in
Boston, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Los Angeles,
Newark (New Jersey), New Bedford (Massachusetts), and Providence (Rhode

US - Ambassador Everett E. BRIGGS; Embassy at Avenida das Forcas
Armadas, 1600 Lisbon (mailing address is APO New York 09678-0002);
telephone [351] (1) 726-6600 or 6659, 8670, 8880; there is a US
Consulate in Ponta Delgada (Azores)

_#_Flag: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red
(three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing

_#_Overview: During the past four years, the economy has made a
sustained recovery from the severe recession of 1983-85. The economy
grew by 14% during the 1987-89 period, largely because of strong
domestic consumption and investment spending. Unemployment has
declined for the third consecutive year, but inflation continues to be
about three times the European Community average. The government is
pushing economic restructuring and privatization measures in anticipation
of the 1992 European Community timetable to form a single large market in

_#_GDP: $57.8 billion, per capita $5,580; real growth rate 3.5%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.4% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.5% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $21.6 billion; expenditures $23.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $6.9 billion (1990)

_#_Exports: $16.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - cotton textiles, cork and cork products, canned fish,
wine, timber and timber products, resin, machinery, appliances;

partners - EC 72%, other developed countries 13%, US 5%

_#_Imports: $24.9 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - petroleum, cotton, foodgrains, industrial machinery,
iron and steel, chemicals;

partners - EC 69%, other developed countries 11%,
less developed countries 13%, US 4%

_#_External debt: $18.4 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1989); accounts for
40% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 6,729,000 kW capacity; 16,000 million kWh produced,
1,530 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork;
metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 9% of GDP and 20% of labor force; small
inefficient farms; imports more than half of food needs; major
crops - grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; livestock sector - sheep, cattle,
goats, poultry, meat, dairy products

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.8
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.13 billion

_#_Currency: Portuguese escudo (plural - escudos);
1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 134.46 (January
1991), 142.55 (1990), 157.46 (1989), 143.95 (1988), 140.88 (1987), 149.59
(1986), 170.39 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 3,613 km total; state-owned Portuguese Railroad Co. (CP)
operates 2,858 km 1.665-meter gauge (434 km electrified and 426 km double
track), 755 km 1.000-meter gauge; 12 km (1.435-meter gauge) electrified,
double track, privately owned

_#_Highways: 73,661 km total; 61,599 km paved (bituminous, gravel, and
crushed stone), including 140 km of limited-access divided highway;
7,962 km improved earth; 4,100 km unimproved earth (motorable tracks)

_#_Inland waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to
national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton
cargo capacity

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 11 km; refined products, 58 km

_#_Ports: Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Velas
(Azores), Setubal, Sines

_#_Merchant marine: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 684,350
GRT/1,190,454 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 20 cargo,
2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
12 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 10 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note - Portugal has created
a captive register on Madeira (MAR) for Portuguese-owned ships that will
have the taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience;
although only one ship currently is known to fly the Portuguese flag on
the MAR register, it is likely that a majority of Portuguese flag ships
will transfer to this subregister in a few years

_#_Civil air: 29 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 69 total, 63 usable; 36 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: facilities are generally adequate; 2,690,000
telephones; stations - 57 AM, 66 (22 relays) FM, 25 (23 relays) TV;
7 submarine cables; communication satellite ground stations operating in
the INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and
domestic systems (mainland and Azores)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National
Republican Guard, Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,621,116; 2,131,628 fit for
military service; 88,718 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.6 billion, 3% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_Puerto Rico
(commonwealth associated with the US)
_#_Total area: 9,104 km2; land area: 8,959 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 501 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north;
mountains precipitous to sea on west coast

_#_Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore
and offshore crude oil

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and pastures
41%; forest and woodland 20%; other 22%

_#_Environment: many small rivers and high central mountains ensure
land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain
belt in north

_#_Note: important location between the Dominican Republic and the
Virgin Islands group along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the
Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in
the Caribbean

_#_Population: 3,294,997 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 16 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Puerto Rican(s); adjective - Puerto Rican

_#_Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Hispanic

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other

_#_Language: Spanish (official); English is widely understood

_#_Literacy: 89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 1,068,000; government 28%, manufacturing 15%,
trade 14%, agriculture 3%, other 40% (1990)

_#_Organized labor: 115,000 members in 4 unions; the largest is the
General Confederation of Puerto Rican Workers with 35,000 members (1983)

_#_Long-form name: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

_#_Type: commonwealth associated with the US

_#_Capital: San Juan

_#_Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with
the US)

_#_Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

_#_Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3
July 1952; effective 25 July 1952

_#_National holiday: Constitution Day, 25 July (1952)

_#_Legal system: based on Spanish civil code

_#_Executive branch: US president, US vice president, governor

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President George BUSH (since 20 January
1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government Governor Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon (since 2
January 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Popular Democratic Party (PPD), Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon;
New Progressive Party (PNP), Carlos ROMERO Barcelo;
Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP), Juan MARI Bras and Carlos
Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP), Ruben BERRIOS Martinez;
Puerto Rican Communist Party (PCP), leader(s) unknown

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections


Governor - last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November
results - Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon (PPD) 48.7%, Baltasar CORRADA Del Rio
(PNP) 45.8%, Ruben BERRIOS Martinez (PIP) 5.5%;

Senate - last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (27 total) PPD 18, PNP 8, PIP 1;

House of Representatives - last held 8 November 1988 (next to be
held 3 November 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (53 total) PPD 36, PNP 15, PIP 2;

US House of Representatives - last held 8 November 1988 (next to be
held 3 November 1992); results - Puerto Rico elects one nonvoting

_#_Other political or pressure groups: all have engaged in terrorist
activities - Armed Forces for National Liberation (FALN), Volunteers of
the Puerto Rican Revolution, Boricua Popular Army (also known as the
Macheteros), Armed Forces of Popular Resistance

_#_Member of: ECLAC, ICFTU, IOC, WCL, WFTU, WTO (associate)

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (commonwealth associated with the

_#_Flag: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bears a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the
US flag

_#_Overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the
Caribbean region. Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary
sector of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free
access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily
in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. Important new industries include
pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles, petrochemicals, and processed
foods. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other
livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural
sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income
for the island. The economy is slowly recovering from the disruptions
caused by Hurricane Hugo in September 1989. The tourism infrastructure
was especially hard hit.

_#_GNP: $20.1 billion, per capita $6,100; real growth rate 3.6% (FY89)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.3% (October 1989-90)

_#_Unemployment rate: 14.9% (October 1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $5.5 billion; expenditures $5.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (FY89)

_#_Exports: $16.4 billion (f.o.b., FY89);

commodities - pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna,
rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment, instruments;

partners - US 87%

_#_Imports: $14.0 billion (c.i.f., FY89);

commodities - chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products;

partners - US 60%

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.6% (FY89)

_#_Electricity: 4,149,000 kW capacity; 14,844 million kWh produced,
4,510 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, electronics,
apparel, food products, instruments; tourism

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 3% of labor force; crops - sugarcane,
coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock - cattle, chickens;
imports a large share of food needs

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Railroads: 100 km rural narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane;
no passenger railroads

_#_Highways: 13,762 km paved

_#_Ports: San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez, Arecibo

_#_Airports: 33 total; 23 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 900,000 or 99% of total households with TV;
1,067,787 telephones (1988); stations - 50 AM, 63 FM, 9 TV (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: paramilitary National Guard, Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 830,133; NA fit for military

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
[email protected]_Qatar
_#_Total area: 11,000 km2; land area: 11,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: 60 km total; Saudi Arabia 40 km, UAE 20 km

_#_Coastline: 563 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: boundary with UAE is in dispute; territorial dispute with
Bahrain over the Hawar Islands

_#_Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

_#_Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, fish

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 0%; other 95%

_#_Environment: haze, duststorms, sandstorms common; limited
freshwater resources mean increasing dependence on large-scale
desalination facilities

_#_Note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near
major crude oil sources

_#_Population: 518,478 (July 1991), growth rate 5.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 35 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Qatari(s); adjective - Qatari

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%,
other 14%

_#_Religion: Muslim 95%

_#_Language: Arabic (official); English is commonly used as second

_#_Literacy: 76% (male 77%, female 72%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1986)

_#_Labor force: 104,000; 85% non-Qatari in private sector (1983)

_#_Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

_#_Long-form name: State of Qatar

_#_Type: traditional monarchy

_#_Capital: Doha

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970

_#_Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir,
although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in
personal matters

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

_#_Executive branch: amir, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal


Chief of State and Head of Government - Amir and Prime Minister

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