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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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Khalifa bin Hamad Al THANI (since 22 February 1972); Heir Apparent Hamad
bin Khalifa AL THANI (appointed 31 May 1977; son of Amir)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: none


Advisory Council - constitution calls for elections for part
of this consultative body, but no elections have been held;
seats - (30 total)

_#_Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hamad Abd al-Aziz
AL-KAWARI, Chancery at Suite 1180, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-0111;

US - Ambassador Mark G. HAMBLEY; Embassy at 149 Ali Bin Ahmed St.,
Farig Bin Omran (opposite the television station), Doha (mailing address
is P. O. Box 2399, Doha); telephone [0974] 864701 through 864703

_#_Flag: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points)
on the hoist side

_#_Overview: Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for more
than 85% of export earnings and roughly 75% of government revenues.
Proved oil reserves of 3.3 billion barrels should ensure continued output
at current levels for about 25 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita
GDP of about $12,500, among the highest in the world outside the OECD

_#_GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $12,500 (1989 est.); real growth
rate 5.0% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.9% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $3.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $400 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - petroleum products 85%, steel, fertilizers;

partners - Japan, Italy, Thailand, Singapore

_#_Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.), excluding military

commodities - foodstuffs, beverages, animal and vegetable oils,
chemicals, machinery and equipment;

partners - Japan, UK, US, Italy

_#_External debt: $1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.6% (1987); accounts
for 64% of GDP, including oil

_#_Electricity: 1,514,000 kW capacity; 4,000 million kWh produced,
8,540 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers,
petrochemicals, steel, cement

_#_Agriculture: farming and grazing on small scale, less than 2% of
GDP; commercial fishing increasing in importance; most food imported

_#_Economic aid: donor - pledged $2.7 billion in ODA to less developed
countries (1979-88)

_#_Currency: Qatari riyal (plural - riyals); 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1 - 3.6400 riyals (fixed

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Highways: 1,500 km total; 1,000 km bituminous, 500 km gravel or
natural surface (est.)

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 235 km; natural gas, 400 km

_#_Ports: Doha, Umm Said, Halul Island

_#_Merchant marine: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 465,371
GRT/707,089 DWT; includes 12 cargo, 5 container, 3 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; none with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern system centered in Doha; 110,000
telephones; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia;
submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 3 TV;
earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT,

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Department

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 235,516; 125,591 fit for
military service; 4,243 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $500 million, 8% of GDP (1989)
[email protected]_Reunion
(overseas department of France)
_#_Total area: 2,510 km2; land area: 2,500 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 201 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from
May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along

_#_Natural resources: fish, arable land

_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and
pastures 4%; forest and woodland 35%; other 39%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: periodic devastating cyclones

_#_Note: located 750 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

_#_Population: 607,086 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Reunionese (sing. and pl.);
adjective - Reunionese

_#_Ethnic divisions: most of the population is of intermixed French,
African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, and Indian ancestry

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 94%

_#_Language: French (official); Creole widely used

_#_Literacy: 69% (male 67%, female 74%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1982)

_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 30%, industry 21%, services 49%
(1981); 63% of population of working age (1983)

_#_Organized labor: General Confederation of Workers of Reunion (CGTR)

_#_Long-form name: Department of Reunion

_#_Type: overseas department of France

_#_Capital: Saint-Denis

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Independence: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: French law

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: French president, commissioner of the Republic

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council, unicameral Regional

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (Cour d'appel)


Chief of State - President Francois MITTERRAND
(since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government - Commissioner of the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN
(since September 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Francois MAS;
Union for French Democracy (UDF), Gilbert GERARD;
Communist Party of Reunion (PCR), Paul VERGES;
France-Reunion Future (FRA), Andre THIEN AH KOON;
Socialist Party (PS), Jean-Claude FRUTEAU;
Social Democrats (CDS), other small parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

General Council - last held March 1986 (next to be held 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (36 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Council - last held 16 March 1986
(next to be held March 1991);
results - RPR/UDF 36.8%, PCR 28.2%, FRA and other right wing 17.3%,
PS 14.1%, other 3.6%;
seats - (45 total) RPR/UDF 18, PCR 13, FRA and other right wing 8, PS 6;

French Senate - last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (3 total) RPR-UDF 1, PS 1, independent 1;

French National Assembly - last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (5 total) PCR 2, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1, FRA 1

_#_Communists: Communist party small but has support among sugarcane
cutters, the minuscule Popular Movement for the Liberation of Reunion
(MPLR), and in the district of Le Port

_#_Member of: FZ, WFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France,
Reunionese interests are represented in the US by France

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_#_Overview: The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture.
Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a century, and in some
years it accounts for 85% of exports. The government has been pushing
the development of a tourist industry to relieve high unemployment,
which recently amounted to one-third of the labor force. The white
and Indian communities are substantially better off than other segments
of the population, adding to the social tensions generated by poverty
and unemployment. The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on
continued financial assistance from France.

_#_GDP: $3.37 billion, per capita $6,000 (1987 est.); real growth
rate 9% (1987 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: 35% (February 1991)

_#_Budget: revenues $358 million; expenditures $914 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1986)

_#_Exports: $166 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - sugar 75%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 4%,
lobster 3%, vanilla and tea 1%;

partners - France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy

_#_Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities - manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco,
machinery and transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum

partners - France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy

_#_External debt: NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; about 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 245,000 kW capacity; 546 million kWh produced,
965 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, several small shops producing
handicraft items

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of labor force; dominant sector of
economy; cash crops - sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco; food crops - tropical
fruits, vegetables, corn; imports large share of food needs

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $14.1 billion

_#_Currency: French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) =
100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 2,800 km total; 2,200 km paved, 600 km gravel, crushed
stone, or stabilized earth

_#_Ports: Pointe des Galets

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate system for needs; modern open-wire
line and radio relay network; principal center Saint-Denis;
radiocommunication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new radio relay route
to Mauritius; 85,900 telephones; stations - 3 AM, 13 FM, 1 (18 relays) TV;
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 162,017; 83,959 fit for
military service; 5,979 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
[email protected]_Romania
_#_Total area: 237,500 km2; land area: 230,340 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

_#_Land boundaries: 2,904 km total; Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km,
USSR 1,307 km, Yugoslavia 546 km

_#_Coastline: 225 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and
fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

_#_Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the
Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

_#_Natural resources: crude oil (reserves being exhausted), timber,
natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 43%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and
pastures 19%; forest and woodland 28%; other 7%; includes irrigated 11%

_#_Environment: frequent earthquakes most severe in south and
southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides, air
pollution in south

_#_Note: controls most easily traversable land route between
the Balkans and western USSR

_#_Population: 23,397,054 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 75 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Romanian(s); adjective - Romanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Romanian 89.1%; Hungarian 8.9%; German 0.4%;
Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

_#_Religion: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6%, Greek Catholic
(Uniate) 3%, Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 15%

_#_Language: Romanian, Hungarian, German

_#_Literacy: 96% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)

_#_Labor force: 10,690,000; industry 34%, agriculture 28%, other 38%

_#_Organized labor: until December 1989, a single trade union system
organized by the General Confederation of Romanian Trade Unions (UGSR)
under control of the Communist Party; since Ceausescu's overthrow,
newly-created trade and professional trade unions are joining three
umbrella organizations - Organization of Free Trade Unions, Fratia
(Brotherhood), and the Alfa Cortel; many other trade unions have been

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: in transition from Communist state to republic

_#_Capital: Bucharest

_#_Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet)
and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor,
Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*,
Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna,
Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara,
Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt,
Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea,
Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

_#_Independence: 1881 (from Turkey); republic proclaimed 30 December

_#_Constitution: 21 August 1965; new constitution being drafted

_#_Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and Communist
legal theory that increasingly reflected Romanian traditions is being

_#_National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or House of Deputies
(Adunarea Deputatilor)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice


Chief of State - President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990,
previously President of Provisional Council of National Unity since
23 December 1989);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Teodor STOLOJAN
(since 2 October 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Salvation Front (FSN), Ion STOICA;
Magyar Democratic Union (UDMR), Geza DOMOKOS;
National Liberal Party (PNL), Radu CAMPEANU;
National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party (PNTCD), Corneliu
Ecology Movement (MER), leader NA;
Romanian National Unity Party (AUR), Radu CEONTEA;
there are now more than 100 other parties; note - although the Communist
Party has ceased to exist, a small proto-Communist party, the Socialist
Labor Party, has been formed

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992);
results - Ion ILIESCU 85%, Radu CAMPEANU 10.5%, Ion RATIU 3.8%;

Senate - last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992);
results - FSN 67%, other 33%;
seats - (118 total) FSN 92, UDMR 12, PNL 9, AUR 2, PNTCD 1, MER 1,
other 1;

House of Deputies - last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA
results - FSN 66%, UDMR 7%, PNL 6%, MER 2%, PNTCD 2%, AUR 2%,
other 15%;
seats - (387 total) FSN 263, UDMR 29, PNL 29, PNTCD 12, MER 12,
AUR 9, other 33

_#_Communists: 3,400,000 (November 1984); Communist Party has ceased
to exist

_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, G-77, GATT,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Virgil CONSTANTINESCU;
Chancery at 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 232-4747;

US - Ambassador Alan GREEN, Jr.; Embassy at Strada Tudor Arghezi
7-9, Bucharest (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone [40]
(0) 10-40-40

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow
band, has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

_#_Overview: Industry, which accounts for one-third of the labor force
and generates over half the GNP, suffers from an aging capital plant and
persistent shortages of energy. The year 1990 witnessed about a 20%
drop in industrial production because of energy and input shortages and
labor unrest. In recent years the agricultural sector has had to contend
with drought, mismanagement, and shortages of inputs. A drought in 1990
contributed to a lackluster harvest, a problem compounded by corruption
and a poor distribution system. The new government is slowly loosening
the tight central controls of Ceausescu's command economy. It has
instituted moderate land reforms, with close to one-half of cropland now
in private hands, and it has allowed changes in prices for private
agricultural output. Also, the new regime is permitting the
establishment of private enterprises, largely in services, handicrafts,
and small-scale industry. New laws providing for the privatization
of large state firms have been passed. However, most of the early
privatization will involve converting state firms into joint-stock
companies. The selling of shares to the public has not yet been worked
out. Furthermore, the government has halted the old policy of diverting
food from domestic consumption to hard currency export markets. So far,
the government does not seem willing to adopt a thoroughgoing market
system, that is, there is great caution in decontrolling prices because
of public opposition. The government has sharply raised price ceilings
instead of lifting them entirely.

_#_GNP: $69.9 billion, per capita $3,000; real growth rate - 10.8%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $28.4 billion; expenditures $28.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $12.3 billion (1989)

_#_Exports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - machinery and equipment 34.7%, fuels, minerals and
metals 24.7%, manufactured consumer goods 16.9%, agricultural materials
and forestry products 11.9%, other 11.6% (1986);

partners - USSR 27%, Eastern Europe 23%, EC 15%, US 5%, China 4%

_#_Imports: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - fuels, minerals, and metals 51.0%, machinery and
equipment 26.7%, agricultural and forestry products 11.0%, manufactured
consumer goods 4.2% (1986);

partners - Communist countries 60%, non-Communist countries 40%

_#_External debt: $400 million (mid-1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 20% (1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 22,700,000 kW capacity; 64,200 million kWh produced,
2,760 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy,
chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 28% of labor force; major
wheat and corn producer; other products - sugar beets, sunflower seed,
potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

_#_Economic aid: donor - $4.4 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist
less developed countries (1956-89)

_#_Currency: leu (plural - lei); 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

_#_Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 60.00 (June 1991), 22.432
(1990), 14.922 (1989), 14.277 (1988), 14.557 (1987), 16.153 (1986),
17.141 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 11,275 km total; 10,860 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
370 km narrow gauge, 45 km broad gauge; 3,411 km electrified, 3,060 km
double track; government owned (1987)

_#_Highways: 72,799 km total; 15,762 km concrete, asphalt, stone
block; 20,208 km asphalt treated; 27,729 km gravel, crushed stone, and
other paved surfaces; 9,100 km unpaved roads (1985)

_#_Inland waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

_#_Pipelines: 2,800 km crude oil; 1,429 km refined products; 6,400 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia; inland ports are
Giurgiu, Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Orsova

_#_Merchant marine: 294 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,767,465
GRT/5,893,700 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 191 cargo, 2 container,
1 rail-car carrier, 11 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 livestock carrier,
15 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 69 bulk, 2 combination

_#_Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 165 total, 165 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways;
15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: about 2.3 million telephone customers; 89%
of phone network is automatic; present phone density is 9.85 per 100
residents; roughly 3,300 villages with no service (February 1990);
stations - 39 AM, 29 FM, 39 TV (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: French - Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,801,986; 4,912,789 fit for
military service; 192,996 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 15 billion lei (unofficial), NA% of GDP
(1991); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using
the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
[email protected]_Rwanda
_#_Total area: 26,340 km2; land area: 24,950 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maryland

_#_Land boundaries: 893 km total; Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km,
Uganda 169 km, Zaire 217 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November
to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

_#_Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; mountains in west

_#_Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite
(tungsten ore), natural gas, hydropower

_#_Land use: arable land 29%; permanent crops 11%; meadows and
pastures 18%; forest and woodland 10%; other 32%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil
erosion; periodic droughts

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: 7,902,644 (July 1991), growth rate 3.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 54 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 8.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun and adjective - Rwandan(s)

_#_Ethnic divisions: Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%,
indigenous beliefs and other 25%

_#_Language: Kinyarwanda, French (official); Kiswahili used in
commercial centers

_#_Literacy: 50% (male 64%, female 37%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 3,600,000; agriculture 93%, government and services
5%, industry and commerce 2%; 49% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Rwanda

_#_Type: republic; presidential system in which military leaders hold
key offices; on 31 December 1990, the government announced a
National Political Charter to serve as a basis for transition
to a presidential/parliamentary political system; the charter will be
voted upon in a national referendum to be held June 1991

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