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Progressive Front (SPPF), France Albert RENE

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 17


President - last held 9-11 June 1989 (next to be held June 1994);
results - President France Albert RENE reelected without opposition;

National Assembly - last held 5 December 1987 (next to be
held December 1992);
results - SPPF is the only party;
seats - (25 total, 23 elected) SPPF 23

_#_Communists: negligible, although some Cabinet ministers
espouse pro-Soviet line

_#_Other political or pressure groups: trade unions, Roman Catholic

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Second Secretary, Charge d'Affaires
ad interim Marc R. MARENGO; Chancery (temporary) at 820 Second Avenue,
Suite 201, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 687-9766;

US - Ambassador James B. MORAN; Embassy at 4th Floor, Victoria
House, Victoria (mailing address is Box 148, Victoria, and Victoria
House, Box 251, Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles, or APO New York 09030-0006);
telephone (248) 25256

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (wavy), and green;
the white band is the thinnest, the red band is the thickest

_#_Overview: In this small, open, tropical island economy, the tourist
industry employs about 30% of the labor force and provides the main
source of hard currency earnings. In recent years the government has
encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other
services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the high
dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing,
and small-scale manufacturing.

_#_GDP: $283 million, per capita $4,100; real growth rate 7.0% (1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9% (1987)

_#_Budget: revenues $170 million; expenditures $173 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $31 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - fish, copra, cinnamon bark, petroleum products

partners - France 63%, Pakistan 12%, Reunion 10%, UK 7% (1987)

_#_Imports: $164 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - manufactured goods, food, tobacco, beverages,
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products;

partners - UK 20%, France 14%, South Africa 13%, PDRY 13%,
Singapore 8%, Japan 6% (1987)

_#_External debt: $171 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1987); accounts for
10% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 25,000 kW capacity; 67 million kWh produced,
960 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: tourism, processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing,
coir rope factory, boat building, printing, furniture, beverage

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP, mostly subsistence farming;
cash crops - coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla; other products - sweet potatoes,
cassava, bananas; broiler chickens; large share of food needs imported;
expansion of tuna fishing under way

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-89), $26
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1978-88), $310 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $60 million

_#_Currency: Seychelles rupee (plural - rupees);
1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SR) per US$1 - 5.0878 (January
1991), 5.3369 (1990), 5.6457 (1989), 5.3836 (1988), 5.6000 (1987), 6.1768
(1986), 7.1343 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 260 km total; 160 km bituminous, 100 km crushed stone or

_#_Ports: Victoria

_#_Merchant marine: 1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,827 GRT/2,170 DWT

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 14 total, 14 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: direct radio communications with adjacent
islands and African coastal countries; 13,000 telephones; stations - 2 AM,
no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; USAF tracking station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Protection Unit,
Police Force, Militia

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 17,399; 8,933 fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $12 million, 6% of GDP (1990 est.)
[email protected]_Sierra Leone
_#_Total area: 71,740 km2; land area: 71,620 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

_#_Land boundaries: 958 km total; Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

_#_Coastline: 402 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to
December); winter dry season (December to April)

_#_Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country,
upland plateau, mountains in east

_#_Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold,

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
31%; forest and woodland 29%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: extensive mangrove swamps hinder access to sea;
deforestation; soil degradation

_#_Population: 4,274,543 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 151 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 48 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Sierra Leonean(s); adjective - Sierra Leonean

_#_Ethnic divisions: native African 99% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%);
Creole, European, Lebanese, and Asian 1%; 13 tribes

_#_Religion: Muslim 30%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%,
other or none 30%

_#_Language: English (official); regular use limited to literate
minority; principal vernaculars are Mende in south and Temne in north;
Krio is the language of the resettled ex-slave population of the Freetown
area and is lingua franca

_#_Literacy: 21% (male 31%, female 11%) age 15 and over can
read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,369,000 (est.); agriculture 65%, industry 19%,
services 16% (1981); only about 65,000 earn wages (1985); 55% of
population of working age

_#_Organized labor: 35% of wage earners

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Sierra Leone

_#_Type: republic under presidential regime

_#_Capital: Freetown

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Eastern, Northern, Southern,

_#_Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 14 June 1978

_#_Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to
local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Gen. Joseph
Saidu MOMOH (since 28 November 1985); First Vice President Abu Bakar
KAMARA (since 4 April 1987); Second Vice President Salia JUSU-SHERIFF
(since 4 April 1987)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - All People's Congress
(APC), Gen. Joseph Saidu MOMOH; note - constitutional referendum to
adopt a multiparty system is scheduled for June 1991

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 1 October 1985 (next to be held October 1992);
results - Gen. Joseph Saidu MOMOH was elected without opposition;

House of Representatives - last held 30 May 1986 (next to be
held February 1992);
results - APC is the only party;
seats - (127 total, 105 elected) APC 105

_#_Communists: no party, although there are a few Communists and a
slightly larger number of sympathizers

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador George CAREW; Chancery at
1701 19th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 939-9261;

US - Ambassador Johnny YOUNG; Embassy at the corner of Walpole and
Siaka Stevens Street, Freetown; telephone [232] (22) 26481

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and
light blue

_#_Overview: The economic and social infrastructure is not well
developed. Subsistence agriculture dominates the economy, generating
about one-third of GDP and employing about two-thirds of the working
population. Manufacturing accounts for less than 10% of GDP, consisting
mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for
the domestic market. Diamond mining provides an important source of hard
currency. The economy suffers from high unemployment, rising inflation,
large trade deficits, and a growing dependency on foreign assistance.
The government in 1990 was attempting to get the budget deficit under
control and, in general, to bring economic policy in line with the
recommendations of the IMF and the World Bank.

_#_GDP: $1,302 million, per capita $325; real growth rate 1.8% (FY89)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 100% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $134 million; expenditures $187 million,
including capital expenditures of $32 million (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $138 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - rutile 50%, bauxite 17%, cocoa 11%, diamonds 3%,
coffee 3%;

partners - US, UK, Belgium, FRG, other Western Europe

_#_Imports: $183 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - capital goods 40%, food 32%, petroleum 12%,
consumer goods 7%, light industrial goods;

partners - US, EC, Japan, China, Nigeria

_#_External debt: $632 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 19% (FY88 est.); accounts
for 8% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 83,000 kW capacity; 180 million kWh produced,
45 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale
manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum

_#_Agriculture: accounts for over 30% of GDP and two-thirds of the
labor force; largely subsistence farming; cash crops - coffee, cocoa, palm
kernels; harvests of food staple rice meets 80% of domestic needs;
annual fish catch averages 53,000 metric tons

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $161
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $698 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $101 million

_#_Currency: leone (plural - leones); 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: leones per US$1 - 196.0784 (January 1991),
144.9275 (1990), 58.1395 (1989), 31.2500 (1988), 30.7692 (1987),
8.3963 (1986), 4.7304 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Railroads: 84 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge mineral line is used on a
limited basis because the mine at Marampa is closed

_#_Highways: 7,400 km total; 1,150 km bituminous, 490 km laterite
(some gravel), remainder improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

_#_Ports: Freetown, Pepel

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 12 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: marginal telephone and telegraph service;
national microwave radio relay system unserviceable at present; 23,650
telephones; stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 939,214; 453,877 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $6 million, 0.7% of GDP (1988 est.)
[email protected]_Singapore
_#_Total area: 632.6 km2; land area: 622.6 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 193 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: not specific;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry
seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

_#_Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water
catchment area and nature preserve

_#_Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 5%; other 84%

_#_Environment: mostly urban and industrialized

_#_Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

_#_Population: 2,756,330 (July 1991), growth rate 1.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Singaporean(s), adjective - Singapore

_#_Ethnic divisions: Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other

_#_Religion: majority of Chinese are Buddhists or atheists; Malays
are nearly all Muslim (minorities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs,
Taoists, Confucianists)

_#_Language: Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and English (all official);
Malay (national)

_#_Literacy: 88% (male 93%, female 84%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,280,000; financial, business, and other services
35.3%, manufacturing 29.0%, commerce 22.8%, construction 6.6%,
other 6.3% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 210,000; 16.1% of labor force (1989)

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Singapore

_#_Type: republic within Commonwealth

_#_Capital: Singapore

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

_#_Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence
State of Singapore Constitution

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, two deputy prime
ministers, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President WEE Kim Wee (since 3 September 1985);

Head of Government - Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November
1990); Deputy Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990);
Deputy Prime Minister ONG Teng Cheong (since 2 January 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

government - People's Action Party (PAP), LEE Kuan Yew, secretary

opposition - Workers' Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM;
Singapore Democratic Party (SDP), CHIAM See Tong;
National Solidarity Party (NSP), SOON Kia Seng;
United People's Front (UPF), Harbans SINGH;
Barisan Sosialis (BS, Socialist Front), leader NA

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20


President - last held 31 August 1989 (next to be held August 1993);
results - President WEE Kim Wee was reelected by Parliament without

Parliament - last held 3 September 1988 (next to be held 31
August 1991);
results - PAP 61.8%, WP 18.4%, SDP 11.5%, NSP 3.7%, UPF 1.3%, other 3.3%;
seats - (81 total) PAP 80, SDP 1; note - BS has 1 nonvoting seat

_#_Communists: 200-500; Barisan Sosialis infiltrated by Communists;
note - Communist party illegal

_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, GATT, IAEA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador S. R. NATHAN;
Chancery at 1824 R Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)

US - Ambassador Robert D. ORR; Embassy at 30 Hill Street,
Singapore 0617 (mailing address is FPO San Francisco 96699); telephone
[65] 338-0251

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near
the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent
(closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white
five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

_#_Overview: Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong
service and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading
links derived from its entrepot history. During the 1970s and early
1980s, the economy expanded rapidly, achieving an average annual growth
rate of 9%. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia. In 1985 the
economy registered its first drop in 20 years and achieved less than a 2%
increase in 1986. Recovery was strong based on rising demand for
Singapore's products in OECD countries and improved competitiveness of
domestic manufactures. The economy grew 8.3% in 1990. Singapore's
position as a major oil refining and services center helped it weather
the Persian Gulf crisis.

_#_GDP: $34.6 billion, per capita $12,700; real growth rate 8.3%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.7% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $8.0 billion; expenditures $7.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.4 billion (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $52.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - includes transshipments to Malaysia - petroleum
products, rubber, electronics, manufactured goods;

partners - US 21%, EC 14%, Malaysia 13%, Japan 9%

_#_Imports: $60.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - includes transshipments from Malaysia - capital
equipment, petroleum, chemicals, manufactured goods, foodstuffs;

partners - Japan 20%, US 16%, Malaysia 14%, EC 13%

_#_External debt: $3.9 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 9% (1990 est.); accounts
for 29% of GDP (1989)

_#_Electricity: 4,000,000 kW capacity; 14,400 million kWh produced,
5,300 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling
equipment, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and
beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, financial services,

_#_Agriculture: occupies a position of minor importance in the
economy; self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other
food; major crops - rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $882 million

_#_Currency: Singapore dollar (plural - dollars);
1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Singapore dollars per US$1 - 1.7454 (January 1991),
1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774
(1986), 2.2002 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 38 km of 1.000-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 2,597 km total (1984)

_#_Ports: Singapore

_#_Merchant marine: 435 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,259,085
GRT/13,553,438 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 121 cargo, 66 container,
6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 18 vehicle carrier,
1 livestock carrier, 118 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5
chemical tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 7 liquefied
gas, 75 bulk, 2 combination bulk; note - many Singapore flag ships are
foreign owned

_#_Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft (est.)

_#_Airports: 9 total, 9 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good domestic facilities; good international
service; good radio and television broadcast coverage; 1,110,000
telephones; stations - 13 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; submarine cables extend to
Malaysia (Sabah and peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 842,721; 625,546 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.7 billion, 4% of GDP (1990 est.)
[email protected]_Solomon Islands
_#_Total area: 28,450 km2; land area: 27,540 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 5,313 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

_#_Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 93%; other 4%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons, which are rarely destructive;
geologically active region with frequent earth tremors

_#_Note: located just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific

_#_Population: 347,115 (July 1991), growth rate 3.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 40 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 39 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Solomon Islander(s); adjective - Solomon Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: Melanesian 93.0%, Polynesian 4.0%, Micronesian
1.5%, European 0.8%, Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4%

_#_Religion: almost all at least nominally Christian; Anglican 34%,
Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United (Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other Protestant 5%

_#_Language: 120 indigenous languages; Melanesian pidgin in much of
the country is lingua franca; English spoken by 1-2% of population

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 23,448 economically active; agriculture, forestry, and
fishing 32.4%; services 25%; construction, manufacturing, and mining
7.0%; commerce, transport, and finance 4.7% (1984)

_#_Organized labor: NA, but most of the cash-economy workers have
trade union representation

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: independent parliamentary state within Commonwealth

_#_Capital: Honiara

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central,
Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western

_#_Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK; formerly British Solomon

_#_Constitution: 7 July 1978

_#_Legal system: common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General George LEPPING (since 27 June 1989,
previously acted as governor general since 7 July 1988);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Solomon MAMALONI (since 28
March 1989);
Deputy Prime Minister Sir Baddeley DEVESI (since NA October 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Alliance Party (PAP);
United Party (UP), Sir Peter KENILOREA;
Solomon Islands Liberal Party (SILP), Bartholemew ULUFA'ALU;
Nationalist Front for Progress (NFP), Andrew NORI;
Labor Party (LP), Joses TUHANUKU

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


National Parliament - last held 22 February 1989 (next to be held
February 1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (38 total) PAP 13, UP 6, NFP 4, SILP 4, LP 2, independents 9

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) resides in Honiara

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 65 of 89)