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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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(Solomon Islands);

US - the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to the
Solomon Islands; Embassy at Mud Alley, Honiara (mailing address is
American Embassy, P. O. Box 561, Honiara); telephone (677) 23890

_#_Flag: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower
hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five
white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower
triangle is green

_#_Overview: About 90% of the population depend on subsistence
agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood.
Agriculture, fishing, and forestry contribute about 75% to GDP, with the
fishing and forestry sectors being important export earners. The service
sector contributes about 25% to GDP. Most manufactured goods and
petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped
mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. The economy
suffered from a severe cyclone in mid-1986 that caused widespread damage
to the infrastructure.

_#_GDP: $156 million, per capita $500 (1988); real growth rate 5.0%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $44 million; expenditures $45 million,
including capital expenditures of $22 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $75 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - fish 46%, timber 31%, copra 5%, palm oil 5%;

partners - Japan 51%, UK 12%, Thailand 9%, Netherlands 8%, Australia
2%, US 2% (1985)

_#_Imports: $117 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - plant and machinery 30%, fuel 19%, food 16%;

partners - Japan 36%, US 23%, Singapore 9%, UK 9%, NZ 9%, Australia
4%, Hong Kong 4%, China 3% (1985)

_#_External debt: $128 million (1988 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1987); accounts for 5%
of GDP

_#_Electricity: 21,000 kW capacity; 39 million kWh produced,
115 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: copra, fish (tuna)

_#_Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for about
75% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; cash crops - cocoa, beans,
coconuts, palm kernels, timber; other products - rice, potatoes,
vegetables, fruit, cattle, pigs; not self-sufficient in food grains;
90% of the total fish catch of 44,500 metric tons was exported (1988)

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1985), $16.1 million

_#_Currency: Solomon Islands dollar (plural - dollars);
1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1 - 2.5934
(January 1991), 2.5288 (1990), 2.2932 (1989), 2.0825 (1988), 2.0033
(1987), 1.7415 (1986), 1.4808 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: about 2,100 km total (1982); 30 km sealed, 290 km gravel,
980 km earth, 800 private logging and plantation roads of varied

_#_Ports: Honiara, Ringi Cove

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 31 total, 29 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; stations - 4 AM, no FM, no TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 77,169; NA fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
[email protected]_Somalia
_#_Total area: 637,660 km2; land area: 627,340 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 2,340 km total; Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia
1,600 km, Kenya 682 km

_#_Coastline: 3,025 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Disputes: southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional
Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden;
possible claims to Djibouti and parts of Ethiopia and Kenya based on
unification of ethnic Somalis

_#_Climate: desert; northeast monsoon (December to February),
cooler southwest monsoon (May to October); irregular rainfall; hot, humid
periods (tangambili) between monsoons

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

_#_Natural resources: uranium, and largely unexploited reserves
of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 46%; forest and woodland 14%; other 38%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern
plains in summer; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;

_#_Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern
approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

_#_Population: 6,709,161 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Somali(s); adjective - Somali

_#_Ethnic divisions: Somali 85%, rest mainly Bantu; Arabs 30,000,
Europeans 3,000, Asians 800

_#_Religion: almost entirely Sunni Muslim

_#_Language: Somali (official); Arabic, Italian, English

_#_Literacy: 24% (male 36%, female 14%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,200,000; very few are skilled laborers; pastoral
nomad 70%, agriculture, government, trading, fishing, handicrafts, and
other 30%; 53% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: General Federation of Somali Trade Unions is
controlled by the government

_#_Long-form name: Somali Democratic Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Mogadishu

_#_Administrative divisions: 16 regions (plural - NA,
singular - gobolka); Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo,
Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha
Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

_#_Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland,
which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian
Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN
trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

_#_Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 21 October (1969)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Golaha Shacbiga)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - Interim President ALI Mahdi Mohamed (since 27
January 1991);

Head of Government - Prime Minister OMAR Arteh Ghalib
(since 27 January 1991); Deputy Prime Minister MOHAMED Abshir Mussa
(since 27 January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: the United Somali Congress (USC)
ousted the former regime on 27 January 1991; note - formerly the only
party was the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP), headed by
former President and Commander in Chief of the Army Maj. Gen. Mohamed

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 23 December 1986 (next to be held
results - President Siad was reelected without opposition;

People's Assembly - last held 31 December 1984 (next to be held NA);
results - SRSP was the only party;
seats - (177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171;
note - the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen.
Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27 January 1991; the provisional government
has promised that a democratically elected government will be

_#_Communists: probably some Communist sympathizers in the government

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ABDIKARIM Ali Omar; Chancery
at Suite 710, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 342-1575; there is a Somali Consulate General in
New York;

US - Ambassador James K. BISHOP; Embassy at K-7, AFGOI Road,
Mogadishu (mailing address is P. O. Box 574, Mogadishu); telephone
[252] (01) 39971; note - US Embassy evacuated and closed indefinitely in
January 1991

_#_Flag: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the
center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN
trust territory)

_#_Overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries,
Somalia has few resources. Agriculture is the most important sector of
the economy, with the livestock sector accounting for about 40% of GDP
and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are
dependent upon livestock for their livelihoods make up more than half
of the population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs
about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar,
sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The small industrial
sector is based on the processing of agricultural products and accounts
for less than 10% of GDP. Serious economic problems facing the nation are
the external debt of $1.9 billion and double-digit inflation.

_#_GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $210; real growth rate - 1.4% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 81.7% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $190 million; expenditures $195 million, including
capital expenditures of $111 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $58.0 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - livestock, hides, skins, bananas, fish;

partners - US 0.5%, Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)

_#_Imports: $354.0 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities - textiles, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction

partners - US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)

_#_External debt: $1.9 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 5.0% (1988); accounts for 5%
of GDP

_#_Electricity: 72,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced,
7 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining,
textiles, petroleum refining

_#_Agriculture: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle,
sheep, goats); crops - bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not
self-sufficient in food; fishing potential largely unexploited

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $639
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $3.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $336 million

_#_Currency: Somali shilling (plural - shillings);
1 Somali shilling (So.Sh.) = 100 centesimi

_#_Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - 3,800.00
(December 1990), 490.7 (1989), 170.45 (1988), 105.18 (1987), 72.00
(1986), 39.49 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 15,215 km total; including 2,335 km bituminous surface,
2,880 km gravel, and 10,000 km improved earth or stabilized soil (1983)

_#_Pipelines: 15 km crude oil

_#_Ports: Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimayu

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,913
GRT/9,457 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 61 total, 46 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: minimal telephone and telegraph service; radio
relay and troposcatter system centered on Mogadishu connects a few towns;
6,000 telephones; stations - 2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
earth station; scheduled to receive an ARABSAT station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Somali National Army (including Navy, Air Force, and
Air Defense Force), National Police Force, National Security Service

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,601,690; 902,732 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
[email protected]_South Africa
_#_Total area: 1,221,040 km2; land area: 1,221,040 km2; includes
Walvis Bay, Marion Island, and Prince Edward Island

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 4,973 km total; Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho
909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 1,078 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe
225 km

_#_Coastline: 2,881 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claim by Namibia to Walvis Bay exclave and 12 offshore
islands administered by South Africa

_#_Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along coast; sunny days,
cool nights

_#_Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and
narrow coastal plain

_#_Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore,
manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum,
copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 65%; forest and woodland 3%; other 21%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires
extensive water conservation and control measures

_#_Note: Walvis Bay is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia;
South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely
surrounds Swaziland

_#_Population: 40,600,518 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991);
includes the 10 so-called homelands, which are not recognized by the US;

four independent homelands - Bophuthatswana 2,419,515, growth rate
2.83%; Ciskei 1,056,552, growth rate 2.96%; Transkei 4,553,994, growth
rate 4.16%; Venda 691,273, growth rate 3.83%;

six other homelands - Gazankulu 772,532, growth rate 3.98%; Kangwane
576,573, growth rate 3.62%; KwaNdebele 360,582, growth rate 3.38%;
KwaZulu 5,546,082, growth rate 3.60%; Lebowa 2,812,630, growth rate
3.91%; QwaQwa 277,957, growth rate 3.60%

_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 51 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - South African(s); adjective - South African

_#_Ethnic divisions: black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%,
Indian 2.6%

_#_Religion: most whites and Coloreds and about 60% of blacks are
Christian; about 60% of Indians are Hindu; Muslim 20%

_#_Language: Afrikaans, English (both official); many vernacular
languages, including Zulu, Xhosa, North and South Sotho, Tswana

_#_Literacy: 76% (male 78%, female 75%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 11,000,000 economically active (1989); services 34%,
agriculture 30%, industry and commerce 29%, mining 7% (1985)

_#_Organized labor: about 17% of total labor force is unionized;
African unions represent 15% of black labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of South Africa; abbreviated RSA

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: administrative, Pretoria; legislative, Cape Town;
judicial, Bloemfontein

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Cape, Natal, Orange Free
State, Transvaal; there are 10 homelands not recognized by the US - 4
independent (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, Venda) and 6 other
(Gazankulu, Kangwane, KwaNdebele, KwaZulu, Lebowa, QwaQwa)

_#_Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 3 September 1984

_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Republic Day, 31 May (1910)

_#_Executive branch: state president, Executive Council (cabinet),
Ministers' Councils (from the three houses of Parliament)

_#_Legislative branch: tricameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of
the House of Assembly (Volksraad; whites), House of Representatives
(Raad van Verteenwoordigers; Coloreds), and House of Delegates
(Raad van Afgevaardigdes; Indians)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government - State President
Frederik W. DE KLERK (since 13 September 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
white political parties and leaders - National Party (NP), Frederik
W. DE KLERK (majority party);
Conservative Party (CP), Dr. Andries P. TREURNICHT (official opposition
Herstigte National Party (HNP), Jaap MARAIS;
Democratic Party (DP), Zach DE BEER;

Colored political parties and leaders - Labor Party (LP), Allan
HENDRICKSE (majority party);
Democratic Reform Party (DRP), Carter EBRAHIM;
United Democratic Party (UDP), Jac RABIE;
Freedom Party;

Indian political parties and leaders - Solidarity, J. N. REDDY
(majority party);
National People's Party (NPP), Amichand RAJBANSI;
Merit People's Party

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18, but voting rights are racially based


House of Assembly (whites) - last held 6 September 1989 (next to
be held by March 1995);
results - NP 58%, CP 23%, DP 19%;
seats - (178 total, 166 elected) NP 103, CP 41, DP 34;

House of Representatives (Coloreds) - last held 6 September 1989
(next to be held by September 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (85 total, 80 elected) LP 69, DRP 5, UDP 3, Freedom Party 1,
independents 2;

House of Delegates (Indians) - last held 6 September 1989
(next to be held by September 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (45 total, 40 elected) Solidarity 16, NPP 9, Merit People's
Party 3, United Party 2, Democratic Party 2, People's Party 1,
National Federal Party 1, independents 6

_#_Communists: small Communist party legalized in 1990 after
30-year ban, Daniel TLOOME, chairman, and Joe SLOVO, general secretary

_#_Other political or pressure groups:
African National Congress (ANC), Nelson MANDELA, president;
Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), Clarence MAKWETU, president

WMO (suspended)

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Harry SCHWARZ;
Chancery at 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 232-4400; there are South African Consulates General
in Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, Houston, and New York;

US - Ambassador William L. SWING; Embassy at Thibault House,
225 Pretorius Street, Pretoria; telephone [27] (12) 28-4266; there are
US Consulates General in Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg

_#_Flag: actually four flags in one - three miniature flags reproduced
in the center of the white band of the former flag of the Netherlands
which has three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and blue;
the miniature flags are a vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free
State with a horizontal flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a
horizontal flag of the old Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

_#_Overview: Many of the white one-seventh of the South African
population enjoy incomes, material comforts, and health and educational
standards equal to those of Western Europe. In contrast, most of the
remaining population suffers from the poverty patterns of the Third
World, including unemployment, lack of job skills, and barriers to
movement into higher-paying fields. Inputs and outputs thus do not move
smoothly into the most productive employments, and the effectiveness
of the market is further lowered by international constraints on
dealings with South Africa. The main strength of the economy lies in
its rich mineral resources, which provide two-thirds of exports.
Average growth of less than 2% in output in recent years falls far short
of the 5-6% level needed to cut into the high unemployment rate.

_#_GDP: $101.7 billion, per capita $2,600; real growth rate - 0.9%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.4% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 22% (1989); blacks 25-30%, up to 50% in
homelands (1988 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $28.9 billion; expenditures $32.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.1 billion (FY92 est.)

_#_Exports: $23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - gold 39%, minerals and metals 33%, food 5%,
chemicals 3%;

partners - Italy, Japan, US, FRG, UK, other EC, Hong Kong

_#_Imports: $17 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - machinery 32%, transport equipment 15%, chemicals 11%,
oil, textiles, scientific instruments, base metals;

partners - FRG, Japan, UK, US, Italy

_#_External debt: $19.5 billion (July 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about
45% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 34,941,000 kW capacity; 158,000 million kWh produced,
4,100 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold,
chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron
and steel, chemical, fertilizer, foodstuffs

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 5% of GDP and 30% of labor force;
diversified agriculture, with emphasis on livestock; products - cattle,
poultry, sheep, wool, milk, beef, corn, wheat; sugarcane, fruits,
vegetables; self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Currency: rand (plural - rand); 1 rand (R) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: rand (R) per US$1 - 2.5625 (January 1991),
2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685
(1986), 2.1911 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 20,638 km route distance total; 35,079 km of 1.067-meter
gauge trackage (counts double and multiple tracking as single track);
314 km of 610 mm gauge

_#_Highways: 188,309 km total; 54,013 km paved, 134,296 km crushed
stone, gravel, or improved earth

_#_Pipelines: 931 km crude oil; 1,748 km refined products; 322 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Richard's Bay, Saldanha,
Mosselbaai, Walvis Bay

_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 229,245
GRT/218,929 DWT; includes 6 container, 1 vehicle carrier

_#_Civil air: 81 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 917 total, 765 usable; 130 with permanent-surface
runways; 5 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 224
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: the system is the best developed, most modern,
and has the highest capacity in Africa; it consists of carrier-equipped
open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio relay links, fiber optic cable,
and radiocommunication stations; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town,
Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria; 4,500,000 telephones;
stations - 14 AM, 286 FM, 67 TV; 1 submarine cable; earth
stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Medical Services

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 9,797,349; 5,980,786 fit for
military service; 426,615 reach military age (18) annually; obligation
for service in Citizen Force or Commandos begins at 18; volunteers for
service in permanent force must be 17; national service obligation is
one year; figures include the so-called homelands not recognized by
the US

_#_Defense expenditures: $3.67 billion, 11% of GDP (FY92)
[email protected]_South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_#_Total area: 4,066 km2; land area: 4,066 km2; includes Shag and
Clerke Rocks

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: undetermined

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

_#_Climate: variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the
year, interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls
as snow

_#_Terrain: most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are
rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep,
glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic

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