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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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Aragon Regional Party (PAR);
Valencian Union (UV)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Senate - last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held October 1993);
results - NA;
seats (208) PSOE 106, PP 79, CiU 10, PNV 4, HB 3, AIC 1, other 5;

Congress of Deputies - last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held
October 1993); results - PSOE 39.6%, PP 25.8%, CDS 9%, Communist-led
coalition (IU) 9%, CiU 5%, Basque Nationalist Party 1.2%, HB 1%,
Andalusian Party 1%, other 8.4%;
seats - (350 total) PSOE 175, PP 106, CiU 18, IU 17, CDS 14, PNV 5,
HB 4, other 11

_#_Communists: PCE membership declined from a possible high of
160,000 in 1977 to roughly 60,000 in 1987; the party gained almost
1 million voters and 10 deputies in the 1989 election; voters came
mostly from the disgruntled socialist left; remaining strength is in
labor, where it dominates the Workers Commissions trade union (one of
the country's two major labor centrals), which claims a membership of
about 1 million; experienced a modest recovery in 1986 national
election, nearly doubling the share of the vote it received in 1982

_#_Other political or pressure groups: on the extreme left, the Basque
Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the First of October Antifascist
Resistance Group (GRAPO) use terrorism to oppose the government; free
labor unions (authorized in April 1977) include the Communist-dominated
Workers Commissions (CCOO); the Socialist General Union of Workers (UGT),
and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union (USO); the Catholic
Church; business and landowning interests; Opus Dei; university students

_#_Member of: AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, EBRD,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest),

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jaime de OJEDA; Chancery at
2700 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 265-0190 or
0191; there are Spanish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico);

US - Ambassador Joseph ZAPPALA; Embassy at Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
(mailing address is APO New York 09285); telephone [34] (1) 577-4000;
there is a US Consulate General in Barcelona and a Consulate in Bilbao

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width),
and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow
band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of
Hercules which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either
side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

_#_Overview: This Western capitalistic economy has done well since
Spain joined the EC in 1986. With annual increases in real GNP averaging
about 5% in the 1987-90 period, Spain has been the fastest growing member
of the EC. Increased investment - both domestic and foreign - has been the
most important factor pushing the economic expansion. Inflation moderated
to 4.8% in 1988, but an overheated economy caused inflation to reach
almost 7% in 1989-90. Another economic problem facing Spain is an
unemployment rate of 16.3%, the highest in Europe.

_#_GDP: $435.9 billion, per capita $11,100; real growth rate 3.7%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.7% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 16.3% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $100.1 billion; expenditures $111.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

_#_Exports: $55.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - foodstuffs, live animals, wood, footwear, machinery,

partners - EC 67.8%, US 6.5%, other developed countries 9%

_#_Imports: $87.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - petroleum, footwear, machinery, chemicals, grain,
soybeans, coffee, tobacco, iron and steel, timber, cotton, transport

partners - EC 59.7%, US 8.5%, other developed countries 11.5%,
Middle East 3.4%

_#_External debt: $37 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 46,589,000 kW capacity; 141,000 million kWh produced,
3,590 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and
beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding,
automobiles, machine tools

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP and 14% of labor force; major
products - grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus
fruit, beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food;
fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons is among top 20 nations

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1.9
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-79), $545.0 million; not currently a recipient

_#_Currency: peseta (plural - pesetas); 1 peseta (Pta) =
100 centimos

_#_Exchange rates: pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 95.20 (January 1991),
101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05
(1986), 170.04 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 15,430 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE)
operates 12,691 km 1.668-meter gauge, 6,184 km electrified, and
2,295 km double track; FEVE (government-owned narrow-gauge railways)
operates 1,821 km of predominantly 1.000-meter gauge and 441 km
electrified; privately owned railways operate 918 km of predominantly
1.000-meter gauge, 512 km electrified, and 56 km double track

_#_Highways: 150,839 km total; 82,513 km national (includes 2,433 km
limited-access divided highway, 63,042 km bituminous treated, 17,038 km
intermediate bituminous, concrete, or stone block) and 68,326 km
provincial or local roads (bituminous treated, intermediate bituminous,
or stone block)

_#_Inland waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

_#_Pipelines: 265 km crude oil; 1,794 km refined products; 1,666 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: Algeciras, Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz,
Cartagena, Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, El Ferrol del Caudillo,
Puerto de Gijon, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands),
Mahon, Malaga, Melilla, Rota, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Sagunto,
Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo, and 175 minor ports

_#_Merchant marine: 304 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,367,529
GRT/5,984,306 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 9 short-sea passenger,
105 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo, 14 container, 29 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 50 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 14 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 1 combination ore/oil,
4 specialized tanker, 48 bulk

_#_Civil air: 172 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 104 total, 98 usable; 61 with permanent-surface runways;
4 with runways over 3,659 m; 22 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: generally adequate, modern facilities;
15,350,464 telephones; stations - 206 AM, 411 (134 relays) FM, 143
(1,297 relays) TV; 17 coaxial submarine cables; communications
satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (5 Atlantic Ocean,
1 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and ENTELSAT systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 10,134,256; 8,222,987 fit for
military service; 339,749 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $8.6 billion, 2% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_Spratly Islands
_#_Total area: less than 5 km2; land area: less than 5 km2; includes
100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered over the
South China Sea

_#_Comparative area: undetermined

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 926 km

_#_Maritime claims: undetermined

_#_Disputes: China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam
claim all or part of the Spratly Islands

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: flat

_#_Natural resources: fish, guano; oil and natural gas potential

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons; includes numerous small islands,
atolls, shoals, and coral reefs

_#_Note: strategically located near several primary shipping
lanes in the central South China Sea; serious navigational hazard

_#_Population: no permanent inhabitants; garrisons

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing and
phosphate mining. Geological surveys carried out several years ago
suggest that substantial reserves of oil and natural gas may lie beneath
the islands; commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.

_#_Industries: some guano mining

_#_Airports: 3 total, 2 usable; none with runways over 2,439 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Ports: no natural harbors

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: approximately 50 small islands or reefs are occupied
by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam
[email protected]_Sri Lanka
_#_Total area: 65,610 km2; land area: 64,740 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,340 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; monsoonal; northeast monsoon (December to
March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

_#_Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in
south-central interior

_#_Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems,
phosphates, clay

_#_Land use: arable land 16%; permanent crops 17%; meadows and
pastures 7%; forest and woodland 37%; other 23%; includes irrigated 8%

_#_Environment: occasional cyclones, tornados; deforestation; soil

_#_Note: only 29 km from India across the Palk Strait; near major
Indian Ocean sea lanes

_#_Population: 17,423,736 (July 1991), growth rate 1.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Sri Lankan(s); adjective - Sri Lankan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Sinhalese 74%; Tamil 18%; Moor 7%; Burgher,
Malay, and Veddha 1%

_#_Religion: Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8%

_#_Language: Sinhala (official); Sinhala and Tamil listed as national
languages; Sinhala spoken by about 74% of population, Tamil spoken by
about 18%; English commonly used in government and spoken by about 10% of
the population

_#_Literacy: 86% (male 91%, female 81%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 6,600,000; agriculture 45.9%, mining and
manufacturing 13.3%, trade and transport 12.4%, services and other 28.4%
(1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: about 33% of labor force, over 50% of which are
employed on tea, rubber, and coconut estates

_#_Long-form name: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Colombo

_#_Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Amparai, Anuradhapura,
Badulla, Batticaloa, Colombo, Galle, Gampaha, Hambantota, Jaffna,
Kalutara, Kandy, Kegalla, Kurunegala, Mannar, Matale, Matara, Moneragala,
Mullaittivu, Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Puttalam, Ratnapura, Trincomalee,
Vavuniya; note - the administrative structure may now include 8 provinces
(Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa,
Southern, Uva, and Western) and 25 districts (with Kilinochchi added to
the existing districts)

_#_Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK; formerly Ceylon)

_#_Constitution: 31 August 1978

_#_Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law,
Roman-Dutch, Muslim, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ

_#_National holiday: Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - President Ranasinghe PREMADASA (since 2 January

Head of Government - Prime Minister Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGE (since
6 March 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
United National Party (UNP), Ranasinghe PREMADASA;
Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE;
Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), M. H. M. ASHRAFF;
All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), Kumar PONNAMBALAM;
People's United Front (MEP, or Mahajana Eksath Peramuna), Dinesh
Eelam Democratic Front (EDF), Edward Sebastian PILLAI;
Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), leader (vacant);
Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students (EROS), Velupillai
New Socialist Party (NSSP, or Nava Sama Samaja Party),
Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite (LSSP, or Lanka Sama Samaja Party),
Colin R. de SILVA;
Sri Lanka People's Party (SLMP, or Sri Lanka Mahajana Party),
Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARANATUNGA;
Communist Party/Moscow (CP/M), K. P. SILVA;
Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N. SHANMUGATHASAN;
note - the United Socialist Alliance (USA) includes the NSSP, LSSP,
SLMP, CP/M, and CP/B

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President - last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1994);
results - Ranasinghe PREMADASA (UNP) 50%,
Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE (SLFP) 45%, other 5%;

Parliament - last held 15 February 1989
(next to be held by February 1995);
results - UNP 51%, SLFP 32%, SLMC 4%, TULF 3%, USA 3%, EROS 3%, MEP 1%,
other 3%;
seats - (225 total) UNP 125, SLFP 67, other 33

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam (LTTE) and other smaller Tamil separatist groups; Janatha Vimukthi
Peramuna (JVP or People's Liberation Front); Buddhist clergy; Sinhalese
Buddhist lay groups; labor unions

_#_Member of: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador W. Susanta De ALWIS; Chancery
at 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4025
through 4028; there is a Sri Lankan Consulate in New York;

US - Ambassador Marion V. CREEKMORE, Jr.; Embassy at 210 Galle Road,
Colombo 3 (mailing address is P. O. Box 106, Colombo); telephone [94] (1)

_#_Flag: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two
equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is
a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword and there
is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border
that goes around the entire flag and extends between the two panels

_#_Overview: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing dominate the economy,
employing about 45% of the labor force and accounting for 26% of
GDP. The plantation crops of tea, rubber, and coconuts provide about 35%
of export earnings. The economy has been plagued by high rates of
unemployment since the late 1970s. Economic growth, which has been
depressed by ethnic unrest, accelerated in 1990 as domestic conditions
began to improve.

_#_GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 4.5% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.5 billion (1990)

_#_Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - tea, textiles and garments, petroleum products,
coconut, rubber, agricultural products, gems and jewelry, marine

partners - US 26%, FRG, Japan, UK, Belgium, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China

_#_Imports: $2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - food and beverages, textiles and textile materials,
petroleum, machinery and equipment;

partners - Japan, Saudi Arabia, US 5.6%, India, Singapore, FRG, UK,

_#_External debt: $5.6 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 6% (1989 est.); accounts for
18% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,300,000 kW capacity; 4,200 million kWh produced,
240 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other
agricultural commodities; cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco,

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GDP and nearly half of labor
force; most important staple crop is paddy rice; other field
crops - sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseeds, roots, spices; cash
crops - tea, rubber, coconuts; animal products - milk, eggs, hides, meat;
not self-sufficient in rice production

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-88), $4.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $169 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $369 million

_#_Currency: Sri Lankan rupee (plural - rupees);
1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees (SLRs) per US$1 - 40.272 (January
1991), 40.063 (1990), 36.047 (1989), 31.807 (1988), 29.445 (1987), 28.017
(1986), 27.163 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 1,948 km total (1989); all 1.868-meter broad gauge;
102 km double track; no electrification; government owned

_#_Highways: 75,263 km total (1988); 27,637 km paved (mostly
bituminous treated), 32,887 km crushed stone or gravel, 14,739 km
improved earth or unimproved earth; several thousand km of mostly
unmotorable tracks (1988 est.)

_#_Inland waterways: 430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft

_#_Pipelines: crude and refined products, 62 km (1987)

_#_Ports: Colombo, Trincomalee

_#_Merchant marine: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,466
GRT/551,686 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 5 container,
2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 bulk

_#_Civil air: 8 major transport (including 1 leased)

_#_Airports: 14 total, 13 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good international service; 114,000 telephones
(1982); stations - 12 AM, 5 FM, 5 TV; submarine cables extend to
Indonesia and Djibouti; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,636,767; 3,625,289 fit for
military service; 178,010 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $300 million, 5% of GDP (1991)
[email protected]_Sudan
_#_Total area: 2,505,810 km2; land area: 2,376,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than one quarter the size of US

_#_Land boundaries: 7,697 km total; Central African Republic 1,165 km,
Chad 1,360 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Ethiopia 2,221 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya
383 km, Uganda 435 km, Zaire 628 km

_#_Coastline: 853 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide
with international boundary; administrative boundary with Egypt
does not coincide with international boundary

_#_Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season
(April to October)

_#_Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and

_#_Natural resources: small reserves of crude oil, iron ore,
copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, crude oil

_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 24%; forest and woodland 20%; other 51%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: dominated by the Nile and its tributaries; dust
storms; desertification

_#_Note: largest country in Africa

_#_Population: 27,220,088 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 85 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 54 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Sudanese (sing. and pl.); adjective - Sudanese

_#_Ethnic divisions: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%,
other 1%

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim (in north) 70%, indigenous beliefs 20%,
Christian (mostly in south and Khartoum) 5%

_#_Language: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects
of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, and Sudanic languages, English; program of
Arabization in process

_#_Literacy: 27% (male 43%, female 12%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 6,500,000; agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%,
government 6%; labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled
employment (1983 est.); 52% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: trade unions suspended following 30 June 1989
coup; now in process of being legalized anew

_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Sudan

_#_Type: military; civilian government suspended and martial law
imposed after 30 June 1989 coup

_#_Capital: Khartoum

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 states (wilayat,
singular - wilayat or wilayah*); Aali an Nil,
Al Wusta*, Al Istiwaiyah*, Al Khartum,
Ash Shamaliyah*, Ash Sharqiyah*, Bahr al Ghazal,
Darfur, Kurdufan

_#_Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK; formerly
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)

_#_Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April
1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of
30 June 1989

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law;
as of 20 January 1991, the Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic
law in the six northern states of Al Wusta, Al Khartum, Ash
Shamaliyah, Ash Sharqiyah, Darfur, and Kurdufan; the
council is still studying criminal provisions under Islamic law; Islamic
law will apply to all residents of the six northern states regardless of
their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

_#_Executive branch: executive and legislative authority vested in a
13-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC); chairman of the RCC acts
as prime minister; in July 1989 RCC appointed a predominately civilian
22-member cabinet to function as advisers

_#_Legislative branch: none

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts


Chief of State and Head of Government - Revolutionary Command
Council Chairman and Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad
al-BASHIR (since 30 June 1989);
Deputy Chairman of the Command Council and Deputy Prime Minister
Maj. Gen. al-Zubayr Muhammad SALIH Ahmed (since 9 July 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none; banned following
30 June 1989 coup

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: none


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdallah Ahmad ABDALLAH;
Chancery at 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 338-8565 through 8570; there is a Sudanese Consulate General in New

US - Ambassador James R. CHEEK; Embassy at Shar'ia Ali Abdul Latif,
Khartoum (mailing address is P. O. Box 699, Khartoum, or APO New York
09668); telephone 74700 or 74611

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

_#_Overview: Sudan, one of the world's poorest countries, is buffeted
by civil war, chronic political instability, adverse weather, and

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 68 of 89)