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counterproductive economic policies. The economy is dominated
by governmental entities that account for more than 70% of new
investment. The private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture
and trading, with most private industrial investment predating 1980. The
economy's base is agriculture, which employs 80% of the work force.
Industry mainly processes agricultural items. Sluggish economic
performance over the past decade, attributable largely to declining
annual rainfall, has reduced levels of per capita income and
consumption. A high foreign debt and huge arrearages continue to cause
difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary Fund took the unusual
step of declaring Sudan noncooperative on account of its nonpayment of
arrearages to the Fund.


_#_GDP: $8.5 billion, per capita $330; real growth rate - 7%
(FY90 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60% (FY90 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA


_#_Budget: revenues $514 million; expenditures $1.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $183 million (FY89 est.)


_#_Exports: $465 million (f.o.b., FY90 est.);

commodities - cotton 52%, sesame, gum arabic, peanuts;

partners - Western Europe 46%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%,
Japan 9%, US 3% (FY88)


_#_Imports: $1.0 billion (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities - petroleum products 28%, manufactured goods, machinery
and equipment, medicines and chemicals;

partners - Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%,
Eastern Europe 3% (FY88)


_#_External debt: $12.3 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.7% (FY89); accounts for
11% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 606,000 kW capacity; 900 million kWh produced,
37 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar,
soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 35% of GNP and 80% of labor force;
water shortages; two-thirds of land area suitable for raising crops and
livestock; major products - cotton, oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat,
gum arabic, sheep; marginally self-sufficient in most foods


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.5
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.1 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $588 million


_#_Currency: Sudanese pound (plural - pounds);
1 Sudanese pound (5Sd) = 100 piasters


_#_Exchange rates: official rate - Sudanese pounds (5Sd) per
US$1 - 4.5004 (fixed rate since 1987), 2.8121 (1987), 2.5000 (1986),
2.2883 (1985); note - commercial exchange rate 12.2 (May 1990)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 5,500 km total; 4,784 km 1.067-meter gauge, 716 km
1.6096-meter-gauge plantation line


_#_Highways: 20,000 km total; 1,600 km bituminous treated,
3,700 km gravel, 2,301 km improved earth, 12,399 km unimproved earth
and track


_#_Inland waterways: 5,310 km navigable


_#_Pipelines: refined products, 815 km


_#_Ports: Port Sudan, Suakin


_#_Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,277
GRT/59,588 DWT; includes 3 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo


_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 78 total, 66 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: large, well-equipped system by African
standards, but barely adequate and poorly maintained; consists of
radio relay, cables, radio communications, and troposcatter; domestic
satellite system with 14 stations; 73,400 telephones; stations - 4 AM,
1 FM, 2 TV; earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,176,917; 3,792,635 fit for
military service; 306,695 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $610 million, 7.2% of GDP (1989 est)
_%_
[email protected]_Suriname
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 163,270 km2; land area: 161,470 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia


_#_Land boundaries: 1,707 km total; Brazil 597 km, French Guiana
510 km, Guyana 600 km


_#_Coastline: 386 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claims area in French Guiana between Litani Rivier and
Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); claims area in Guyana
between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all
headwaters of the Courantyne)


_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds


_#_Terrain: mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps


_#_Natural resources: timber, hydropower potential, fish, shrimp,
bauxite, iron ore, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, gold


_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 97%; other 3%; includes irrigated
NEGL%


_#_Environment: mostly tropical rain forest


_*_People
_#_Population: 402,385 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 39 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Surinamer(s); adjective - Surinamese


_#_Ethnic divisions: Hindustani (East Indian) 37.0%, Creole (black and
mixed) 31.0%, Javanese 15.3%, Bush black 10.3%, Amerindian 2.6%, Chinese
1.7%, Europeans 1.0%, other 1.1%


_#_Religion: Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%,
Protestant (predominantly Moravian) 25.2%, indigenous beliefs
about 5%


_#_Language: Dutch (official); English widely spoken; Sranan Tongo
(Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki) is native language of Creoles
and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others;
also Hindi Suriname Hindustani (a variant of Bhoqpuri) and Javanese


_#_Literacy: 95% (male 95%, female 95%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 104,000 (1984)


_#_Organized labor: 49,000 members of labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Suriname


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Paramaribo


_#_Administrative divisions: 10 districts (distrikten,
singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne,
Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica


_#_Independence: 25 November 1975 (from Netherlands; formerly
Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana)


_#_Constitution: ratified 30 September 1987


_#_Legal system: NA


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November (1975)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president and prime minister,
Cabinet of Ministers, Council of State; note - commander in chief of the
National Army maintains significant power


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President
Ronald VENETIAAN (since 16 September 1991); Vice President and
Prime Minister Jules AJODHIA (since 16 September 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders:

traditional ethnic-based parties - The New Front (NF), Henck
ARRON, a coalition formed of four parties following the 24 December
1990 military coup - Progressive Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath LACHMON;
National Party of Suriname (NPS), Henck ARRON;
Indonesian Peasants Party (KTPI), Willy SOEMITA; and
Suriname Labor Party (SLP), Frank DERBY;

promilitary New Democratic Party (NDP), Jules Albert WIJDENBOSCH,
Frank PLAYFAIR;

Democratic Alternative '91 (DA '91),
Gerard BRUNINGS, a coalition of five parties formed in
January 1991 - Alternative Forum, Gerard BRUNINGS, Winston JESSURUN;
Reformed Progressive Party (HPP), Panalall PARMISSER;
Party for Brotherhood and Unity in Politics (BEP), Caprino ALLENDY;
Pendawalima, Marsha JAMIN; and
Independent Progressive Group, Karam RAMSUNDERSINGH;

leftists - Revolutionary People's Party (RVP), Michael NAARENDORP;
Progressive Workers and Farmers (PALU), Iwan KROLIS


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held 6 September 1991 (next to be held May
1996);
results - elected by the National Assembly - Ronald VENETIAAN (NF)
80% (645 votes), Jules WIJDENBOSCH (NDP) 14% (115 votes), Hans PRADE
(DA '91) 6% (49 votes)

National Assembly - last held 25 May 1991 (next to be held
May 1996);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (51 total) NF 30, NDP 12, DA '91 9


_#_Member of: ACP, CARICOM (observer), ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-77, IADB,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES,
LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Willem A. UDENHOUT; Chancery
at Suite 108, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 244-7488 or 7490 through 7492; there is a Surinamese
Consulate General in Miami;

US - Ambassador John (Jack) P. LEONARD; Embassy at Dr. Sophie
Redmonstraat 129, Paramaribo (mailing address is P. O. Box 1821,
Paramaribo); telephone [597] 72900, 77881, or 76459


_#_Flag: five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white,
red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there is a large
yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry, which
accounts for about 70% of export earnings and 40% of tax revenues. The
economy has been in trouble since the Dutch ended development aid in
1982. A drop in world bauxite prices that started in the late 1970s and
continued until late 1986, was followed by the outbreak of a guerrilla
insurgency in the interior. The guerrillas targeted the economic
infrastructure, crippling the important bauxite sector and shutting down
other export industries. These problems have created high inflation,
high unemployment, widespread black market activity, and a bad climate
for foreign investment. A small gain in economic growth of 2.0% was
registered in 1989 due to reduced guerrilla activity and improved
international markets for bauxite.


_#_GDP: $1.35 billion, per capita $3,400; real growth rate 2.0%
(1989 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1989 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 33% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $466 million; expenditures $716 million,
including capital expenditures of $123 million (1989 est.)


_#_Exports: $425 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);

commodities - alumina, bauxite, aluminum, rice, wood and wood
products, shrimp and fish, bananas;

partners - Norway 33%, Netherlands 20%, US 15%, FRG 9%,
Brazil 5%, UK 5%, Japan 3%, other 10%


_#_Imports: $370 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);

commodities - capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton,
consumer goods;

partners - US 37%, Netherlands 15%, Netherlands Antilles 11%,
Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Brazil 5%, UK 3%, other 20%


_#_External debt: $138 million (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 16.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 22% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 458,000 kW capacity; 2,018 million kWh produced,
5,090 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: bauxite mining, alumina and aluminum production,
lumbering, food processing, fishing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of both GDP and labor force; paddy
rice planted on 85% of arable land and represents 60% of total farm
output; other products - bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains,
peanuts, beef, chicken; shrimp and forestry products of increasing
importance; self-sufficient in most foods


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $2.5
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $1.45 billion


_#_Currency: Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (plural - guilders,
gulden, or florins); 1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) =
100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.)
per US$1 - 1.7850 (fixed rate)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 166 km total; 86 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned,
and 80 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; all single track


_#_Highways: 8,300 km total; 500 km paved; 5,400 km bauxite gravel,
crushed stone, or improved earth; 2,400 km sand or clay


_#_Inland waterways: 1,200 km; most important means of transport;
oceangoing vessels with drafts ranging from 4.2 m to 7 m can navigate
many of the principal waterways


_#_Ports: Paramaribo, Moengo


_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
6,472 GRT/8,914 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 container


_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 46 total, 42 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: international facilities good; domestic radio
relay system; 27,500 telephones; stations - 5 AM, 14 FM, 6 TV, 1
shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: National Army (including Navy which is company-size,
small Air Force element), Civil Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 107,544; 64,146 fit for
military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $91 million, 7.2% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_Svalbard
(territory of Norway)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 62,049 km2; land area: 62,049 km2; includes Spitsbergen
and Bjornoya (Bear Island)


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 3,587 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway,
not recognized by USSR;

Territorial sea: 4 nm


_#_Disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between Norway
and USSR


_#_Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current;
cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and
north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the
year


_#_Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered;
west coast clear of ice about half the year; fjords along west and north
coasts


_#_Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc,
wildlife, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%; there are no trees and the only
bushes are crowberry and cloudberry


_#_Environment: great calving glaciers descend to the sea


_#_Note: located 445 km north of Norway where the Arctic Ocean,
Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea meet


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,942 (July 1991), growth rate NA% (1991); about
one-third of the population resides in the Norwegian areas (Longyearbyen
and Svea on Vestspitsbergen) and two-thirds in the Soviet areas
(Barentsburg and Pyramiden on Vestspitsbergen); about 9 persons live at
the Polish research station


_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)


_#_Ethnic divisions: Russian 64%, Norwegian 35%, other 1% (1981)


_#_Language: Russian, Norwegian


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA


_#_Organized labor: none


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry,
Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen,
Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway


_#_Capital: Longyearbyen


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991);

Head of Government - Governor Leif ELDRING (since NA)


_#_Member of: none


_#_Flag: the flag of Norway is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard.
By treaty (9 February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have
equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian
regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined
in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Soviet.
Each company mines about half a million tons of coal annually. The
settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian
state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population
on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the
local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear,
fox, and walrus.


_#_Budget: revenues $13.3 million, expenditures $13.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)


_#_Electricity: 21,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced,
11,420 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Currency: Norwegian krone (plural - kroner);
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore


_#_Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 5.9060 (January
1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987), 7.3947
(1986), 8.5972 (1985)


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: limited facilities - Ny-Alesund, Advent Bay


_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 5 meteorological/radio stations;
stations - 1 AM, 1 (2 relays) FM, 1 TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)
_%_
[email protected]_Swaziland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 17,360 km2; land area: 17,200 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey


_#_Land boundaries: 535 km total; Mozambique 105 km, South Africa
430 km


_#_Coastline: none - landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked


_#_Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains


_#_Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, tin, hydropower, forests,
and small gold and diamond deposits


_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 67%; forest and woodland 6%; other 19%; includes irrigated
2%


_#_Environment: overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion


_#_Note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa


_*_People
_#_Population: 859,336 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 101 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 59 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Swazi(s); adjective - Swazi


_#_Ethnic divisions: African 97%, European 3%


_#_Religion: Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%


_#_Language: English and siSwati (official); government business
conducted in English


_#_Literacy: 55% (male 57%, female 54%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1976)


_#_Labor force: 195,000; over 60,000 engaged in subsistence
agriculture; about 92,000 wage earners (many only intermittently), with
agriculture and forestry 36%, community and social services 20%,
manufacturing 14%, construction 9%, other 21%; 24,000-29,000 employed in
South Africa (1987)


_#_Organized labor: about 10% of wage earners


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Swaziland


_#_Type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth


_#_Capital: Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)


_#_Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini,
Shiselweni


_#_Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)


_#_Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended
on 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but
has not been formally presented to the people


_#_Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory
courts, Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)


_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament is advisory and consists
of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Obed DLAMINI (since 12 July
1989)


_#_Political parties: none; banned by the Constitution promulgated on
13 October 1978


_#_Suffrage: none


_#_Elections: no direct elections


_#_Communists: no Communist party


_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
PCA, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA;
Chancery at 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 362-6683;

US - Ambassador Stephen H. ROGERS; Embassy at Central Bank Building,
Warner Street, Mbabane (mailing address is P. O. Box 199, Mbabane);
telephone [268] 46441 through 5


_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and
blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a
large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated
with feather tassels, all placed horizontally


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which
occupies much of the labor force and contributes about 23% to GDP.
Manufacturing, which includes a number of agroprocessing factories,
accounts for another 26% of GDP. Mining has declined in importance in
recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted in 1978, and
health concerns cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of sugar and
forestry products are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by
South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland
is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives 92% of
its imports and to which it sends about 40% of its exports.


_#_GNP: $563 million, per capita $670; real growth rate 5.0% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $322.9 million; expenditures $325.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)


_#_Exports: $543 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, citrus,
canned fruit;

partners - South Africa 40% (est.), EC, Canada


_#_Imports: $651 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment,
petroleum products, foodstuffs, chemicals;

partners - South Africa 92% (est.), Japan, Belgium, UK


_#_External debt: $290 million (1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA; accounts for 26%
of GDP (1989)


_#_Electricity: 50,000 kW capacity; 130 million kWh produced,
170 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP and over 60% of labor force;
mostly subsistence agriculture; cash crops - sugarcane, citrus fruit,
cotton, pineapples; other crops and livestock - corn, sorghum, peanuts,
cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $142
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $488 million


_#_Currency: lilangeni (plural - emalangeni); 1 lilangeni (E) =
100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1 - 2.5625 (January 1991),
2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685
(1986), 2.1911 (1985); note - the Swazi emalangeni is at par with the
South African rand


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 297 km plus 71 km disused, 1.067-meter gauge, single
track


_#_Highways: 2,853 km total; 510 km paved, 1,230 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil, and 1,113 km improved earth


_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 23 total, 22 usable; 1 with permanent-surfaced runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 69 of 89)