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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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new interim National Legislative Assembly has 292 seats with 148 of
the seats held by active and retired military officers

_#_Communists: illegal Communist party has 500 to 1,000 members;
armed Communist insurgents throughout Thailand total 300 to 500

_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate PHIRAPHONG
Kasemsi; Embassy at 2300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 483-7200; there are Thai Consulates General in Chicago,
Los Angeles, and New York;

US - Ambassador Daniel A. O'DONAHUE; Embassy at 95 Wireless Road,
Bangkok (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96346); telephone [66] (2)
252-504019; there is a US Consulate General in Chiang Mai and Consulates
in Songkhla and Udorn

_#_Flag: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double
width), white, and red

_#_Overview: Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries
in Asia, enjoyed a year of 9% growth in 1990, although down from the
double-digit rates of 1987-89. The increasingly sophisticated
manufacturing sector benefited from export-oriented investment, but
the agricultural sector contracted 2%, primarily because of weaker
demand in Thailand's major overseas markets for commodities such as
rice. The trade deficit almost doubled in 1990, to $9 billion, but
earnings from tourism ($4.7 billion), remittances, and net capital
inflows helped keep the balance of payments in surplus. The government
has followed fairly sound fiscal and monetary policies, aided by
increased tax receipts from the fast-moving economy. In 1990 the
government approved new projects - especially for telecommunications
and roads - needed to refurbish the country's now overtaxed
infrastructure. Although growth in 1991 will slow further, Thailand's
economic outlook remains good, assuming the continuation of prudent
government policies in the wake of the 23 February 1991 military coup.

_#_GNP: $79 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate 10% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $15.2 billion; expenditures $15.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $4.1 billion (FY91)

_#_Exports: $23.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - light manufactures 66%, fishery products 12%,
rice 8%, tapioca 8%, manufactured gas, corn, tin;

partners - US 22%, Japan 17%, Singapore 7%, Netherlands, FRG,
Hong Kong, UK, Malaysia, China (1989)

_#_Imports: $32.0 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - machinery and parts 23%, petroleum products 13%,
chemicals 11%, iron and steel, electrical appliances;

partners - Japan 30%, US 11%, Singapore 8%, FRG 5%, Taiwan,
South Korea, China, Malaysia, UK (1989)

_#_External debt: $26.9 billion (end 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 14% (1990 est.); accounts for
almost 27% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 7,270,000 kW capacity; 29,000 million kWh produced,
530 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange;
textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco,
cement, other light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances
and components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's
second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 62% of labor force;
leading producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other
crops - rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat,
self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 2.8 million tons (1989)

_#_Illicit drugs: a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of
heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the
international drug market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of
cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring
countries; opium poppy cultivation has been affected by eradication

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $870
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $8.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million

_#_Currency: baht (plural - baht); 1 baht (B) = 100 satang

_#_Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1 - 25.224 (January 1991), 25.585
(1990), 25.702 (1989), 25.294 (1988), 25.723 (1987), 26.299 (1986),
27.159 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_#_Railroads: 3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track

_#_Highways: 44,534 km total; 28,016 km paved, 5,132 km earth surface,
11,386 km under development

_#_Inland waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with
navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor
waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

_#_Pipelines: natural gas, 350 km; refined products, 67 km

_#_Ports: Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha

_#_Merchant marine: 136 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 521,565
GRT/791,570 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 79 cargo,
9 container, 29 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
9 liquefied gas, 1 chemical tanker, 3 bulk, 3 refrigerated cargo,
1 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 41 (plus 2 leased) major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 127 total, 103 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 28 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: service to general public inadequate; bulk of
service to government activities provided by multichannel cable and
radio relay network; 739,500 telephones (1987); stations - over 200 AM,
100 FM, and 11 TV in government-controlled networks; satellite earth
stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT; domestic
satellite system being developed

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (including Royal Thai
Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 16,028,159; 9,778,003 fit for
military service; 604,483 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $2.4 billion, 3% of GNP (1990 est.)
[email protected]_Togo
_#_Total area: 56,790 km2; land area: 54,390 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

_#_Land boundaries: 1,647 km total; Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km,
Ghana 877 km

_#_Coastline: 56 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 30 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

_#_Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern
plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

_#_Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 28%; other 42%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north
during winter; recent droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation

_#_Population: 3,810,616 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Togolese (sing. and pl.); adjective - Togolese

_#_Ethnic divisions: 37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe,
Mina, and Kabye; under 1% European and Syrian-Lebanese

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs about 70%, Christian 20%,
Muslim 10%

_#_Language: French, both official and language of commerce; major
African languages are Ewe and Mina in the south and Dagomba and Kabye
in the north

_#_Literacy: 43% (male 56%, female 31%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 78%, industry 22%; about 88,600 wage
earners, evenly divided between public and private sectors; 50% of
population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: one national union, the National Federation of
Togolese Workers

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Togo

_#_Type: republic; one-party presidential regime

_#_Capital: Lome

_#_Administrative divisions: 21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions,
singular - circonscription); Amlame (Amou), Aneho (Lacs),
Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo (Assoli), Bassar (Bassari),
Dapaong (Tone), Kante (Keran), Klouto (Kloto), Kpagouda (Binah),
Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango (Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou),
Notse (Haho), Sotouboua, Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Tchaoudjo,
Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo); note - the 21 units may now be called
prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture) and reported name
changes for individual units are included in parentheses

_#_Independence: 27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration, formerly French Togo)

_#_Constitution: 30 December 1979, effective 13 January 1980

_#_Legal system: French-based court system

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 13 January

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court
(Cour Supreme)


Chief of State - President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14
April 1967);

Head of Government - interim Prime Minister Kokou KOFFIGOH (since 28
August 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Rally of the Togolese
People (RPT) led by President EYADEMA was the only party until the
formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991; more than
10 parties formed as of mid-May, though none yet legally registered;
a national conference to determine transition regime took place
10-20 June 1991

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


President - last held 21 December 1986 (next to be held December
results - Gen. EYADEMA was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly - last held 4 March 1990 (next to be held 14
June 1992);
results - RPT was the only party;
seats - (77 total) RPT 77

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, Entente,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ellom-Kodjo SCHUPPIUS;
Chancery at 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 234-4212 or 4213;

US - Ambassador Harmon E. KIRBY; Embassy at Rue Pelletier
Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome (mailing address is B. P. 852, Lome);
telephone [228] 21-29-91 through 94 and 21-77-17

_#_Flag: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom)
alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red
square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African
colors of Ethiopia

_#_Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence
agriculture, which accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides
employment for 78% of the labor force. Primary agricultural exports are
cocoa, coffee, and cotton, which together account for about 30% of total
export earnings. Togo is self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when
harvests are normal. In the industrial sector phosphate mining is by
far the most important activity, with phosphate exports accounting for
about 40% of total foreign exchange earnings. Togo serves as a regional
commercial and trade center. The government actively encourages foreign

_#_GDP: $1.4 billion, per capita $395; real growth rate 3.6% (1989

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 1.2% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2.0% (1987)

_#_Budget: revenues $330 million; expenditures $363 million,
including capital expenditures of $101 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $331 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - phosphates, cocoa, coffee, cotton, manufactures, palm

partners - EC 70%, Africa 9%, US 2%, other 19% (1985)

_#_Imports: $344 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - food, fuels, durable consumer goods, other
intermediate goods, capital goods;

partners - EC 61%, US 6%, Africa 4%, Japan 4%, other 25% (1989)

_#_External debt: $1.3 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1987 est.); 6% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 179,000 kW capacity; 209 million kWh produced,
60 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement,
handicrafts, textiles, beverages

_#_Agriculture: cash crops - coffee, cocoa, cotton; food crops - yams,
cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock production
not significant; annual fish catch, 10,000-14,000 tons

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $132
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $51 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1 - 256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989),
297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 515 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 6,462 km total; 1,762 km paved; 4,700 km unimproved roads

_#_Inland waterways: none

_#_Ports: Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)

_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,906
GRT/70,483 DWT; includes 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction
large-load carrier

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 9 total, 9 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system based on network of open-wire lines
supplemented by radio relay routes; 12,000 telephones; stations - 2 AM,
no FM, 3 (2 relays) TV; earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 799,597; 420,092 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $44 million, 3.7% of GDP (1987)
[email protected]_Tokelau
(territory of New Zealand)
_#_Total area: 10 km2; land area: 10 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 17 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 101 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

_#_Terrain: coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: lies in Pacific typhoon belt

_#_Note: located 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

_#_Population: 1,700 (July 1991), growth rate 0.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Tokelauan(s); adjective - Tokelauan

_#_Ethnic divisions: all Polynesian, with cultural ties to Western

_#_Religion: Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic
28%, other 2%; on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on
Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the
Congregational Christian Church predominant

_#_Language: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language) and English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: territory of New Zealand

_#_Capital: none, each atoll has its own administrative center

_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)

_#_Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)

_#_Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948,
as amended in 1970

_#_Legal system: British and local statutes

_#_National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

_#_Executive branch: administrator (appointed by the Minister of
Foreign Affairs in New Zealand), official secretary

_#_Legislative branch: Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll

_#_Judicial branch: High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government - Administrator Neil WALTER; Official Secretary
M. NORRISH, Office of Tokelau Affairs

_#_Suffrage: NA

_#_Elections: NA

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: SPC

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of New Zealand)

_#_Flag: the flag of New Zealand is used

_#_Overview: Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources
greatly restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the
subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from New Zealand to
maintain public services, annual aid being substantially greater than
GDP. The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra, postage
stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also remitted to
families from relatives in New Zealand.

_#_GDP: $1.4 million, per capita $800; real growth rate NA%
(1988 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $430,830; expenditures $2.8 million, including
capital expenditures of $37,300 (FY87)

_#_Exports: $98,000 (f.o.b., 1983);

commodities - stamps, copra, handicrafts;

partners - NZ

_#_Imports: $323,400 (c.i.f., 1983);

commodities - foodstuffs, building materials, fuel;

partners - NZ

_#_External debt: none

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 200 kW capacity; 300,000 kWh produced,
180 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood
work, plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing

_#_Agriculture: coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops - breadfruit,
papaya, bananas; pigs, poultry, goats

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $24 million

_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural - dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.6798 (January
1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088
(1986), 2.0064 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Airports: none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western

_#_Telecommunications: telephone service between islands and to
Western Samoa

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
[email protected]_Tonga
_#_Total area: 748 km2; land area: 718 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 419 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no specific limits;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December
to May), cool season (May to December)

_#_Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted
coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

_#_Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 55%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland 12%; other 2%

_#_Environment: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited); subject to
cyclones (October to April); deforestation

_#_Note: located about 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about
two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

_#_Population: 102,272 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Tongan(s); adjective - Tongan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Polynesian; about 300 Europeans

_#_Religion: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000

_#_Language: Tongan, English

_#_Literacy: 100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can
read and write a simple message in Tongan or English (1976)

_#_Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture; 600 engaged in mining

_#_Organized labor: none

_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Tonga

_#_Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Nukualofa

_#_Administrative divisions: three island groups; Haapai, Tongatapu,

_#_Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK; formerly Friendly Islands)

_#_Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

_#_Legal system: based on English law

_#_National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Prince Fatafehi TU'IPELEHAKE
(since 16 December 1965)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Democratic Reform Movement,
'Akolisi POHIVA

_#_Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females
over 21


Legislative Assembly - last held 14-15 February 1990
(next to be held NA February 1993);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (29 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3 traditionalist

_#_Communists: none known

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Siosaia a'Ulupekotofa
TUITA resides in London;

US - the US has no offices in Tonga; the Ambassador to Fiji is
accredited to Tonga and makes periodic visits

_#_Flag: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner

_#_Overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about
70% of the labor force and contributes 50% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and
vanilla beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The
country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New
Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 11% of GDP. Tourism
is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the island remains
dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to sustain its trade

_#_GDP: $86 million, per capita $850; real growth rate 3.6%
(FY89 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (FY89)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $30.6 million; expenditures $48.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $22.5 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $9.6 million (f.o.b., FY90 est.);

commodities - coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro,
vanilla beans, fruits, vegetables, fish;

partners - NZ 54%, Australia 30%, US 8%, Fiji 5% (FY87)

_#_Imports: $59.9 million (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities - food products, beverages and tobacco, fuels, machinery
and transport equipment, chemicals, building materials;

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 72 of 89)